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5 Access Points for Rigorous Text by Kristen Anderson Using the Text: Pictures of Hollis Woods

Title: Pictures of Hollis Woods Author: Patricia Reilly Giff Publisher: Thorndike Press, Waterville, Maine Publication Date: 2002

Lexile: 650L Guided Reading: V DRA: 50 Grade Level Equivalent: 4.5

Introduction

Patricia Reilly Giffs novel follows the story of young Hollis Woods, an orphaned child who has been passed through multiple foster families. When the novel opens, Hollis is being placed with Josie Cahale after running away from the Regans, the family she had hoped to become a part of. Hollis is happy with Josie, but soon realizes that Josies memory is fading. Hollis is forced to take over the role of caretaker. As Holliss story with Josie unfolds, we are offered a glimpse of her life with the Regans through the description of pictures Hollis has drawn of her time there. When the social worker grows aware of Josies failing memory, Hollis, desperate to stay with Josie, decides the two of them must run away. The only place she knows to run to is the Regans summer home which sits empty during the winter. This text offers an intriguing story with challenging elements that I think would stretch the abilities of fourth grade students. While the lexile level is below the typical range for fourth grade, the story structure is sufficiently complex to challenge most readers of this age. The novel is told in two modes, the first person narrative of Hollis during her stay with Josie, and the description of Holliss pictures and the stories that surround them. Students will have to navigate the two story telling formats as well as the different time frames they represent in order to make meaning of the text. Access Point #1: Purpose and Modeling Modeling reading behaviors and setting a purpose for reading make up the first access point for students reading complex texts. Students need to be made aware of the thinking that readers do when working to understand a text. Teachers need to model the processes that expert readers use, anticipating areas that students will struggle with in order to focus in on those skills. Setting a purpose for the lesson, makes expectations clear for students and concentrates their attention on the skill so that they can get the most out of the lesson. Access Point #1 is supported by Metacognitive Theory (Flavell, 1976). Metacognitive Theory involves thinking about your cognitive process and understanding what leads you to certain thoughts. Through modeling, teachers clearly demonstrate the thought processes they work through as readers. Students can then apply these processes to their own reading. Students are also given the opportunity to practice thinking aloud about what they are doing while they read and how they make meaning of text.

Planning for Purpose and Modeling Assessed Need: I noticed the students in my class need to work on making inferences about a character based on details from the text. Standards: RL 4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL 4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions). Text I will use: Pictures of Hills Woods, First Picture

Materials needed for this lesson are: class set of books or a single copy projected by a document camera chart paper with a T-chart for recording information about the character and the details from the text that the information was drawn from Purpose of this lesson is: Use the details in a text to make inferences about a character Model As we read today our purpose is to use details in the text to make inferences about the narrator, Hollis Woods. I am going to read the first section of the book aloud to you and share my thoughts about what the details tell me about Hollis. I am going to record what I learned about Hollis and the details from the text on this t-chart. read paragraph 1 This section is titled First Picture and Hollis is describing a picture she cut out for school when she was six. This makes me think that this happened in the past and she must be older than that now. I wonder if Hollis is going to describe other pictures later in the book. read paragraph 2-4 So Hollis picked a picture of a family to go with the letter w. She says that is stands for wish or want. This makes me think that Hollis must not have a family and that having one is her greatest wish. (record wants a family on the chart across from the detail, cut out a picture of a family to show her want or wish) read paragraph 5-6 Wow! Hollis was really upset by what the little girl said. It wasnt very nice, but Hollis seems really angry to have ruined the little girls picture. I wonder if Hollis is often angry. (Add angry to the chart with ruined girls picture) While I read the rest of this section aloud, I want you to listen for more details that give us clues about Hollis. read aloud the rest of the section, pausing after paragraph 10 to ask questions and again at the end of the section. Scaffold What clues do you see in this section? What does this detail tell us about Hollis? What surprises you about how Hollis acts in this section? Assess Students share some of their thinking with the teacher at the breaks. Students are given the opportunity to turn and talk about what detail they noticed and what clue it gives them about Hollis. The teacher listens to get an idea of who is grasping the skill and who is still struggling. Practice This skill will be revisited throughout the text as students add to the chart. Skill practice can also be continued in small group.

