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INTER-LINK COMMUNICATION

JUAN RODRIGUEZ

1. GNSS Calibrated cross-link ranges and cross-link clocks observables are the GNSS+ observables, processed by the GNSS+ orbit and clock determination functions. It is feasible, using a single-dierence scheme with every couple of satellites a and b, to provide observation equations where orbit and clock variables are separated and only combinations of group delays aect them. In order to remove group delay eects from the orbit observation equation, a double-dierences scheme is built. However, the group delay eects of the clock observation equations can not be removed by building double-dierences. The process to derive the calibrated cross-link ranges is as follows: SV a (space vehicle a) sends a PRN (pseudorandom noise) code to SV b at time tpa . PRN code is modulated onto carrier fs . Almost simultaneously, SV b sends the PRN code to SV a at time tpb . The PRN code is also modulated onto carrier fs . Both space vehicles send their last chip at a time tmax after their rst transmission; tpa + tmax and tpb + tmax . The rst chip start transition of each space vehicle is received by the other space vehicle at time tpb + tpb in case of the SV a and at time tpa + tpa in case of the SV b . The reception of the last chip end transition takes place at a time tmax after the reception of the rst chip start transition. It must to be borne in mind that the PRN is common to all satellite pairs, that only satellite pairs with a propagation time above 50 ms are considered, that the space vehicles can not transmit and receive at the same time and that the tracking of the received signal is very accurate. The derived pseudo range observables by both space vehicles, obey the following observation equations:
b b pb a (tpb + tpb + tmax ) = da (tpb + tpb + tmax ) + C (tpb + tmax ) Ca (tpb + tpb + b RX tmax ) + HT X (tpb + tmax ) Ha (tpb + tpb + tmax ) + a b (tpb + tpb + tmax ) a a pa b (tpa +tpa +tmax ) = db (tpa +tpa +tmax )+ C (tpa +tmax ) Cb (tpa +tpa + a (t + t RX b tmax ) + HT max ) Hb (tpa + tpa + tmax ) + a (tpa + tpa + tmax ) X pa 1

JUAN RODRIGUEZ

Where: d is the distance travelled by the last chip end transition of the PRN signal transmitted. C is the on board clock error. H is the code-phase signal hardware delay, within the SV payload. is the one way observable error. The original equation had ionospheric a tropospheric elements, but for what concerns the space segment, it has been decided to avoid communications that will cross the ionosphere. Rewriting the equations using the equations for the derived doppler observables by the space vehicles and considering the denition of the doppler observable, we get the observation oa b:
b a a RX a oa b = db (tp ) + C (tp tpa ) Cb (tp ) + HT X (tp ) Hb (tp ) + a (tp )

Where tp tpb + tpb + tmax .


a Each pair observations ob a and ob yields to:

An almost purely geometry observable, ogab (tp ), by means of a transformation that under the assumption of an on-board atomic frequency standard with a worst Allan variance better than 5.1013 in 100 s), and supposing that the deterministic model of the clock known a priori with an accuracy almost equal to that expected from the Galileo Ground Mission Segment, the observation ogab (tp ) turns into an o gab (tp ) observation which obeys the next equation: o gab (tp )
a db a (tp )+db (tp ) 2

b (t )H RX (t ) HT p X p b 2

a (t )H RX (t ) HT p a X p 2

+ + (tp )

a Where the last term of the equation is the average between b a (tp ) and b (tp ). This observable is a cross-link range, ionosphere-free, troposphere-free, on boardclocks free, aected by a slow varying inclination, aected by residual multipath and aected by receiver noise.

An almost purely geometry observable, ocab (tp ), by means of a transformation that under the assumption of being the orbit known a priori with an accuracy almost equal to that expected from the Galileo Ground Mission Segment, the travelled distance terms of the observation can be compensated and the observation turns into an o cab (tp ) observation which obeys the next equation:

INTER-LINK COMMUNICATION

o cab (tp ) =

H b (t )+H RX (t ) C b (tp tpb )+Cb (tp ) C a (tp tpa )+Ca (tp ) + + TX p 2 b p 2 2 a (t )+H RX (t ) b (t )a (t ) HT p a X p + a p 2 b p 2

If now we suppose that the on-board frequency standard has an stability similar to that in the Galileo spacecrafts, and assuming the deterministic model of this clock known a priori with an accuracy almost equal to that expected from the Galileo Ground Mission Segment, the previous observation will turn into: b (tp ) + C a (tp ) + o cab (tp ) = C
b (t )+H RX (t ) HT p X p b 2

a (t )+H RX (t ) HT p a X p 2

+ (tp )

a Where the last term of the equation is the semi-dierence between b a (tp ) and b (tp ). This observable is a cross-link clock ionosphere-free, troposphere-free and geometryfree, aected by a slow changing inclination, and by tiny levels of residual multipath. It has the same statistically level of noise as the o gab (tp ).

The described derivation of cross-link-range and cross-link-clock observables can be extrapolated to satellite-to-ground-station pairs. A couple of satellites can be replace by two ground stations in order to get the measurements. In this case, the tropospheric term cannot be avoided. In the orbit estimation process, in the framework of the Nominal Scenario, the tropospheric term will be introduced among the estimation parameter, while in the Autonomous Scenario it will be treated as a considered bias. Clock errors only are not enough to achieve a simplied relationship in the case of clock determination. Therefore, the eect of the GSS(ground station) clock from the observations can be removed by using single dierences, and group delays can be estimated or considered as biases within the estimation process. It has been determined that each spacecraft will try to contact with all the other spacecraft and all the ground stations sequentially, without taking in account the visibility conditions. This is not optimal in the sense of time consumption, but it allows instantaneous pre-processing of two one-way range measurements per pair of transmitter/receiver. The time-interval available to perform all the range measurements and all the necessary communications was set to ve minutes, for ranging it was set 100 seconds and 200 seconds for communications; which means that the orbit and clock determination processes are not continuous.