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Technical Paper
http://technicalpapers.ctbuh.org
Subject: Construction , Structural Engineering
Paper Title: A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings. Kajima Cut & Take Down Method
Author(s): Ryo Mizutani
1
Shigeru Yoshikai
1
A liation(s):
1
Kajima Corporation
Publication Date: 2011
Original Publication: CTBUH Journal 2011 Issue IV
Paper Type: 1. Book chapter/Part chapter
2. Journal paper
3. Conference proceeding
4. Unpublished conference paper
5. Magazine article
6. Unpublished
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat/Author(s)
Tall buildings: design, construction and operation | 2011 Issue IV
2011 Seoul Conference Themed Issue
Haeundae IPark, Busan
Country Report: South Korea
The Subtropical Residential Tower
Integrating Wind Turbines in Tall Buildings
A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings
CTBUH Journal
International Journal on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
Inside | 3 CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV
Most of the worlds urban population growth is occurring in
subtropical and tropical zones. Designs that oblige people to
use air-conditioning for indoor thermal comfort exacerbate
the use of fossil fuel energy and CO
2
emissions, and also
impose significant long term costs on occupants as the costs
of energy rises inexorably.
Rosemary Kennedy & Shane Thompson, page 24
News and Events
This Issue
Sang Dae Kim,
CTBUH Chairman
CTBUH News and Events
Antony Wood,
CTBUH Executive Director
Debating Tall
Opinions for and against on
a topical issue
Whats on the Web?
Featuring new content now
available on the website
Global News
Highlights from the CTBUH
global news archive
02
04
05
05
06
Case Study
Haeundae IPark, Busan
Carla Swickerath & Peter
Tilson
12
Research
Humanizing High-rise
Urbanism
Vinayak Bharne
The Subtropical Residential
Tower
Rosemary Kennedy & Shane
Thompson
Integrating Wind Turbines in
Tall Buildings
Ian Bogle
A New Demolition Method
for Tall Buildings
Ryo Mizutani & Shigeru
Yoshikai
Country Report: South Korea
JuHwan Cho & Kwang Ryang
Chung
18
24
30
36
42
Features
Tall Buildings in Numbers
South Korea: Past, Present, and
Future
Design Research
CTBUHIIT High-rise Studio
Talking Tall
The CTBUH Chairmanship
48
50
52
CTBUH
CTBUH on the Road
CTBUH events around the
world
Book Review
Review of new books in the
CTBUH Library
Diary
Upcoming tall building events
Letters
Feedback and Comments
Meet the CTBUH
Jong-Soo Cho
CTBUH Organizational
Structure & Member Listings
55
56
56
57
58
59
Inside
12
30
36
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InSouthKorea, thereisanemphasison
familyandsocial relationships. High-density
residential developmentsarepreferredbecause
theysupport astrongsenseof community.
The Haeundae IPark is a 511,805-square meter (5,509,000-square foot) high-density mixed-
use development in Busan, South Korea which includes three high-rise residential towers (66,
72 and 46 floors) and a total of 1,631 units. A 34-floor luxury hotel, a 9-floor office building,
and a 3-floor retail building have been composed on a landscaped, waterfront site in the
second largest city in Korea. Busan, a rapidly growing city with approximately 3.6 million
residents, is located on the southeastern tip of the Korean peninsula. It is a bustling port city
and a vacation destination, with a dramatic combination of both mountains and beaches as
its natural setting.
Carla Swickerath
Case Study: Haeundae IPark, Busan
for the project and will serve as a public
attraction for visitors and residents.
The project is designed as a unique
composition expressed in a series of dynamic
volumes on the Busan waterfront that
harmonize with the landscape and celebrate
the citys spectacular setting of mountains,
rivers and the sea. The buildings are sculpted
to express the dramatic beauty and power of
the ocean. The curvilinear geometry of the
buildings alludes to their context; the grace
and force of ocean waves; the unique
composition of the petals of a flower;
wind-filled sails of ships on the water; and by
subtle, elegant curves in traditional Korean
architecture.
Design Context
The Korean residential market is unique and
the design of the Haeundae IPark had to
respond in a meaningful way to the specific
cultural and economic issues. In South Korea
it is considered desirable to live in cities and,
as with most major urban centers, land prices
are incredibly high. Large scale, high-rise
developments are the most efficient and
profitable way to provide housing that meets
the demands of the market. Therefore the
market has very rigorous efficiency standards
that are challenging to achieve. Design
solutions need to be creative and practical to
maximize and values. The markets emphasis
on ownership also drives the quality, diversity
and quantity of residential units which
become more than just a living space, but
also a major investment for the future. The
quality of design, sense of community and
amenities provided not only make for very
attractive, livable residential developments,
but become assets that help the units hold
their value over time.