Planning for Purpose and Modeling Assessed Need: I noticed the students in my class need to work on making inferences based on what they read in the text

Standards: RL 4.1: Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. Text I will use: Pictures of Hollis Woods, last two paragraphs of page 42 to end of chapter 3. Materials needed for this lesson are: class set of books or a single copy projected by a document camera Purpose of this lesson is: Make inferences about character and justify them with evidence from the text. Model Early in this chapter Hollis tells us that something is wrong with Josie, she is forgetful. What evidence of this have we had earlier in the text? I am going to read the last section of this chapter aloud to you and share my thinking as I try to make some inferences about what is going on with Josie and how Hollis is feeling about it. read at the bottom of page 42, starting with Afterward we walked home to ...he didnt attack on page 43. As I read this section, I am thinking that Hollis is really starting to feel at home with Josie. She is saying how she doesnt mind Henry anymore, I think this is a clue that she wants to stay where she is.. read from But we can have Christmas to ...dance in the street. When I read this part, it makes me think about what we know about Josie, about her being forgetful. Hollis is supposed to be in school the next day, but they are out going to movies. Josie is spinning and dancing in the icy rain, this doesnt seem like something most adults would do, I wonder if the author is showing us Josies playful spirit, or if this has something to do with her forgetfulness. read to the end of the chapter Hollis says she comforted herself, if she needs to feel comforted it makes me think that she is feeling worried about Josie and the way she is acting. In the last paragraph, when she is talking to Stephen in her head, it sounds like she is trying to convince herself that everything is alright. I think this is a clue that she does not really feel like everything is going to be alright or that this life with Josie is enough. Because I know that Josie is getting forgetful and Hollis is feeling worried about it, it makes me wonder whether or not Hollis will be able to stay with Josie and whether Josie is really able to take care of Hollis. As we continue to read, I want you to look for clues in the text that tell us how Hollis is feeling about life with Josie and whether or not they will be able to stay together. Scaffold How do you think Hollis is feeling here? What evidence from the text tells you that? What evidence do we have that something is wrong with Josie? Assess As students continue to read, students should record their thoughts about Hollis and Josie and their life together, as well as evidence from the text to support it. These charts can be used to inform the teacher of what the students are noticing and what inferences they are making. Practice Practice with this skill can be continued as student read the The Time with Josie chapters.

Access Point #2: Close and Scaffolded Reading Close and scaffolded reading both offer important access points for students reading complex texts. Close reading involves the use of short passages containing particularly challenging components. Students are expected to read these passages multiple times, attending to specific aspects of the text. The goal of close reading is for students to attend closely to what the text says. Limited pre-reading information and text dependent questions help students to focus on the print, rather than their own connections to the information. Scaffolded reading is conducted in small groups and involves the explicit instruction of a skill based on an assessed need. During scaffolded instruction, teachers support readers through an aspect of a text they would not be able to conquer independently. Access Point #2 connects to several reading theories and general ideas found in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Kinschs (1998) Construction Integration Theory can be related to close reading because of the importance it places on students interacting with and making meaning from the text. The theory of the Gradual Release of Responsibility can also be connected to close and scaffolded reading instruction because of the support that teachers are providing during these activities through text dependent questions and explicit instruction around areas of assessed need. This access point also clearly aligns with the goals of the CCSS to increase student focus on the details of the text as evidenced through the standards for Reading Literature and Reading Informational Texts. Passage: Last paragraph on page 157 to bottom of page 159 I chose this passage for several reasons. It serves as a turning point in the story, where Hollis realizes the loving relationship between the father and son in the Regan family that she had not noticed before. This revelation, leads Hollis to the conclusion that she did not have to leave the Regans after all. Because this is revealed to Hollis through her drawings, it requires the reader to infer what the pictures mean about the relationship, and what the relationship means to Hollis, making it a somewhat difficult passage. Frontloading: I would introduce this close reading activity by saying something like, At this point, Hollis is not sure what to do. She wants Josie to be happy and taken care of, she is beginning to realize that she cannot do this by herself. In this section she is looking over pictures as she thinks about what she needs to do. We have learned a lot about Hollis through her pictures, look for what she will learn from them in this section. Students should already know this from previous reading, but these thoughts will help to focus them in on the text without giving too much away. Text Dependent Questions: What did Beatrice mean when she said Sometimes we learn from our own drawings; things are there that we thought we didnt know? What do Hollis drawings tell her about Josie? About Steven and the Old Man? What details revealed to Hollis the truth about Steven and the Old Mans relationship?

