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Government of Nepal

Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport


Department of Roads
ADB Project Directorate
Sub-Regional Transport Enhancement Project
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign
(Road Safety)




Submitted by:
Dr. Padma Bahadur Shahi
Road Safety Specialist/STEP
2014

Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 2

Contents
Acknowledgement .................................................................................................................................... 4
1 Background ............................................................................................................................................... 5
2 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 7
3 Road safety and Road User Behaviour .................................................................................................... 8
3.1 Determinants of road-user behaviour ......................................................................................... 9
3.2 Reduction of Road Accidents ................................................................................................... 10
4 Road Safety Communication Campaign ................................................................................................. 11
4.1 Indentifying and defining the problem ....................................................................................... 11
4.2 Types of Road safety communication campaigns .................................................................... 12
5 Public relations ....................................................................................................................................... 12
6 Advantages and Disadvantages of various road safety campaigns ........................................................ 13
6.1 Main advantages and disadvantages of audiovisual media ..................................................... 13
6.2 Main advantages and disadvantages of printed and outdoor media ........................................ 14
6.3 Interpersonal communication and electronic supports ............................................................. 15
7 Major Road safety communication activities in Nepal ............................................................................. 15
8 Guidelines for Road Users ...................................................................................................................... 16
8.1 Precaution for Motorists ............................................................................................................ 16
8.2 Guidelines for Bus Commuters ................................................................................................. 16
8.3 Guidelines for Car Drivers ........................................................................................................ 17
8.4 Guidelines for Bus and Truck Drivers ....................................................................................... 18
8.5 Guidelines for Motorcyclists ...................................................................................................... 18
8.6 Guidelines for Cyclists .............................................................................................................. 20
8.7 Guidelines for Pedestrians ....................................................................................................... 20
8.8 Guidelines for School Children ................................................................................................. 22
8.9 Situations needing extra care ................................................................................................... 24
8.10 Request from Traffic Police for Road Users ............................................................................. 24
9 Safety Tips for Drivers ............................................................................................................................ 26
9.1 Driving in heat .......................................................................................................................... 26
9.2 In case of engine over heating ................................................................................................. 26
9.3 Speed limits .............................................................................................................................. 26
9.4 Seat Belts ................................................................................................................................. 27
9.5 Helmet ...................................................................................................................................... 27
9.6 Overloading .............................................................................................................................. 27
9.7 Check the POWER before going on Road ............................................................................... 27
9.8 Over Hanging Loads................................................................................................................. 27
9.9 Driving in Foggy Weather ......................................................................................................... 27
10 Road Safety Suggestions ....................................................................................................................... 28
11 References ............................................................................................................................................. 29
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AADT Average Annual Daily Traffic
ADB Asian Development Bank
DAO District Administration Office
DDC District Development Committee
DOR Department of Roads
DOTM Department of Transport Management
DOPIT Department of Physical Infrastructure and Transport
ESA Equivalent Standard Axle
GON Govern of Nepal
GRSP Global Road Safety Partnership
MOH Ministry of Home
NTP National Transport Policy
PRA Public Roads Act
RBA Roads Board Act
RBN Roads Board Nepal
SRN Strategic Road Network
STEP Sub- Regional Transport Enhancement Project
TL Team Leader
TOR Terms of Reference
TP Traffic Police
VTMA Vehicle and Transport Management Act
VTMR Vehicle and Transport Management Regulation
ZTMO Zonal Transport Management Office

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Acknowledgement
This report is prepared as the assignment given in the TOR of the Road Safety Specialist on Sub-regional
Transport Enhancement Project (STEP). The report has been prepared based on the secondary information
mainly the previous studies, existing practices and experiences gained during the field observations of the road
projects upgraded under STEP.
The consultant would like to express thanks to the Project Director (STEP) Mr. Bishnu Om Bade, Deputy Project
Directors Mr. Rajendra Raj Sharma and Mr. Bed Kantha Yogal and Engineers Pradeep Shakya and Jagat
Prajapati for their important contribution for the preparation of this report. Further, I truly acknowledge the several
meetings and discussion on the matter of public awareness interactions in the project sites.
Consultants' Team Leader, STEP Mr. O. D. Sharma is highly appreciated for his support during the outline
preparation, and thorough review of the report. I appreciate the whole consultant's team at the office and as well
as at the project-site for their cooperation.


Dr. Padma Bahadur Shahi
Road Safety Specialist
STEP
(pb_shahi@yahoo.com)
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1 Background
The functioning of road transport "vehicular movement" involves continuous interactions between road users and
infrastructures, rules, vehicles, and of course, between different road users, including car drivers, passengers, truck
and bus drivers, motorcycle and bicycle riders, etc. Driving is a self-regulated activity and the management of these
interactions depends on numerous more or less stable factors that are externally or internally determined. In most
cases, road users will adapt to the road environment as these factors vary, but they are sometimes unable to adapt
successfully and this can cause a road crash.
The WHO estimated nearly 1.3 million people are killed worldwide from road accidents and one child is killed in every
three minutes from the road accidents. The injury rate is even alarming. Fifty million people are injured in road crashes
every year and of them, 15 millions are seriously injured. In the context of Nepal, nearly 1,700 people lost their lives in
the year 2012 and 15,000 were injured due to the road accidents. This rate is increasing year by year. This is a
dreadful situation. A collective and co-ordinate effort is essential to bring these figures down.
More than 90 percent of accidents are caused by a human error worldwide. Proper skills, knowledge and habit in the
road users are essential to prevent the accidents. Though the efforts to develop these skills start from an individual, a
collective effort from the users and the stake holders is necessary.

