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A Study of broad band internet servicesmarkrt in Ghazipur city RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT

Submitted to

Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, Jaunpur


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of Degree of
BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

Submitted by:
NEERAJ KUMAR MISHRA

Under the Supervision of:


Mr.KARUNENDRA PRATAPSINGH

BBA.6th Semester Roll No.00983 Enrollment No.-PU08/1491

Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration

2011

Technical Education & Research Institute


Post-Graduate College, Ravindrapuri Ghazipur-233001

Certificate

This is to certify that -Neeraj Kumar Mishra Pursuing BBA6th Semester from this institute, A Study has of prepared broad band the research project in report entitled city

internet

servicesmarkrt

Ghazipur

in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration from Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, Jaunpur during the session 2010-2011. This report is based on research project undertaken by Neeraj Kumar Mishra under my supervision during the course of forth semester and fulfills the requirements of regulations relating to the nature and standard of BBA course of V.B.S. Purvanchal University. I recommend that this project report may be sent for evaluation.

Rahul Anand Singh


Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of Business Administration

Mr. KARUNENDRA PRATAP SINGH Assistant professor Dept. of Business Administration

Declaration
I , Neeraj Kumar Mishra, hereby declare that this research project report entitled A Study of broad band internet servicesmarket in Ghazipur city has been prepared by me on the basis o f survey done during the course of my forth semester of BBA programmed under the supervision of
PRATAPSINGH

Mr.

KARUNENDRA

Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, TERI, Ghazipur.

This research project report is my bonafide work and has not been submitted in any form to any University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma prior to the under mentioned date. I bear the entire responsibility of submission of this project report on
10th MAY 2011 BBA 6th semester Department of Business Administration Technical Education & Research Institute P.G. College, Ghazipur

INDEX OF CONTENT

Content
Preface Acknowledgement 1. Introduction 2. Research Methodology 3. Data Analysis & Interpretation 4. Finding & Recommendations 5. Conclusion 6. Annexure 7. Bibliography & References (01-02) (03-04) (06-32) (44-53) (55-70) (71-72) (74-75) (77-78) (80)

PREFACE

As a student of B.B.A. (Bachelor of Business Administration), one of the most reputed professional courses, I have to undergo for the dissertation in this semester. The attractive feature of the B.B.A. course is that along with theory we also get to have the exposure of the practical environment. The topic for my dissertation is A Study of broad band internet servicesmarkrt in Ghazipur city The Project Report revolves around the broad band program of broad band

SERVICES Company and their effectiveness in brand. The objectives are predefined and the task is to accomplish them. The study was confined geographically to selected areas of Ghazipur city . The potential respondents are the home base consumers and the industrial consumers, who have commercial use for the product. The whole process during the report is well planned; the primary data collection is done from the respondents. After deciding the topic, I went to field and took survey of several broad band servicesand customers. This Project Report has been divided into seven chapters. This survey is divided into forth chapters. Each chapter has its own relevance and importance. The chapters are divided and defined in a logical, systematic and scientific manner to coFver every nook and corner of the topic. In the first chapter Introductory stage of this survey report is based on introduction of the of brodband services,company profile, its objective, importance, scope & limitation.

Second chapter dealt with Research Methodology. The process of carrying out the whole research problem is defined in it. Third chapter : data analysis and interprestion has been coverd in third chapter Fourth chapter in fourth chapter deals with finding and recommendation. Fifth Chapter in chapter 5 concousion is coverd which is the necessary part of the report Sixth chapter report and in chapter sixth annexure has been cover in which we so questionare the

NEERAJ KUMAR MISHRA


BBA 6th Semester Department of Business Administration Technical Education & Research Institute P.G. College, Ghazipur

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A project is never the sole product of a person whose name has appeared on the cover. Even the best effort may not prove successful without proper guidance. For a good project one needs proper time, energy, efforts, patience, and knowledge. But without any guidance it remains unsuccessful. I have done this project with the best of my ability and hope that it will serve its purpose. First of all I wish to express my indebtness to Mr.AJAY KUMAR MAURYA (S D O) B S N L broad band who inspire of his very busy schedule never hesitated in guiding me towards the right direction and was at my rescue whenever I needed him. Secondly, I would like to acknowledge the guidance given to me by Mr Rahul Anand Singh Head of the department, B B A, also their valuable that they gave me when I approached them. I am really a great learning experience and I am really thankful to Mr. Arif Sultan , who not only helped me in the successful completion of this report but also spread his precious and valuable time in expanding my knowledge base.