The main challenge of the project was to
create a balanced composition with
maximumviews and livability with a large
programon a very dense site. The design had
to meet rigorous efficiency expectations and
moderate construction costs while
maximizing sweeping views of the ocean, the
marina, the mountains, the Gwang-An bridge
and the landscape and the city of Busan.
To find innovative solutions, multiple
strategies for the massing of the programon
the site were studied. Instead of simply
extruding the typical building footprints to
their maximumheights, the footprints of the
towers are made of a sculpted shape in plan
(see Figure 1), the heights are varied and the
profiles are tapered to create a three-
dimensional composition on the horizon. The
varying heights of the buildings help to break
down the overall massing of the residential
tower complex (see Figure 2). Instead of
simply extruding the footprints of the
buildings to an equal height, the design
redistributes the allowed massing and height
of the towers to create variation in the
composition of the towers while meeting the
maximumFAR for the development.
The balance of the tower composition as a
whole also depends upon the breaking down
of the large, solid mass of each tower form. By
creating an interlocking tower that is made of
two distinct forms, the design allows for only
half of the mass to be raised as a tip instead of
the entire, large mass of the tower. The
intention is to create the most positive effect
with the most practical solution.
These strategies not only give the project and
the city of Busan a newlandmark and a new
image of residential development, which in
Korea is traditionally quite formulaic, they also
help maximize the viewcorridors of all the
apartments as well as bring the most light
possible into the site and the developments
beyond the site. Redistributing the massing
makes the very large development seem
more slender on the skyline. Also, the varied
forms create unique and exciting spaces
between the buildings that add interest and
variety to the entire development frominside
and out.
The project maintains efficient floor plates and
repeatable construction for about two-thirds
of the height of each tower. The extruded
footprints change shape only at the tops of
the buildings, when they taper up, culminat-
ing in the tower tips. Even when the tops of
the buildings do taper, about half of the floor
plate remains the same (see Figure 3). One
half of the floor plate is extruded directly to its
maximumheight with no tapering. The same
tower footprint is used in each residential
tower, one being a mirror image of the other
two, to create the same footprint which eases
the efficiency of the development while
Figure 1. Typical residential floor plan Studio Daniel Libeskind
The IPark development creates a new,
forward-looking image for The Hyundai
Development Company (HDC) and a new
vision for residential living in Busan. Built on a
landfill site along the waterfront, the three
residential towers soar to 297 meters (974
feet), 277 meters (909 feet) and 210 meters
(689 feet). The highest tower is the tallest
residential building in Asia. Essential to the
design of the Haeundae IPark complex is the
integration of the development into the
Haeundae Marina city site to the west. The
marinas development by the same owner
(HDC) will be part of the residential amenities
Figure 2. Haeundae IPark, Busan Studio Daniel Libeskind
Peter Tillson
Authors
Carla Swickerath, Principal & CEO
Studio Daniel Libeskind
2 Rector Street 19th Floor
NewYork, NY 10006
t: +1 212 497 9100, f: +1 212 285 2130
www.daniel-libeskind.com
Peter Tillson, Associate Principal
ARUP NewYork
155 Avenue of the Americas
NewYork, NY 10013
t: +1 212 229 2669, f: +1 212 229 1056
www.arup.com

Carla Swickerath
Carla Swickerath is a Principal and CEOof Studio Daniel
Libeskind. She joined the firmin 1999 when the office
was based in Berlin. Carla was the Principal in Charge
of the Hyundai Haeundae Udong I-Park residential
development in Busan, Korea and led the project from
concept to completion. In addition to the Haeundae
I-Park, Carla helped lead the WorldTrade Center master
plan competition and moved with the office to New
York City in 2003 when Studio Libeskind was awarded
the master plan for the site. She is currently leading a
30 million-square foot master plan in Seoul, Korea, and
has residential projects under construction in Brazil
andToronto.
Peter Tillson
Peter Tillson is a structural engineer with Arup, with
experience practicing engineering globally in the
United States, Australia and NewZealand. He has
extensive experience in seismic analysis and the
design of airports, multi-story buildings, museums and
industrial buildings. This includes all aspects of project
management, structural design, phasing and
coordination with other specialist disciplines.
30 | IntegratingWindTurbines inTall Buildings IntegratingWindTurbines inTall Buildings | 31 CTBUHJournal | 2011 Issue IV CTBUHJournal | 2011 Issue IV
Perched some 3,350 meters (11,000 feet) up a
volcano, the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawaii
has been measuring CO2 in the atmosphere
since 1958. The Mauna Loa readings, made
famous in Al Gores documentaryAn
Inconvenient Truth, showan upward trend as
emissions pour into the atmosphere and,
each spring, the total CO2 level creeps above
the previous years high to set a newrecord.