Figure 1: Causes of Road Traffic Accident in EU countries

Causes of traffic accidents recorded by the Police in Nepal are very indistinct. The stated causes of the accidents are
noted down without any detailed study of the accident site. For example, over-speeding is one of the causes
mentioned in the accident record, but no analysis of speeding and braking actions are made. The role of road
geometry and weather condition is underplayed as seen in the following figure.
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Figure 2: Causes of road traffic accidents in FY 2068/69 (source: Traffic Police)
The chart presented here makes clear that the probable causes of RTA could be quite dealt with the improvement in
human behavior. Drivers carelessness is recorded as the highest accident factor. Hence, drivers' education, behavior
and motivation for his professionalism play vital role in the road safety. Further, roadside population, passenger or
pedestrian, the human component are also important for the road safety improvement.
As mandated by the UN Decade for Road Safety (2011 to 2020), the safety strategies are formulated based on the
interventions under the following five pillars:
Road safety management
Safer roads and mobility
Safer vehicles
Safer road users
Post-crash response
Public awareness could be taken as an effective long-term approach to ensure and enhance road safety. The culture
of safety in road transport system could be strengthened by changing the human behaviuor and attitude which threats
the safety. The objective of proposed "Manual on Road Safety Awareness Campaign" is to assist the highway
engineer for conducting specific awareness programs for specific road users. It would helpful to define the safety
threats related to human component (Road users), to develop specific awareness programs and to implement the
campaigns.
In order to change behaviour the awareness campaign programs need to identify the unsafe behavior (and sometimes
the safe behaviour) and its origination. At the initial stage, public awareness campaign should highlight some
theoretical models likely to account for safe/unsafe behavior. Secondly, it must describe how to act on these
conditions and constraints to eliminate the unsafe behavior by examining models of persuasion and the process of
change. By outlining the various models the manual helps to identify some critical factors that a practitioner should not
ignore. At the first stage, the main determinants of behaviour along with some important theoretical models likely to
account for what motivates road users to adopt a safe or unsafe behaviour.

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2 Introduction
The road-users' level of safety is conditional to their level of understanding, and appropriateness of their decision
making for particular road environment. Further, the compliance of existing regulatory measures also affects the safety
situations. Preventive road-safety measures and programs involve interventions at two levels. The first addresses
external conditions of road usage, such as traffic laws, enforcement, and road engineering; the second addresses
internal conditions such as the personal motives behind the drivers actions. Road safety awareness campaigns work
primarily on this second level. Road safety awareness campaigns are one of the most important means of persuading
road users to adopt safe behaviours. Together with enforcement and road engineering, they constitute a crucial
resource.
Road crash statistics are very often a starting point for road safety campaigns. They help identify the most risky
behaviours, the types and severity of accidents, the types and characteristics of those road users most involved, as
well as when and where accidents occur.
Moreover, to know the potential for improvement (in terms of accident and injury reduction) that might be achieved by
addressing a specific type of behaviour, one must know the statistical relationship between that type of behaviour and
the accident risk associated with it. Such relationships should be documented for a wide range of behaviours. The
most common examples include speeding, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and failure to wear a
seatbelt.
This manual contains both a theoretical background and practical guidelines on how to carry out campaigns along the
road projects corridors during construction as well as operation stages. It is aimed at both researchers and
practitioners involved in designing and implementing road safety awareness campaigns all over country.
Road safety communication campaigns can be defined as purposeful attempts to inform, persuade, or motivate people
in view of changing their beliefs and/or behaviour in order to improve road safety as a whole or in a specific, well-
defined large audience, typically within a given time period by means of organized communication activities involving
specific media channels often combined with interpersonal support and/or other supportive actions such as
enforcement, education, legislation, enhancing personal commitment, rewards, etc.
Road safety awareness campaign programs have main goals as:
To inform about traffic rules relevant to the specific site/project roads,
To provide information about new or modified laws.
To improve knowledge and/or awareness of new in-vehicle systems, risks, etc., and the appropriate
preventive behaviours.
To change underlying factors known to influence road-user behavior,
To modify problem behaviours or maintain safety-conscious behaviours,
To decrease the frequency and severity of accidents.
From a practical point of view, an additional goal can be to inform road users of risky behaviours identified by
authorities. In this case, the road safety campaign can serve as a support for road-safety policy making.
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The content of this manual mainly divided into two parts: The first part imparts knowledge on road safety and road
user behavior. The second part elaborates the practical recommendations on road safety awareness campaign.
A communication campaign is not the only intervention that serves to improve knowledge or change beliefs and
behaviour. Other activities such as enforcement, education, legislation, enhancing personal commitment, incentives,
etc., are often added to the communication campaign in order to increase its effectiveness.
Enforcement can be used to support the campaign message. Law enforcement, particularly high-visibility
enforcement, can raise audience awareness about the campaign theme. Enforcement upholds society's expectations
and standards, and imposes sanctions when laws are broken.

Legislation concerns the adoption of new laws or the modification of existing laws. The campaign can inform people
about new or modified laws, or prompt them to obey the law.

Education can be used to communicate information and raise awareness of a specific issue. It helps people develop
knowledge, skills, and changes in attitude.

Reinforcement can be used to prompt people to adopt a safe behaviour. It focuses on specific behaviours and the
external factors that influence them; its purpose is mainly to encourage safe behaviours rather than discourage unsafe
ones.