I also my express my gratitude to one of the faculty member Mr. Karunendra Pratap Singh who support me not only physically but also morally and this is the result of his great effort towards me.

After the completion of this Project I feel myself as a well aware person about the Research Procedure and the complexities that can arose during the process. Also I get an insight of the advertising industry and its effectiveness in promoting sales. Last but not the least; I would like to thank my parents and my brother for the immense support that they gave me. Although they were not physically present with me, but there caring words on phone calls refreshed my mind and gave me a new zeal to move on.

NEERAJ KUMAR MISHRA


BBA 6th Semester Department of Business Administration
Technical Education & Research Institute

P.G. College, Ghazipur

A Brief History of Broadband

The history of broadband is the history of the Internet, which went from an experiment to a trillion-dollar, worldwide industry in 30 years. The Internet preceded broadband by a few years, starting in the 1950s as a US Defence Department project to enable university computer systems to communicate with one another for national security purposes. As human nature would have it, the university computer people began using the project to communicate with other people.

By 1983, the Internet was being accessed by dial-up modems over ordinary telephone lines. Mushrooming expansion of Internet users worldwide led Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to develop faster rates of data transmission, and broadband was introduced in 2000. It soon led ISPs to compete for customers, bringing the price of broadband service down and making it the most popular form of Internet access.

Broadband is 10 times faster than dial-up, making more applications available, such as downloading movies and music, digital photo processing, interactive games, and of course, numerous business opportunities. A glimpse at some Internet milestones shows the progress broadband has brought: 1979, first e-mail service (text and numbers, no graphics); 1981, textonly bulletin boards; 1985, America Online launched; 1990, DSL (digital subscriber line) prototype invented, video transmission envisioned; 1992, computer bulletin boards; 1993, commercial Internet begins, first ISPs introduced, Berniers-Lee invents World Wide Web; 2001, cable companies have two-thirds of all broadband subscribers in U.S.; 2003, 18 million U.S. households have broadband; 2006, Facebook and YouTube introduced; 2007, millions of UK households have broadband.

Early Days
The history of broadband technology actually started in the 1960's, according to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC.) In 1965, labs at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Dartmouth College used what was then considered high-speed Internet; 50 kbps network lines. By 1969, these prestigious colleges along with schools in California had upgraded their access. But it wasn't until 1984 that such universities acquired the high-speed Internet access we're accustomed to today. That year, participating colleges had gained T1 lines rather than continuing to use many 50 kbps channels.

Moving Forward
Despite increasing availability of this high-speed Internet technology, considerable expense as well as government restrictions on commercial Internet access stalled growth of T1 and similar lines, according to the FCC. By 1991, all restrictions regarding commercial Internet use were repealed. This started moving the history of broadband technology forward.

But until 1995, the government still maintained control of such Internet access. When private businesses were allowed to take over the Internet, households began using primarily dial-up access. Downloads were painfully slow, but broadband technology was still expensive and not widely available to small businesses or most private citizens. The best dial-up modems available in the early 1990's were 56 kbps.

Right before the government relinquished control of high-speed Internet, its National Science Foundation (NSF) upgraded the primary Internet backbone of the nation to 145 mbps. The potential this 1994 upgrade created is virtually limitless, especially in the 21st century.

First Public Access to High-Speed Internet


Though companies began offering dial-up Internet access on a larger scale in 1993 and many government restrictions were lifted in 1995, larger-scale progress in the history of broadband technology didn't happen until 1996. That year, Rogers Communications was the first North American company to offer household cable modem service. However, those first households were in Canada.