Scientists at the observatory claimthat CO2
levels in the atmosphere nowstand at 387
parts per million (ppm), up almost 40%since
the industrial revolution and the highest for at
least the last 650,000 years.
Shouldturbinesbedeployedonevery
building?Probablynot, but Imsureintime
therewill bemorepioneeringexamplesof
project collaborationsresultinginhighly
innovativesolutions.
The world is constantly changing. Our energy demands are increasing daily and global
population is expected to increase by another 50%to 9 billion people by 2050. Traditional
consumption of non-renewable natural resources continues at an alarming pace, with carbon
pollution contributing significantly to global warming.
Ian Bogle
Author
Ian Bogle, Director
Bogle Flanagan Lawrence Silver ( BFLS )
66 Porchester Road
LondonW2 6ET
United Kingdom
t: +44 207 706 6166
f: +44 207 706 6266
e: i.bogle@bfls-london.com
www.bfls-london.com
Ian Bogle
A founding director of the practice, Ian has led two
pioneering projects in recent years - Strata SE1 and
Park House the former nowcomplete and the latter
scheduled for completion in 2013. While Strata is the
first residential building to integrate wind turbines
which generate electricity on site, Park House
integrates retail, office and residential space in an
innovative building set to revitalize the Western end of
Oxford Street.
Ian studied architecture at the Mackintosh School of
Architecture, and subsequently worked with the Parr
Partnership in Glasgowwhere he qualified as an
architect in 1993. After joining Foster + Partners in
1995, he worked on a wide range of projects, including
the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, the
Dubai Cultural Centre and Farnborough Business Park.
As Project Director, he was responsible for the Bexley
Business Academy (short-listed, 2004 Stirling Prize) and
had a critical design role on the delivery of Londons
Swiss Re Headquarters (winner, Stirling Prize 2004). Ian
is also an active ambassador for BFLS abroad, in
particular overseeing the practices Prague office
where he is responsible for a large landside airport
master plan, a mixed-use urban master plan at ikov
and a number of luxury residential projects. He has a
special interest in major education/research projects
such as the ELI Laser Research facility near Prague, due
on site in 2011, and infrastructure projects such as the
consented scheme for the Southern Concourse at
Reading Station.
Figure 1. Strata SE1, London Will Pryce
Integrating Wind Turbines in Tall Buildings
There is still time to effect a tangible change if
we act soon. We do have a choice.
Governments across the world are taking note
and as a result building legislation is aligning
itself to reduce CO2 emissions. Investors,
developers and occupiers look to designers
and engineers for innovative solutions that
will meet these requirements through gradual
change.
As part of this initiative, in London, there is
nowa town-planning policy guidance
requirement for providing a reasonable
percentage of on-site renewable energy
within newdevelopments to meet part of the
buildings energy load requirement.
However, that percentage can be widely
different in terms of the actual energy
quantumand is directly correlated to the
buildings use. Traditional energy demands for
differing building types drive higher or lower
load requirements. In general terms, for
example, traditional retail malls have greater
loads than residential schemes. Architects and
designers across the globe are encouraging
developers and occupiers to improve their
operational requirements with respect to
energy solutions.
We all have a duty to consider howwe use
energy in our daily lives. Do we share
common resources or each use our own?
Location dictates a great deal of howwe live
our lives. As an example, I live in Central
London and therefore use public transport to
get around there is little need for a private
car.
There is a step change mantra in London
policy which looks at energy philosophy as a
sequence of three simple steps: Lean, Clean
and Green.
Lean is a question of required
consumption that is, howmuch
energy do we really need to performthe
daily duties within our working and
living environments.
Clean is a question of howwe can use
the most energy efficient equipment to
deliver our energy demands.
Finally, Green looks to utilize a renewable
energy source in order to provide a
percentage of the energy supply within
a given development.
Considerations for each approach varies
across every project we undertake depending
on site location, constraints and the Clients
Brief and Program. In this particular context,
no single solution fits all, so the final choice
becomes a question of appropriateness.
Wind turbines in buildings are not the only
solution for addressing these issues but when
project drivers are aligning towards that
solution they do offer a green and visually
stimulating source of energy.
For the Strata SE1 project Central Londons
tallest residential development (see Figure 1)
the design teamconsidered the feasibility of
a number of options in order to find the most
appropriate Lean, Clean and Green solutions.
By virtue of being a residential building the
overall energy consumption loads are
considerably less than a similar sized retail or
commercial office development and therefore
the possibility of attaining the desired
percentage of on-site renewable energy is an
achievable requirement.