Engineering improvements can be either infrastructure- or vehicle-based. These may be used to inform road users
about safe behaviors or directly steer their behavior.
3 Road safety and Road User Behaviour
The road environment involves ongoing interactions between road users and infrastructures, rules, vehicles, and of
course, between different road users, including car drivers, passengers, truck and bus drivers, motorcycle and bicycle
riders, etc. Driving is a self regulated activity and the management of these interactions depends on numerous more
or less stable factors that are externally or internally determined. In most cases, road users will adapt to the road
environment as these factors vary, but they are sometimes unable to adapt successfully and this can cause a road
accidents.
Preventive road-safety measures and programs involve interventions at two levels (Delhomme, P. 1994). The first
addresses external conditions of road usage, such as traffic laws, enforcement, and road engineering; the second
addresses internal conditions such as the personal motives behind the drivers actions. Road safety communication
campaigns work primarily on this second level.
As mentioned, road safety is interdisciplinary matter consisting of basically engineering, enforcement and education
themes. The internal conditions of road users' such as motives are always responsible for their actions. It is most
important to explore the main determinants of road-user behaviour in order to learn about what motivates road users
to adopt a safe or unsafe behaviour, before defining how to act on these determinants to eliminate the problem
behaviour, the main statistics of world-wide road accidents we can be analyzed which shows the human factors for
road accidents and road users' behavior.
Road traffic accident (RTA) database is most essential part of any steps and interventions regarding road safety.
Traffic accident recording and reporting methods, use of information technology are the base for reliable RTA
database. The detail recording of particular RTA should be based on the technical study and site investigations. In
Nepal, RTA recording is done by Traffic Police Offices (TPO) at various levels such as Ilaka or Metropolitan, District,
Zonal, and Regional and Central level. The most important fact in this regard is that most of the non-fatal cases of
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accidents are not recorded due to long formal process of compensation. Such cases or conflicts of RTA are resolved
at the site even with the help of Traffic Police without any formal recording. Prime causes of road accidents (from
Wierwille et al. 2002)
Cause % of accidents
Human factors alone 65
Human + road 25
Human + vehicle 5
Road factors alone 2
Vehicle factors alone 2
Human + road + vehicle 1
Total 100
3.1 Determinants of road-user behaviour
A. Human control in driving performance
i. Task performance in general
When performing a task, people control their actions through various combinations of two control modes: the
conscious mode and the automatic mode. The conscious mode is slow, sequential, and logical, but it has a limited
capacity because it is used to pay attention to things. The automatic mode is unconscious, which means that when
individuals perform an automated task, they are aware of its progression but not of the process controlling the
sequence of actions. This mode is very fast and allows a person to carry out different actions in parallel. According to
Rasmussens cognitive-control model of task performance, these two control modes work in conjunction with each
other, and three levels of performance can be described that depend on the persons knowledge of the environment,
interpretation of available information, and experience in performing the task:
Skill-based behaviour is found when routine, frequently occurring tasks are performed in an automated
mode, with occasional conscious control over progress.
Ruled-based behaviour occurs when an automated task is being performed and the need to modify the
programmed behaviour arises due to a situational change. At this point, there is a switch from the
automated mode to the conscious mode in order to apply previously learned rules or procedures. This is
a mixed control mode.
Knowledge-based behaviour takes place when an individual repeatedly fails to find a pre-existing stored
solution while performing a task. He has to use his knowledge and higher abilities, then, to solve the
problem, understand the new situation, and make a suitable decision.
ii. Driving task
Driving a vehicle is a complex task performed in a complex and dynamic environment where different interactions
occur. Information must be processed continuously in order to ensure proper and timely decision-making.
A strategic level consisting of route planning according to defined goals, such as saving time or avoiding
traffic jams.
A tactical level involving manoeuvres related to social interactions in the driving environment: overtaking
or negotiating at intersections.
An operational level consisting of acting upon the vehicles controls: changing gears, braking, steering,
etc.
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B. Unsafe acts
A fault or failure by the driver is frequently seen as the immediate cause of an accident. However, faults and
failures are the consequence of several interacting factors, for the human action (unsafe act) that caused the
accident is at the end of a chain of factors leading to the critical situation.
i. Unintended (slips, lapses and mistakes)
ii. Intended (violations and some intentional mistakes)
C. Variability of road users
No two people are the same; certainly this also holds true for road users. To start with, road users can be
drivers, motorcycle and bicycle riders, passengers, or pedestrians, depending on the situation. They can use
different modes of transportation, have different skills and motivations, and differ in terms of individual
characteristics and lifestyle.
Moreover, each road user is subject to internal variability due to transient factors such as variations in health;
state of fatigue; consumption of alcohol, drugs, or medication; influence of mood, rush, stress, or
aggressiveness; and so on. Also, cognitive-motivational aspects such as perceptions of oneself and other
road users, the tendency to take or avoid risks, and the desire to imitate other road users behaviour all play
an important part in internal variability.
Because road users differ so much from each other and are also subject to internal variability, they may not
exhibit the same behaviour even if the circumstances are exactly the same. In this section, we will discuss
some factors that affect how people behave on the road. Some of these factors can be regarded as more or
less stable, others as more subject to change.
i. Road users age, sex, and experience
ii. Motivational, affective and cognitive characteristics
Personality traits (Anger and aggression, Sensation-seeking)
Attitudes
Transient factors (moods, Driver attention, Situation awareness, Fatigue and drowsiness,
Alcohol and drug consumption, Health condition, etc)
3.2 Reduction of Road Accidents
Road Accident Road accident is becoming more and more common in todays society and contributes to a significant
number of deaths as the result. Some of the measures for reduction of road accidents is listed below,
1. 4Es
Engineering
Enforcement
Emergency Response
Education
2. Areas of Intervention
The Road Safety Program
The Leading Agency
3. Implementation Strategy
The Enforcement Plan
The Communication Strategy
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4 Road Safety Communication Campaign
Road safety communication (or awareness) campaigns are vital for reducing the accidents. Before carrying out such
campaigns the agency/individual should have the well concepts on the target audience. Before designing the
campaign, we need to gather background information on the problem. It will be necessary to collect data about
possible contributing factors, the types of road users who are involved, and the context in which the problem occurs.
Only after then we will then need to look for campaign partners and stakeholders who will be able to support your
campaign and/or be part of the campaign team. To get started, the following steps are vital for its success and good
results.