What do you think Hollis is thinking when she remembers Steven saying, What do you know about a family?...Youve never had one.? How does the author show us that Hollis is having a revelation as she looks at the pictures?

After Reading Task: After completing the close reading of this passage, students will write an opinion piece answering the question, What will Hollis do now that she has had this revelation? The paper should reference the text in telling what choices she will likely make and why. I would introduce this activity by saying: We have just read a pivotal passage in this text. Hollis has a revelation about what Josie needs, as well as about the relationship between Steven and the Old Man that caused her to run away to begin with. Hollis is considering what she should do now, I want each of you to consider this same question. Based on what we know about Hollis, what do you think will be her next moves? I want you each to write an opinion piece, telling me what you believe Hollis will do next and why. Be sure to include reasons from the text that support your predictions of what her actions are likely to be.

Access Point #3: Collaborative Conversations Collaborative conversations are a key component in providing students access to complex texts. Students need the opportunity to work through their thoughts out loud and to learn from the through process of their peers. Activities such as literature circles and socratic seminars offer just such an opportunity. Collaborative conversations provides students with a time to practice their academic language while working through their own metacognitive process and how it compares to others. Students must be instructed in the expectations for collaborative conversations and clear accountability measures should be in place to ensure that students are getting the most out of the experience and attending to the purpose. Several connections can be clearly made between Access Point 3, reading theory, and the CCSS. Collaborative conversations can play an important role in helping students to achieve the speaking and listening standards found in the CCSS. Conversations require students to prepare for discussion on a topic and to make references to a text as a part of those discussions, both components found in the speaking and listening standards. Collaborative conversations also encourage students to think aloud about their thought processes as described in Flavells (1976) Metacognitive Theory and to build meaning as a part of a group as in Vygotskys Theory of Social Constructivism. Discussion Round Table: to be completed after reading chapters 8 and 9 of The Time with Josie, in which Hollis decides that she will run away with Josie to the Regans summer cabin after the social worker informs her that she has found another home placement for her. During chapter 9, they make their get away. The students will hold a discussion round table in goups of four to talk about what they think of Holliss plan to run away with Josie. They will be required to read the chapters ahead of time

and plan out their argument in answer to the question Did Hollis do the right thing, running away with Josie?. In their argument, they should use evidence from the text to justify their answer. As a part of the discussion round table, one student will share and other students will then contribute to the conversation by agreeing, disagreeing, or asking clarifying questions based on their own arguments. They will use sentence frames such as: I agree with ______________ because _________________. I disagree about ________________ because _________________. Can you say more about ___________________________. What evidence leads you to say __________________________. Accountability Measure: Group: Figure 4.3 from Rigorous Reading Students will record notes about their own argument before beginning, then summarize the points of their group members as the discussion progresses. This measure holds students accountable for listening to their group members and synthesizing the information gathered. Independent: Students will complete the following self assessment, adapted from figure 4.4 of Rigorous Reading.

I read the text and prepared my argument ahead of time. I used details from the text to support my argument. I listened to the the ideas of others. I contributed to the discussion by commenting or asking questions I did my fair share of the work My best contribution was:

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

For next time, I need to improve on:

Based on this assessment, I give myself a grade of _________________. Access Point #4: An Independent Reading Staircase Independent reading is vital in student development as readers of complex texts. Students need access to slightly easier complex texts than what is being used for instruction and time to spend reading these texts. Independent reading provides students with an opportunity to practice the skills they have been learning during instructional time and increases the amount of time students spend engaging with text. As a part of independent reading students conference with the teacher to set goals and to monitor their progress. Students are also responsible for some type of reading response related to their reading goals. Connections can be drawn between Access Point 4, the CCSS, and Guthries Reading Engagement Theory. Independent reading offers students the opportunity to increase their time in grade level texts as called for in the CCSS Standard 10 and provides them with a wide range of complex texts at their level. The individualized nature of independent reading, which includes an element of choice and personal goal setting can build a sense of self-regulation in students that leads to an increase in confidence and engagement.