Design Solutions
The first point to establish is that we didnt set
out to design a building with wind turbines
they arrived through an intensive series of
design considerations, evaluating each
available renewable option on its own merits
and in the context of the site and a tall
building (see Figure 2).
Ground source water solutions were
considered but the extreme constraints of the
site meant that the water pools would not be
sufficiently distant fromeach other to prove
practicable. In addition, energy savings would
be dissipated when pumped through the
height of the entire building.
Photo voltaic solutions were also considered,
but the technology available at the time
(2005) would have resulted in 80%of the
southern elevation being covered with photo
voltaic (PV) cells, severely compromising the
quantity of glazing necessary to provide
adequate day-lighting into and views from
the apartments. Commercial issues prevalent
in 2005 would also have made this option too
expensive, added to which photo voltaic have
a limited shelf-life of circa 15 years and need
to be kept scrupulously clean. This solution
would have had significant implications for
service charges. Integrating photo voltaic
would also have adversely inflated the cost of
the faade per square meter.
Equally, biomass boiler solutions were
discussed but the continual energy costs
associated with the transport and delivery of
the fuel, and the availability issues of such fuel,
together with the requirement for a
150-meter (492-foot) flue running the entire
height of the building meant that this
solution was discounted.
As such, a number of factors pointed towards
a wind-based solution for the building.
Orientation
The buildings orientation and concave
southern elevation a direct result of
respecting the daylight requirements of the
neighboring properties produced a number
of positives. The wind rose for London has a
predominantly south-westerly axis in
summer-time and the curved elevation was
suitably oriented to capture wind fromthis
direction (see Figure 3).
Photovoltaics
Sustainability
Insucient roof area, too intrusive to extend
down the southern elevaon and with
increased cost of faade per m2
Penthouse Apartments
Private Apartments
Aordable Housing
Public Realm
Biomass boiler
Required u height too high
Energy piles
Site extents too small, energy expended
through pumping over height of building
Figure 2. Sustainability options BFLS Figure 3. Harnessing wind study BFLS
E W
N
S
36 | A NewDemolition Method for Tall Buildings A NewDemolition Method for Tall Buildings | 37 CTBUHJournal | 2011 Issue IV CTBUHJournal | 2011 Issue IV
Introduction
The Kajima Cut &Take Down (C&TD) method
is also known as the Daruma Otoshi Method.
Daruma Otoshi refers to a traditional Japanese
game toy, which has the object of knocking
off the bottompiece of a tower of wooden
blocks without causing the tower to fall over.
Just like a Daruma Otoshi, the C&TD-method
demolishes a building fromthe bottomup
with much of the demolition work being
done at ground level.
The KC&DT method was used to demolish
two of three towers of Kajimas former head
quarter complex in Akasaka-mitsuke, a town
in the Minato-ku ward inTokyo (see Figure 1).
There have been a good number of chimneys
or other structures which have utilized
hydraulic jacks to demolish a structure from
the bottomup, but never before buildings.
The towers of Kajima HQare thus presumed
the first examples of applying this method to
tall buildings. This paper discusses this
method and its techniques by sharing the
experience gained during its maiden
implementation.
Conventional Demolition Methods
The following elaborates on a number of
drawbacks to using the conventional
demolition method compared to the C&TD
method (see Figure 2).
Usingconventional demolitionmethods, ten
different materialscouldhavebeenrecycledon
thejobsite, returningarecyclingrateof 55%.
TheC&TDmethodallowedrecyclingof 20
kindsof material witha93%recyclingrate.
In recent years, several tall buildings in Japan that were built in the 1960s have been
dismantled. These are amongst the oldest tall buildings in Japan as, until 1963, regulation
prohibited buildings taller than 31 meters (102 feet) because of earthquakes. In response, the
Japanese construction company Kajima Corporation developed a building demolition
technique that involves using hydraulic jacks to demolish a building fromthe bottomup, one
floor at a time. As tall buildings are often located in dense urban areas, blowing up a structure
with explosives, or using a wrecking ball are not always an option.