Figure 3: Steps for Awareness campaign

4.1 Indentifying and defining the problem
The ultimate aim of a road safety communication campaign is to reduce the number and severity of road crashes by
influencing road users behaviour. In road safety campaigns, the communication will most often involve the use of
media to reach the target audience. The components of road safety communication campaign are: Messages, Target
group and Media
Messages: What information is to be delivered?
Guidelines for road users from traffic police
Target group: What in the intended target group?
Drivers of Public Vehicle and School buses
Pedestrians
Car drivers
Non-motorized vehicles Cyclists, rickshaw operators
School Children
Highway side community
Public vehicle operators (Entrepreneurs,
Other stakeholders
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Media:
Mass media communication- TV, radio, billboards, signs, posters, electronic media, (internet), print
media
Selective communication: direct mail, flyers, brochures, posters, special events, and the Internet,
documentaries.
Interpersonal communication.
4.2 Types of Road safety communication campaigns
There are different types of campaigns that can be considered in designing a road safety campaign.
4.2.1 Public communication campaigns
Road safety communication campaigns are part of the larger category of public communication campaigns. They
generally utilize paid advertisements and unpaid media coverage, including public relations, to support the campaign:
Paid media include mass media and local media (TV, radio, newspaper, etc.), outdoor media (campaign
feedback signs, etc.), personal media (letters, email, etc.), and face-to-face communication, also called
interpersonal communication (presentations, public discussions, etc.).
Unpaid or "earned" media coverage includes free publicity, i.e., unintended, unpaid material related to the
safety campaign, as well as coverage from public relations efforts (press releases, press articles, radio
programmes, TV broadcasts, etc.).
4.2.2 Combined campaigns
A combined communication campaign is not the only intervention that serves to improve knowledge or change beliefs
and behaviour. Other activities such as enforcement, education, legislation, enhancing personal commitment etc., are
often added to the communication campaign in order to increase its effectiveness.
4.2.3 Integrated programmes
Using integrated programmes involves integrating and coordinating many different communications to disseminate a
clear and consistent message about a particular type of problem behaviour (e.g., lack of seatbelt usage) or about a
range of issues (e.g., responsible driving), usually over a longer time frame (up to several years).
5 Public relations
Successful public relations and lobbying efforts generate free, positive mention of the campaign programme in the
media (this is called free publicity), e.g.
Stories on TV and radio
Articles in newspapers and magazines
Special events: meetings, conferences, exhibits, demonstrations, etc.
a. Special promotional items: campaign messages can be reinforced and sustained through the use of special
promotional items, e.g.
Clothing (T-shirts, caps, hats, etc.)
Temporary items (lapel buttons, balloons, stickers, mascots, door hangers, etc.)
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Functional items (key-chains, pens & pencils, bookmarks, notepads, bags, drink coasters, etc.)
b. Popular media:
Songs
Movie scripts, TV, and radio programmes
Comic books, comic strips, etc.
c. Social networking websites (YouTube, Facebook, etc.)
d. Virtual communities (Second Life, etc.)
6 Advantages and Disadvantages of various road safety campaigns
6.1 Main advantages and disadvantages of audiovisual media

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6.2 Main advantages and disadvantages of printed and outdoor media


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6.3 Interpersonal communication and electronic supports

7 Major Road safety communication activities in Nepal
Traffic Safety Week
School Campaign
Information to the road users: Hoarding boards, print media, tv, radio, electronic media
Poster and pictures of road accidents and road violators.
Alcohol Test on Drivers (Ma Pa Se)
Helmet compulsion for motorcyclist
Road Discipline and Accident Reduction Awareness Campaign
Traffic Education a part of school curriculum
Traffic rules classes for new license seekers
Compulsion of awareness class for driver driving on alcohol effect
Compulsion of seat belts on drivers and passengers on the first row.