Book List: Cover Title and Bibliographic Info. Eleven, by Patricia Reilly Giff, published by Wendy Lamb Books, 2008, New York Readability Grade Level Equivalent: 3.3 Lexile: 600L

Theres a Boy in the Girls Bathroom, Louis Sachar, published by Yearling, 1987, New York

Grade Level Equivalent: 5.5 Lexile: 490L GRL: Q

The Road to Paris, by Nikki Grimes, published by Putnam Children, 2006, New York

Grade Level Equivalent: 3.7 Lexile: 700L

The Pinballs by Betsy Byars, published by Harper & Row, 1977, New York

Grade Level Equivalent: 4.9 Lexile: 600L GRL: S

Bluish, by Virginia Hamilton, published by Blue Sky Press, 1999, New York

Grade Level Equivalent: 5.5 Lexile: 460L GRL:S

Because of Winn Dixie, by Kate DiCamillo, published by Candlewick Press, 2000, Cambridge, MA

Grade Level Equivalent: 4.1 Lexile: 610L GRL: R

The Great Gilly Hopkins, by Katherine Patterson, published by Crowell, 1978, New York

Grade Level Equivalent: 5.3 Lexile: 800L GRL: S

Joey Pigza Loses Control, by Jack Gantos, published by Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2000, New York

Grade Level Equivalent: 5.2 Lexile: 800L GRL: T

Three Monitoring Activities: Reading Log: providing a simple format for students to keep a record of their independent reading Comment Card: Students can record notes on details that tell them something about the main characters Reflection Journals: all of these texts include vivid characters that the students will hopefully connect with, reflection journals are an excellent format for students to explore these connections and their thoughts on the experiences of the characters Follow up Activity for Theres a Boy in the Girls Bathroom

Create a graphic organizer showing changes in the characters behavior throughout the story as he moves from a lonely, underachieving bully to a friendly, more confident student. The graphic organizer should include details from the text that support each of the points.

Access Point #5: Demonstrating Understanding & Assessing Performance After the completion of reading tasks, it is important to assign a final activity that relates back to the reading. The task be as complex as the text students have been reading should require students to make use of the text in completing them. These final tasks serve as an assessment that informs the teacher of the strengths and weaknesses of individuals and of the class as a whole. As a part of the assessment process, it is necessary for teachers to provide meaningful feedback that will help the students to continue to develop. The types of assessment tasks suggested for the fifth Access Point draw connections between the reading standards and the other ELA strands. Suggested activities involving the use of writing and discussion as a method for student to demonstrate understanding of the text. This aligns well with the CCSS for ELA, which clearly call for a connection between the various aspects of literacy: reading, writing, speaking and listening. This type of assessment also provides an authentic response to literature as suggested by Deweys Theory of Inquiry Learning. After Reading Activity: RAFT Students will select between the following RAFT writing prompts as their after reading activity. R- Steven A- Hollis F- Friendly Letter T- Write to Hollis while she is staying at the summer house telling her what you think she should do and providing reasons. Be sure to refer to specific details in the text

R- Hollis A- Beatrice F- Friendly letter T- Write a letter to Beatrice explaining why you chose to run away with Josie and what you plan to do now. Refer to specific details in the text. Successful completion of the activity will include the following components: Clearly written from the point of view of the character you chose Includes details from the text that connect to the task Formatting follows that of a friendly letter Correct spelling and grammar

Moving Beyond the Text: Consider the decisions Hollis made in the text when she chose to run away with Josie. We have discussed many good reasons for what she did, as well as the dangers involved. If you had been there with Hollis, when she was deciding to run away, what would you have told Hollis to do? What would you have done? Write a letter to Hollis telling her what you think of her decision to run away. Explain what you would have done differently if you had been in her shoes or what she did that you agree with. Use details to explain your point of view. Successful completion of the activity will include the following components: Thoughtful consideration of Holliss actions and the pros and cons of them Focused explanation of how the student would have behaved in Holliss situation Details explaining why they would have acted that way Correct formatting for a letter Correct spelling and grammar

Text Selections

Access Point #1, Selection 1

Access Point #1, Selection 2

Access Point #2