Ryo Mizutani
Authors
Ryo Mizutani, Group Leader Technology Group 4
Machinery and Electrical Engineering Division
Kajima Corporation
5-11, Akasaka 6 Chome,
Minato-Ku, Tokyo
107-8348 Japan
t: +81 3 5544 0952, f: +81 3 5544 1754
e: ryom@kajima.com
www.kajima.com
ShigeruYoshikai, Senior Group Leader
Structure Enjineering Department
Architectural and Engineering Design Group
Kajima Corporation
6-5-30, Akasaka
Minato-ku, Tokyo
07-8502 Japan
t: +81 3 6229 7676, f: +81 3 5561 2329
e: yoshikai@kajima.com
www.kajima.com
Ryo Mizutani
Ryo Mizutani graduated fromTokyo Metropolitan
University in 1987 with a BS degree in Mechanical
Engineering. Mr. Mizutani is responsible for developing
and managing newmeasurement systems for Kajima
Corporation. Some of the work in which he was
involved include theAMURADautomated building
construction method, Automatic Elevated type
Building Core Forming System, and other new
construction technologies for Kajima. He was one of
the key personnel developing and implementing
Kajimas Cut &Take Down Method for demolition of
Kajimas former Headquarters buildings.
ShigeruYoshikai
ShigeruYoshikai graduated fromthe Department of
Architecture of the School of Engineering at Kyushu
University in Fukuoka City, Japan, and has worked on
structural engineering projects for the past 26 years.
He is currently the Senior Group Leader of Kajimas
Structural Engineering Department. Mr. Isokais main
fields of expertise are the structural design of
buildings, structural analysis, and development of new
technologies. Some of the major projects that Mr.
Yoshikai has been involved with are Tennosu-Seafort
square, the Global HQbuilding of Nippon Express,
Phase 2 of the East-Shinagawa redevelopment project,
Kajimas Akasaka Annex Building and Kajimas new
R&DCenter building. He was also responsible for
desiging a tubular structure with concrete-filled steel.
Conventional 1 KC&D
Scuffles and Outer Panel
Heavy Crane
Strong Support
Elevated Platform Tower Crane
Hydraulic Jack
Core Wall
Conventional 2
Figure 2. Comparison between demolition methods Kajima
A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings
Kajima Cut & Take Down Method
Installing a crane
The conventional method uses a heavy crane
which is hoisted on top of the building. The
tower is lowered by dismantling materials
fromthe top floor down.
Reinforcing floors
A conventional building floor does not have
the capacity to hold a heavy crane and
dismantled waste materials. As a result, each
floor must be reinforced before demolition
work starts.
Demolition provisions
When demolishing a building, often
scaffolding with canvas or outer panels need
to be installed to prevent dust, noise and
vibration fromspreading into the surrounding
area. 50 meters (164 feet) is considered to be
the maximumheight for the structural
strength of scaffolding. For a building taller
than 50 meters (164 feet), a construction
elevator needs to be installed on the outer
faade of the building.
Environmental issues
Dropped waste materials pose a great risk for
laborers when demolishing a tall building.
Also, to prevent dust fromspreading while
using conventional demolishing methods,
water is sprayed on to the demolished
material. However, running water naturally
Figure 1. Kajima Cut &Take Down (C&TD) method used on Kajimas former headquarters inTokyoKajima
ShigeruYoshikai
March 2008 July 2008 May 2008
flows down to the lower floors, which requires
additional effort to drain the waste water. One
also needs to prevent the water from
spreading around the neighborhood. Another
concern is sparks caused by gas cutting
equipment used on steel, which may ignite a
fire when in contact with combustible
materials.
C+TDCase Study: Kajima Corp.
Headquarters
Kajimas former HQwas housed in three
buildings (See Figure 3). The site on which the
towers stood is 85 meters (279 feet) wide and
60 meters (197 feet) long, with a 2.4-meter (8
foot) altitude difference across the site. An
Figure 3. Kajima Corp. former headquarters site layout Kajima
office building is located directly to the east of
the site, and a residential building can be
found to the north of it. There are public
pedestrian paths along the site perimeter,
which require extra caution for noise, vibration
and safety issues (see Figure 3).
Out of three buildings, it was decided to apply
the newmethod on the buildings No. 1 and
No. 2, which are the two high-rise buildings.
These buildings were also selected Due to
their a steel structure, which makes it easier to
cut the columns. Building No. 3 building was a
low-rise building, to which was applied a
conventional demolition method.
The load bearing structure of building No.1
consisted of a grid of 5 x 4 columns with 4 x 3
spans of 7.5 meters (24.6 feet) and weight of
7,139 tons. Building No. 2 had a 6 x 4 column
structure and hence a grid of 5 x 3 span,
weighing 9,973 tons.
Demolition Cycle
In a nutshell, the basic cycle of the C&TD
method is to place temporary columns near a
structural column, take out the column, place
a hydraulic jack to support the second floors
and up, use the hydraulic jacks to lower the
building, and demolish the floors and walls
(see Figure 4).
Hydraulic jacks
Based on the structural study, custom
hydraulic jacks were ordered with a lifting
36 | A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV
Introduction
The Kajima Cut & Take Down (C&TD) method
is also known as the Daruma Otoshi Method.