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8 Guidelines for Road Users
8.1 Precaution for Motorists
Roads become slippery after first showers due to accumulated dust and lubricants. Hence drive carefully and
avoid sudden braking.
Check wipers, car battery, tyros & your spare tyros. Replace worn out tyres.
Check breaks break oil and condition of the brake axel and brake liners.
Keep a spare muslin cloth near the steering wheel for cleaning the dampness on the windscreen as well as
the rear view mirror.
Keep a small hammer in the vehicle for breaking the wind screen of your vehicles, if the central locking
system fails. Also keep a small torch handy in your car's cabin.
Keep a fire extinguisher in your car and a First Aid Box.
Keep sufficient quantity of fuel in the fuel tank.
Get your air conditioner serviced before monsoon.
Visit Traffic Police Website: www.traffic.nepalpolice.gov.np
In case of heavy water logging, leave the car at assigned parking places. Avoid Frantic/repeated calls as
such calls jam the cellular networks.
Whenever high tide is coinciding with heavy rains, the rain water clogs the drainage system. This results in
flooding of low lying areas.
Check the central locking system of the vehicle and tool kit of your car.
Pool your cars, save fuel and the hassle of driving yourself everyday.
Keep 2 liters of water and dry snacks in your vehicle. It will come handy if you are trapped in jams.
Try staggering office hours to reduce congestion in the Public Transport System.
Do not panic. Traffic Police is always there to help you. Call Traffic Police Control Room on Toll free No. 103
or Tel. No. 4219641, 4219642, 4227321, 4220060
Help others in distress - whenever & where ever possible.
8.2 Guidelines for Bus Commuters
Bus commuters should never board or de-board a moving bus. Maintaining a queue while boarding the bus will help
avoid unnecessary hustle and bustle and will also save time. Once inside the bus keep your calm avoid shouting or
making noise that would distract the driver, always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus, stay away from
the footboard of the bus and never put any part of the body outside a moving or stationary bus
Commuters should observe the following guidelines when traveling on the bus:
Commuters should not distract the bus driver while the bus in motion. All queries and requests are to be
directed to the bus driver prior to travel or at the end of the journey.
Commuters should conduct themselves in a respectable and responsible manner at all times ensuring that
their behavior does not endanger the comfort and safety of their fellow passengers or the bus driver.
The bus driver should not make any unscheduled stops in the course of travel.
Commuters who breach these guidelines or who in the opinion of the bus driver have not acted in a
responsible or respectable manner may be refused travel in the future.
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8.3 Guidelines for Car Drivers
Always carry your driving license & Blue Book with you while driving.
Don't Drink while Driving.
Don't drive under the influence of drugs.
Obey all traffic signals, lights and signs.
Use the indicator or hand signals when changing lanes.
Adhere to permitted speed limits.
Don't use your cell phone while driving. If you must, move to the left, halt and then make the call.
Irrespective of right of way, stay alert and be considerate to pedestrian especially senior citizens,
handicapped, ladies and children.
Do not overload your vehicles - be it luggage or passengers.
Do not use tinted glasses, lenses or visors or anything that restricts vision at night or in poor visibility
conditions.
Do not drink and drive as it adversely affects your judgment and abilities.
Wear seat belts.
Always drive using the correct gear.
Avoid sudden braking and harsh acceleration.
Never use the clutch as footrest while driving.
Do not overload your vehicle or trailer. Never tow greater weight than recommended by the
manufacturer of your vehicle.
Please ensure that all children under 14 years of age wear seat belts or sit in an approved child
restraint.
Driving in fatigue enhances the probability of an accident. To minimize this risk you must follow these
rules:
Make sure you are fit to drive. Do not undertake a long journey (longer than an hour) if you feel tired.
Avoid undertaking long journeys between midnight and early morning hours, when natural alertness is
at its worst.
Plan your journey in breaks. A minimum break of at least 15 minutes after every two hours of driving is
recommended.
If you feel sleepy, stop at a safe place. Do not stop on the hard shoulder of a motorway
The most effective ways to counter sleepiness are to take a short nap (up to 15 minutes) or drink, for
example, two cups of strong coffee. Fresh air, exercise or turning up the radio may help for a short
time, but are not as effective.
Children in cars. Drivers who are carrying children in cars should ensure that :
Children do not sit behind the rear seats in an estate car or hatchback, unless a special
child seat has been fitted.
The child safety door locks, where fitted, are used when children are in the car.
Children are kept under control.
A rear-facing baby seat is never fitted into a seat protected by an AIRBAG.
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8.4 Guidelines for Bus and Truck Drivers
Buses and Trucks fall under the category of heavy vehicle. They should be driven on the extreme left, speed
governors are mandatory for them and the maximum speed limit for buses and trucks is 40 KMPH. Buses and trucks
can never overtake any other vehicle. Bus drivers should drive their buses along the bus lane and should stop the
buses inside the bus box that is drawn near the bus stops. Other buses that are coming behind and are destined to
stop at this bus stop should stop behind the first bus in a line and wait for their turn. Under no circumstances can the
latter bus stand parallel to the former bus or overtake it.
8.4.1 Vehicle overloading & limiting size of the vehicle
Vehicle overloading are the most vulnerable for road blocks, accidents and cause of premature pavement failure. It
damages the road pavement which drag for more investment on rehabalitation and reconstruction that directly
increase road user cost. The safety issue also arises, since overloaded vehicle becomes less stable, difficult to steer
(manuevre) and will take longer to stop which result in the reduction of driver control on the overloaded vehicle and
enhancing the chances for an accident. Therefore, provision of the limiting size of the vehicle is necessary for the road
safety. Some provisions are mentioned in Public Roads Act 2031, Vehicle and Transport Management Act 2049,
Nepal Roads Board Act 2058, National Transport policy 2058, Twenty Year Road Plan 2001, Heavy Vehicle
management Policy.
8.4.2 Vehicle towing and loading
You must not tow more than your license permits you to.
You must not overload your vehicle or trailer. You should not tow a weight greater than that recommended by
the manufacturer of your vehicle.
You must secure your load and it must not stick out dangerously.
You should properly distribute the weight in your caravan or trailer with heavy items mainly over the axle(s)
and ensure a downward load on the tow ball. This should avoid the possibility of swerving or snaking and
going out of control. If this does happen, ease off the accelerator and reduce speed gently to regain control.

8.5 Guidelines for Motorcyclists
We can avoid accidents by following guidelines:
While driving always carry your driving license and important documents such as your vehicle
registration certificate.
MUST NOT carry more than one pillion rider and he/she MUST sit astride the machine on a proper seat
and should keep both feet on the footrests.
Make yourself as visible as possible from the sides as well as the front and rear. You could wear a white
or brightly coloured helmet. Wear fluorescent clothing or strips. Dipped headlights, even in good daylight,
may also make you more conspicuous.
You should be aware of what is behind and in the sides before maneuvering. Look behind you; use
mirrors if they are fitted.
Wear reflective clothing or strips to improve your chances of being seen in the dark.
Never Drink while driving
Follow the traffic signals, lights and signs
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Avoid using the cell phone when driving. If urgent move to left, stop and then take the call
Do not ride at high speeds. You may lose control and your life in the bargain
Always use a helmet
Do not ride or wheel your vehicle on to the footpath
Use your lights when riding at night
Understand the signals given by other road users and use the same when riding
Never stop abruptly in traffic. Move to the left and slow down
When passing a stationery vehicle allow sufficient clearance for the car doors which may open suddenly
Do not try and weave your way through stationery or slow moving traffic. It may cause accidents
Slow down at zebra crossing and if needs be stop
Always ride with both hands on the handlebar except when signaling
Don't sit children on fuel tanks or stand them in front of the rider
Avoid using brakes at turns. If needed, ensure both brakes are applied gently
MUST wear a protective helmet. Helmets MUST comply with the Regulations and they MUST be
fastened securely.
8.5.1 Facts about Helmet:
It should not obstruct vision.
It should not impair with hearing.
It should be light weight.
It should not cause fatigue which causes crashes.
It should not cause skin diseases.
It should not increase the probability of neck injuries.
8.5.2 Helmets to be used
It should have a thick padding of thermocole- at least 20 mm- which must extend to the sides of the head. A full face
helmet is safer by all means.
Components of the helmet and their roles:
The Shell: The shell of a helmet is an injection molded thermoplastic or a pressure molded thermoset that is
reinforced with glass fibers or made of fiber glass.
It absorbs energy in an impact: The shell bends when the helmet is impacted and the underlying foam
deforms. At moderate speeds the shell can take one-third of the impact energy.
It distributes local forces from an impact:- Rigid objects like stone or a projecting beam can cause a skull
fracture at low forces, the shell acts to distribute the force of such impact eliminating the risk of
penetration.
It allows sliding on road surfaces: The shell being rigid and having a convex shape allows the helmet to
slide along a road surface without there being an excessive force.
It protects the face and temples: Full-face helmet is beneficial in protecting the face and jaw. The chin
bar of such helmets contain rigid foam to absorb energy for direct blows on the chin, prevent facial bone
fractures and prevent the lower part of the forehead and temple being struck.
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 20

The foam liner: This is a molding of polystyrene beads or polyurethane foam. It provides a stopping distance for the
head. The foam can compress by 90% during an impact, although it recovers partially afterwards. But this helps
increase the stopping distance thus reducing the peak deceleration of the head. It also protects as much as possible
of the head.
Proper strapping system: It is essential to wear a well-fitting helmet for the effective working of chinstrap system. To
test if the helmet fits your head properly, tightly fasten the chinstrap and then pull helmet off forward by gripping the
rear and then pulling. The strap must be threaded correctly so that the buckle locks the strap when it is pulled from the
chin side. The strap must be pulled as tight as is bearable under the chin.
8.6 Guidelines for Cyclists
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8.7 Guidelines for Pedestrians
The most important safety tip to reduce pedestrian injuries and fatalities is to pay attention. You can significantly
reduce your chances of being in a collision with a motor vehicle by obeying traffic rules and being aware of dangers
posed by cars in your vicinity. Make eye contact with drivers if possible and make sure that they can see you.
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Pedestrians must:
Where possible, avoid walking next to the kerb with your back to the traffic. If you have to step into the
road, look both ways first.
Wear or carry something light coloured, bright or fluorescent in poor daylight conditions. When it is dark,
use reflective materials (e.g. armbands, sashes, waistcoats and jackets), which can be seen, by drivers
using headlights, up to three times as far away as non-reflective materials.
Young children should not be out alone on the pavement or road (see Rule 7). When taking children out,
walk between them and the traffic and hold their hands firmly. Strap very young children into push-chairs
or use reins.
Always walk on the footpath, they are meant for you. Where there is no footpath, walk in the right side
margin of the road so that you can see the traffic coming in the opposite direction.
Cross roads where there are pedestrian crossings. They have been painted at great cost for your
convenience.
Where there are no pedestrian crossings, watch the traffic on both sides and cross when it is safe.
You MUST NOT walk on motorways or slip roads except in an emergency
Never walk on the main carriageway, it could be fatal
Do not read newspapers or look at hoardings while walking on the road.
Do not greet friends on the road. Take them to the footpath or the side margin.
Do not come on to the main road while waiting for a bus. Stay on the footpath at earmarked bus
stoppage.
Where there are barriers, cross the road only at the gaps provided for pedestrians. Do not climb over the
barriers or walk between them and the road.
Do not run after a moving bus. Follow safety rules on the road and live long.
You MUST NOT get on to or hold on to a moving vehicle.
Don't "Drink and Walk." If you've been drinking, take a cab or a bus, or let someone sober drive you
home.
When walking at night, wear retro-reflective outdoor clothing or shoes or lights to make you more visible.
Avoid wearing dark clothing.
At all crossings. When using any type of crossing you should always check that the traffic has stopped
before you start to cross or push a pram onto a crossing. Always cross between the studs or over the
zebra markings. Do not cross at the side of the crossing or on the zig-zag lines, as it can be dangerous.
You MUST NOT loiter on zebra, pelican or puffin crossings.
We must follow the six-step crossing code whenever we have to cross the road:
THINK: What is a safe place to cross? Where can I see all the traffic properly? Make sure you are
not hidden behind a parked car.
STOP: At the edge of the road where you have decided to cross
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 22