Daruma Otoshi refers to a traditional Japanese
game toy, which has the object of knocking
off the bottom piece of a tower of wooden
blocks without causing the tower to fall over.
Just like a Daruma Otoshi, the C&TD-method
demolishes a building from the bottom up
with much of the demolition work being
done at ground level.
The KC&DT method was used to demolish
two of three towers of Kajimas former head
quarter complex in Akasaka-mitsuke, a town
in the Minato-ku ward in Tokyo (see Figure 1).
There have been a good number of chimneys
or other structures which have utilized
hydraulic jacks to demolish a structure from
the bottom up, but never before buildings.
The towers of Kajima HQ are thus presumed
the first examples of applying this method to
tall buildings. This paper discusses this
method and its techniques by sharing the
experience gained during its maiden
implementation.
Conventional Demolition Methods
The following elaborates on a number of
drawbacks to using the conventional
demolition method compared to the C&TD
method (see Figure 2).
Using conventional demolition methods, ten
different materials could have been recycled on
the job site, returning a recycling rate of 55%.
The C&TD method allowed recycling of 20
kinds of material with a 93% recycling rate.
In recent years, several tall buildings in Japan that were built in the 1960s have been
dismantled. These are amongst the oldest tall buildings in Japan as, until 1963, regulation
prohibited buildings taller than 31 meters (102 feet) because of earthquakes. In response, the
Japanese construction company Kajima Corporation developed a building demolition
technique that involves using hydraulic jacks to demolish a building from the bottom up, one
floor at a time. As tall buildings are often located in dense urban areas, blowing up a structure
with explosives, or using a wrecking ball are often not an option.
Ryo Mizutani
Authors
Ryo Mizutani, Group Leader Technology Group 4
Machinery and Electrical Engineering Division
Kajima Corporation
5-11, Akasaka 6 Chome,
Minato-Ku, Tokyo
107-8348 Japan
t: +81 3 5544 0952, f: +81 3 5544 1754
e: ryom@kajima.com
www.kajima.com
Shigeru Yoshikai, Senior Group Leader
Structure Enjineering Department
Architectural and Engineering Design Group
Kajima Corporation
6-5-30, Akasaka
Minato-ku, Tokyo
07-8502 Japan
t: +81 3 6229 7676, f: +81 3 5561 2329
e: yoshikai@kajima.com
www.kajima.com
Ryo Mizutani
Ryo Mizutani graduated from Tokyo Metropolitan
University in 1987 with a BS degree in Mechanical
Engineering. Mr. Mizutani is responsible for developing
and managing new measurement systems for Kajima
Corporation. Some of the work in which he was
involved include the AMURADautomated building
construction method, Automatic Elevated type
Building Core Forming System, and other new
construction technologies for Kajima. He was one of
the key personnel developing and implementing
Kajimas Cut & Take Down Method for demolition of
Kajimas former Headquarters buildings.
Shigeru Yoshikai
Shigeru Yoshikai graduated from the Department of
Architecture of the School of Engineering at Kyushu
University in Fukuoka City, Japan, and has worked on
structural engineering projects for the past 26 years.
He is currently the Senior Group Leader of Kajimas
Structural Engineering Department. Mr. Isokais main
fields of expertise are the structural design of
buildings, structural analysis, and development of new
technologies. Some of the major projects that Mr.
Yoshikai has been involved with are Tennosu-Seafort
square, the Global HQ building of Nippon Express,
Phase 2 of the East-Shinagawa redevelopment project,
Kajimas Akasaka Annex Building and Kajimas new
R&D Center building. He was also responsible for
desiging a tubular structure with concrete-filled steel.
A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings
Kajima Cut & Take Down Method
Installing a crane
The conventional method uses a heavy crane
which is hoisted on top of the building. The
tower is lowered by dismantling materials
from the top floor down.
Reinforcing floors
A conventional building floor does not have
the capacity to hold a heavy crane and
dismantled waste materials. As a result, each
floor must be reinforced before demolition
work starts.
Demolition provisions
When demolishing a building, often
scaffolding with canvas or outer panels need
to be installed to prevent dust, noise and
vibration from spreading into the surrounding
area. 50 meters (164 feet) is considered to be
the maximum height for the structural
strength of scaffolding. For a building taller
than 50 meters (164 feet), a construction
elevator needs to be installed on the outer
faade of the building.
Environmental issues
Dropped waste materials pose a great risk for
laborers when demolishing a tall building.