LOOK and LISTEN: Look both ways, many time, to see if there is any traffic coming
WAIT: For all the traffic to pass, and for road to be clear
CROSS: Walk straight across the road
KEEP LOOKING and LISTENING: Keep looking in all directions as you cross the road until you get to
the other side
8.8 Guidelines for School Children
Children should be taught the safety code and should not be allowed on the road alone until they can understand and
follow it properly. Children learn by example, so parents and teachers should always follow the Code properly when
going out with their children. They are responsible for deciding at what age children can use it safely by them. The
advice given below on crossing the road is especially for children.
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8.8.1 While Walking to School
Always walk on the footpath only. On roads without footpath, walk on the extreme right hand side of the
roads.
Do not be impatient on the road. Do not rush or run on the road.
Cross only at Zebra crossings, traffic signals, subways, foot over-bridges. Where such facilities do not
exist, look for a safe place to cross.
At the signal lights, cross only on a clear green signal. If an intersection is controlled by a policeman,
traffic warden, cross only when he signals you to do so.
When crossing between vehicles parked on the side of the road, remember that you are not visible to the
moving traffic (because the parked vehicles may be taller than you). Stop as you appear from behind the
vehicle and look for a safe gap before crossing. Remember, drivers need plenty of time to see you and
to slow down and stop.
While crossing wide roads that have central islands, always cross in two stages. Cross to the central
Island, stop, and cross when the next section is clear.
While crossing one-way streets, remember that the traffic will usually be moving in a number of lanes
and at higher speeds. Do not cross unless all lanes are clear.
Never cross a road at a corner/curve, as the motorist will taking the turn not be able to see you in time.
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 23

Running across the road is a bad idea, as you may slip and fall.
8.8.2 While going by bus
Leave home well in time, so that you won't have to run to catch the bus.
At the bus stand, always follow the queue. Board the bus only after it has come to a halt, without rushing
in or pushing others.
While in the bus, shouting or making a noise is definitely bad manners. Such behavior can also distract
the driver.
Do not board or alight at a bus stop other than the one decided by the school. Never board and alight at
a red light crossing or unauthorized bus stop.
Always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus, especially on sharp turns.
Do not sit, stand or travel on the footboard of the bus.
Do not put any part of your body outside a moving or stationary bus.
Always adhere to the bus safety rules.
8.8.3 Guidelines for parents of school children
Parents are equally responsible for the safety of their children during school journeys.
They must ensure that the mode of transport arranged by school or by themselves is absolutely safe.
Parents must play the role of vigilant observers. They should note down violations committed by school
buses and immediately report to the authorities.
Parents must participate in meetings and discuss the safety aspects of their children.
While taking their children to school themselves, they should take proper care of their safety.
Parents must ensure that the children acquire the right knowledge and skills for safe use of roads. They
should teach their children the basic rules of the road, how to walk and cross the road, how to alight and
board a bus etc.
Parents should not allow their minor children to drive.
Parents must also ensure that the right attitude for a law abiding citizen is imparted to their children by
the family.
Children are very good observers and therefore, parents must set an example by meticulously observing
even small traffic rules.
Remember safety of children must be the foremost priority of every parent.
8.8.4 Guidelines for teachers for ensuring safety of school children
It is the responsibility of school authorities and the teachers to ensure the safety of school children and also to impart
the necessary knowledge, skills and attitude to be a safe road user.
Teachers should help develop a responsible attitude towards road use in school children.
Teachers should impart essential knowledge about roads and traffic to school children, by:
Making them familiar with the rules of road and their importance.
By explaining them the causes of accidents involving pedestrians, cyclists and children.
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 24

Telling them about the cause and extent of pollution due to traffic.
Children come to school in various modes of transport. Teachers should ensure that:
The children enter and leave the school safely.
There is no conflict between pedestrians and vehicles.
The vehicles including school buses are parked safely and properly.
Children should be supervised and taken care of at the time of alighting and boarding the school bus.
Every school bus must be accompanied by a teacher for controlling the children and the bus driver.
The teacher should arrange for an alternate bus and keep the children together at one place if the school
bus fails to arrive or if there is any problem.
There should be regular checking of school buses to ensure compliance with mandatory safety
requirements.
If any school bus or any conveyance, by which children come to school, violates traffic rules,
the teachers should inform about it to their principal or Traffic Police Control Room at Tel. Nos. 103
8.9 Situations needing extra care
Emergency vehicles: If an ambulance, fire engine, police or other emergency vehicle approaches using flashing blue
lights, headlights and/or sirens, keep off the road.
Buses: Get on or off a bus only when it has stopped to allow you to do so. Watch out for cyclists when you are getting
off. Never cross the road directly behind or in front of a bus; wait until it has moved off and you can see clearly in both
directions.
8.10 Request from Traffic Police for Road Users
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9 Safety Tips for Drivers
The drivers of vehicle should:
Not drive a motor vehicle, unless it is in fit Mechanical and Technical condition, and fulfills the
required criteria of a technically fit car as per rule.
Observe the speed limits as indicated by an appropriate sign.
Give appropriate light or manual signals before starting, stopping, slowing down turning or changing
lanes, clearly, correctly and well in time as laid down in the sixth schedule.
Not drive a vehicle without wearing a seatbelt and properly functioning lights and indicators.
Ensure that the view through the rear-view mirror is not obstructed in any way.
Keep the rear screen of the vehicle, if installed, clear all the times.
While following the other vehicle maintain the appropriate distance as per speed.
Drive with full attention and care.
Not attempt to gain a forward position by jumping the queue.
Give way to ambulance, fire engine, police vehicles and funerals.
Not cross a single or double unbroken continues line marked on the road in any circumstances
except when getting on or out of the premises.
Not use indicators un-necessarily.
Always overtake by following the rules and regulations.
Not occupy the extreme right lane for overtaking purpose on a three-lane road with two-way traffic.
Break of Journey for 20 Minutes after 3 hours continuous drive.
9.1 Driving in heat
Use coolant instead of water in radiator.
Keep an eye on the temperature gauge.
Over heating can lead to engine seizure
9.2 In case of engine over heating
Don't switch off the engine.
Pour water on the radiator.
Don't open the radiator cap
9.3 Speed limits
Do not exceed speed limits.
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 27