Also, to prevent dust from spreading while
using conventional demolishing methods,
water is sprayed onto the demolished
material. However, running water naturally
Shigeru Yoshikai
A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings | 37 CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV
Figure 2. Comparison between demolition methods Kajima
Figure 1. Kajima Cut & Take Down (C&TD) method used on Kajimas former headquarters in Tokyo Kajima
March 2008
July 2008
May 2008
flows down to the lower floors, which requires
additional effort to drain the waste water. One
also needs to prevent the water from
spreading around the neighborhood. Another
concern is sparks caused by gas cutting
equipment used on steel, which may ignite a
fire when in contact with combustible
materials.
C+TD Case Study: Kajima Corp.
Headquarters
Kajimas former HQ was housed in three
buildings (See Figure 3). The site on which the
towers stood is 85 meters (279 feet) wide and
60 meters (197 feet) long, with a 2.4-meter
(8-foot) altitude difference across the site. An
Figure 3. Kajima Corp. former headquarters site layout Kajima
office building is located directly to the east of
the site, and a residential building can be
found to the north of it. There are public
pedestrian paths along the site perimeter,
which require extra caution for noise, vibration
and safety issues.
Out of three buildings, it was decided to apply
the new method on the buildings No. 1 and
No. 2, which are the two high-rise buildings.
These buildings were also selected due to
their steel structure, which makes it easier to
cut the columns. Building No. 3 was a low-rise
building, to which was applied a conventional
demolition method.
The load bearing structure of building No. 1
consisted of a grid of 5 x 4 columns with 4 x 3
spans of 7.5 meters (24.6 feet) and weight of
7,139 tons. Building No. 2 had a 6 x 4 column
structure and hence a grid of 5 x 3 span,
weighing 9,973 tons.
Demolition Cycle
In a nutshell, the basic cycle of the C&TD
method is to place temporary columns near a
structural column, take out the column, place
a hydraulic jack to support the second floors
and up, use the hydraulic jacks to lower the
building, and demolish the floors and walls
(see Figure 4).
Hydraulic jacks
Based on the structural study, custom
hydraulic jacks were ordered with a lifting
38 | A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV
3. Take down all jacks. After doing step 1 & 2 for all columns, all jacks were taken down
2. Extend the jack stroke. Extend length of 70 centimeters for jack stroke
4. Take out beams and floor slab of the floor above
Figure 4. Demolition process Kajima
1. Cut the column. Cut length of 70 centimeters for a column and take off
column
jack
demolition
Figure 5. Hydraulic jacks Kajima
Figure 6. Temporary support columns Kajima
capability of 800 tons and load carrying
capacity of 1,200 tons each. Each jack weighs
3 tons and has a diameter of 725 millimeters
(28.5 inches). A supporting plate with the
ability to slide and rotate was placed on top of
each jack in order to adjust the length of
columns, as their length may vary depending
on the marginal error when it was
manufactured, or how they were cut during
the demolition. This plate also absorbs any
horizontal and rotating movement of
columns in the event of an earthquake. To
protect the top portion of the hydraulic jacks,
6-millimeter (0.24-inch) thick steel plates were
placed in between the supporting plate and
cross section of a column (see Figure 5).
Before cutting the columns, temporary
support columns are installed on both sides
of a steel column and placed under the
structural beams of the second floor (see
Figure 6).
Cycles
One cycle consists of: (1) cutting the column;
(2) extend the jack; and (3) lower all jacks to
bring down the second floor. Floors are
lowered 675 millimeters (26.5 inches) per
cycle. These steps are repeated five times in
order to completely lower a floor of 3.375
meters (11.1 feet). It takes 2.5 days to lower
one floor, and another 3.5 days to demolish
the beams, floors, and walls. In all, it requires
six days to completely demolish one floor. A
monitoring system was installed to check the
movement of every single jack and to
measure the level and position of the
building. The system was monitored at a
central control room.
Dealing with Lateral Movement during
Earthquakes
Since this method separates the upper
portion of the building from its foundation,
the structure is left vulnerable to earthquakes.
To cope with the potential danger of lateral
load movements, a method was developed
which includes a core wall which is connected
to a load transferring frame by a wedge
control device.
Core wall
The core wall is comparable to the cores
which are typical to tall concrete structures. In
A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings | 39 CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV
Figure 7. Core wall and load transfer frame Kajima
Figure 8. Wedge control device Kajima
Figure 9. Cutting Columns Kajima
this case, a 12.5-meter
(41-foot) tall core wall was
constructed inside the first
three floors. It is made of
reinforced concrete boxed
walls, with a thickness of
400 to 900 millimeters (15.7
to 35.4 inches). It is located
in the center of the floor
plan of the building.
Load transferring frame
In order to transfer the
lateral loads caused by
horizontal movements of
the upper building
structure to the core wall
and the building base, a
number of detachable
temporary steel frames (BH-585x350x25x25)
were installed between the core wall and the
surrounding columns, forming a square of
steel around the core wall. This is called the
load transferring frame. Tongues attached to
the frame fit into the grooves of the core walls.