Reduce speed near schools and hospitals.
Reduce speed in residential/shopping areas.
Reduce speed at night and in bad weather.
Maximum Speed Limits are for mechanically fit vehicles. If your vehicle is old please drive within suitable
limit.
9.4 Seat Belts
Seatbelts protects in the event of sudden application of brakes or in case of an accident.
9.5 Helmet
Use approved Safety Helmet.
Wear it securely
The driver and the pillion rider must wear it for their safety.
9.6 Overloading
Damage to vehicle.
Cause accidents.
Cause damage to road.
9.7 Check the POWER before going on Road
P-Petrol.
O-Oil.
W-Water
E-Electric
R-Rubber (Tires & Belts)
9.8 Over Hanging Loads
Keep load within the dimensions of the vehicle.
Mark ends of the load with red flags by day.
Mark ends of the load with red lights and reflectors by night.
9.9 Driving in Foggy Weather
There is a manifold increase in the number of accidents during the foggy season.
Before traveling do think that your journey is absolutely necessary, if "NO" than postpone it and if "YES" than
delay it as much as possible.
Ensure that windscreen, windows, side view mirrors, headlights and brake lights of the vehicle are in proper
working order.
Fix fog lamps to the front and rear of your vehicle in order to have extra protection.
Be vigilant and visible.
While driving in foggy weather keep your head lights on "LOW BEAM". High beams cause dispersion of light
which reduce visibility.
When visibility is down to a minimum you should turn "ON" the fog lamps and when it improves you should
turn them "OFF".
Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 28

In foggy weather constantly use the defogging heater and the rear wind screen defogger.
Do not use the tail lights of the vehicle in front of you as a guiding beacon/path finder. Keep a reasonable
distance between yourself and the vehicle in front.
If the vehicle in front is visible to you and your speed is also considerable, it would mean that you are
dangerously close to the vehicle in front.
When reducing speed in foggy weather use the brakes with caution, so that the vehicle coming behind you
may have ample time and warning to reduce their speed also.
Do not park on road. If inevitable, park away from the road.
10 Road Safety Suggestions
The important thing is to stay alert at all times while using the roads and must know what is happening around us. In
that way necessary action can be taken to avoid danger. Road safety is very much up to how we use the roads. Use
them carefully and we may be able to use them for a long time. Use them carelessly and we may never be able to use
them again. Here are few road safety suggestions listed which will guide us in road safety.
Safety awareness should begin from childhood, as it is difficult to impart awareness to a grown up human. If
safety awareness is imparted in childhood itself, safety will become a habit.
Video and Computer games involving Motor Racing should be controlled / banned by Government or
discouraged by parents as it will develop racing habit in children.
Children below a certain age should not be permitted to do cycling in busy roads and in roads where heavy
vehicles are plying.
Road Safety should be a topic for School Projects. Road Safety Week should be observed in all Schools.
Competitions on Road Safety Tips, Slogans, Essays, and Paintings etc. should be conducted.
Advertisement boards and other items that may obstruct visibility at junctions, turnings and other parts of the
roads should be removed immediately.
Obstructions on road side, caused by unauthorised construction and road side sales should be eliminated
completely.
Visibility should be increased near turnings. Sometimes, even cutting of grass to increase visibility can help
save many lives.





Manual for Public Awareness Campaign/STEP Page no. 29

11 References
1. Victoria's Road Safety Education Action Plan, 2012- 2013, Australia, 2013
2. Manual for designing, implementing and evaluating Road Safety Communication Campaign, Patricia
Delhomme, Werner De Dobbeleer, Sonja Forward, Anabela Simes; Project co-financed by the
European Commission Directorate-General Energy and Transport
3. Nepal Traffic Police: Public awareness campaign materials
4. Road Safety Manual for decision makers and practitioners: Safety belt and children restraints:
Global Road Safety Partnership-2007
5. Road Safety Manual for decision makers and practitioners: Speed management: Global Road
Safety Partnership-2007
6. Road Safety Manual for decision makers and practitioners: helmets: Global Road Safety
Partnership-2007
7. manual for design, implementation and evaluation (abridged version)
8. Road Safety Manual for decision makers and practitioners: drinking and driving: Global Road Safety
Partnership-2007
9. Road Safety Manual for decision makers and practitioners: pedestrian: Global Road Safety
Partnership-2008