During an earthquake, steel wedges fall in
place in between the grooves of the core wall
and the tongues of the load transferring
frame. This connects the core wall with the
frame, which allows transferring the lateral
movement of the building in the event of an
earthquake (see Figure 7).
Wedge control device
While jacks are lowering the structure, the
core wall and load transferring frame need to
be disconnected in order to achieve a smooth
operation. However, if an earthquake
40 | A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV
Figure 10. Interior and building demolition Kajima
Figure 11. Interior and building demolition Kajima
occurs while the building is being lowered,
the connection must be locked in place
immediately. An early warning system for
earthquakes was installed, which
automatically triggers the steel wedge. Each
steel wedge weighs approximately 80
kilograms (176 pounds) and automatically
deploys to instantly make the connection
once it receives the signal (see Figure 8).
Cutting Columns
When the jack is removed in order to take out
the column, the floor above tends to bulge
somewhat, while other columns are holding
the load. During this moment, the floor
deforms and lowers about 10 millimeters (0.4
inches). However, deformation of the entire
structure is minimal. This also does not affect
the precast concrete panels on the outer
faade (see Figure 9).
Dismantling the interior materials
The ground floor level is where the jacks are
installed and columns are cut. Disassembling
of the outer skin, beams and concrete floor of
the lowered building floor area (referred as
floor N) is done on the second floor using
heavy equipment. Disassembled and sorted
concrete and steel reinforced bars were
shipped out from the second floor very
efficiently (see Figure 10).
Working simultaneously, the load transferring
frame is installed on the N + 1 floor above
while taking out concrete slab around core
wall area on floor N+2. Interior demolition is
done on floor N + 4 while asbestos is being
removed on floor N + 3 floor, after preventive
measures have been taken to abate the
asbestos. This work is done as part of the cycle
of the C&TD method and continues to work
via the same process from the ground floor
and up (see Figure 11). Doing the same work
on the same floor, the cycle resembles a
demolition factory.
Results of Cut and Take Down Method
In comparison to the conventional method,
the Kajima Cut and Take Down Method has
the following merits:
A New Demolition Method for Tall Buildings | 41 CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue IV

In the past, if American


architects could participate
in the building of two or
three skyscraper projects in
their lifetime, that was a
great achievement. But in
China today, a designer can
work on two or three
skyscraper projects in a
single year.

Zhou Xuewang, head of China operations


at SOM on Chinas skyscraper boom. From
The Political Aesthetics of Skyscrapers,
China Youth Daily, June 2011.
lifetime
Figure 12. Automatic Up-Rising Construction by Advanced Technique (AMURAD)-method Kajima
It reduces dust and noise, and minimizes
impact on the environment.
There is no need to set up scaffolding for
the upper floor, and there is less concern
for the surrounding neighbors.
Materials are easy to process and recycle
since all the work is done close to the
ground.
Less work is done on higher levels, which
results in less risk for falling down or
dropping materials from higher floors,
which results in a safer job site.
Using conventional demolition methods,
ten different materials could have been
recycled on the job site, returning a
recycling rate of 55%. The C&TD method
allowed recycling of 20 kinds of material
with a 93% recycling rate. When the
building structure is included, this number
increases to 99%.
The costs of demolishing a building using
the C&TD method are 5 to 10% higher
compared to convention demolition
methods. On other hand, the work can be
completed 15% faster, which shortens
interruption time and allows for the
speeding up of new replacement
construction.
Summary and Future Outlook
Through study and conducting pilot projects,
Kajima has gained relevant experience in
construction automation processes, and
specifically regarding hydraulic jack control
technology, such as the Lift Up-Method,
which was used at the Seibu Dome and the
Haneda Airports Boeing 747 hanger projects.
Also Kajima has developed an Automatic
Up-Rising Construction by Advanced
Technique (AMURAD)-method. This can be
considered as a reverse of the C&TD Method
as the construction of a building starts with
the roof, while adding floors from the ground
level as the building is jacked up. Several other
advanced construction methods have been
developed (see Figure 12).
Although the C&TD-method was intended for
a 20-story tall, and rigid steel frame structure,
this method could be applied to any
structural material or combination. However,
each building has its own unique structural
features, which may require its own suitable
demolition method.
We have not been able to test this method on
a second project yet. However, as pointed out
in the introduction, we expect to see more
large-scale building demolition like this in the
near future. We will continue to develop this
technology based on the experience of the
demolition of our former HQ buildings, and
try to make it more environmentally friendly,
more efficient and cost effective.