American Growth
Once Rogers Communications paved the path, American companies soon followed suit. When high-speed Internet service became more widely available in the U.S., households signed up en masse. Between 2000 and 2001, residential high-speed Internet access subscriptions spiked by 50 percent. The following two years increased the numbers even more.By 2003, the FCC estimated that about 39 percent of American households enjoyed broadband Internet service.

Rural Communities
As the 2000's progressed, a common complaint heard by American and Canadian government officials was lack of acceptable cable or DSL high-speed Internet service in rural communities. In response, some jurisdictions such as Nova Scotia announced broadband access initiatives. Nova Scotia began that effort in 2006 to bring high-speed Internet service to isolated areas of the Canadian province. The government declared that by 2010 every Nova Scotian would have access to wired broadband connections and most would also be able to enjoy wireless access. As of 2010, the effort was still continuing in Nova Scotia and beyond.

As Broadband enables us to surf the Internet, lets start with a very brief look at the history of the Internet. Some suggest that we need to start way back in the 1950s, when the US Military were researching methods for better communication networks. This ultimately led to a project called ARPANET in the late 1960s by the United States Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). The idea of this was to create new networking technologies to allow research centers and universities to link to each other. However, it wasnt until a group headed by Steve Crocker in the 1970s developed a protocol called TCP/IP that the Internet really began its journey, as we know it today. TCP/IP is the backbone protocol of the Internet. You can consider it as a language that all the parts of the network use to talk to each other. If you are suddenly wondering what the Internet really is it is basically a network of computers and servers. The Internet becomes Available..... Always-Online Devices

Another advantage of 3G technology is that it can utilize packet-based Internet protocol connectivity. This means your mobile device will always be online and

ready for Internet access. However, you will not actually pay for the connection until you start sending or receiving data packets, such as sending an email or looking at a webpage. Some 3G devices are also designed to automatically pick up the closest, free-to-access Wi-Fi signals, in which case, you won't have to pay anything for Internet.

Associated Costs

To support 3G technology, updates need to be made to the current cellular infrastructure. According to 3G Internet, this means installing new 3G equipment at---ideally---every current cellular base station and acquiring new frequencies for 3G transmissions. Both of these undertakings are extremely expensive and could take a long time to complete fully. In addition, in order to utilize all of the new features 3G technology has to offer, customers must purchase 3G-compatilible handsets, which are generally more expensive than their 2G counterparts.

Power Requirements In addition to being more expensive, 3G handsets also require more power than most 2G models. According to Silicon Press, this extra power requirement can translate to larger batteries, shortage usage periods between recharging and more bulky handsets overall. THE FUTURE OF BROADBAND Feature by Nathan Davison of HardAvenue

Broadband, in a large-scale sense, has hit a roadblock. Using current technology, delivery of high speed Internet is, for the most part, restricted to certain areas and distances in most countries. For

broadband to truly immerse the world of tomorrow, it will need to evolve into something that we can share to all users, far and wide, regardless of infrastructure, location or income bracket. The race is on for this to be accomplished with some promising technology leading the way, but which horse should you bet on?

Broadband Over Power Lines (BPL)

If there has ever been a broadband technology that has received countless amounts of arguments for and against, it is Broadband over Power Lines. BPL is basically the use of your existing power lines to deliver high speed broadband and other data services. What providers hope to achieve is broadband so convenient, all you have to do is plug a BPL modem into any power socket, and you instantly have a high speed connection which, on paper, sounds almost too good to be true. To do this, BPL uses a different frequency spectrum than the actual power, so data and power can co-exist on the same power line at any given time.

But why BPL? The main issue with broadband in today's current market is coverage. xDSL servicesare limited to certain distances from enabled telephone exchanges, and they are also prohibited from use over pair-gain systems and RIM setups. Traditional DSL is very much a temporary solution to the worldwide broadband scene. Cable, on the other hand, is neither cheap nor easy to lay down and can only viably be rolled out in high density areas, also making it

redundant for the widespread broadband of tomorrow. Wireless Internet is a growing technology that has a bright future of its own. However, the costs involved in deploying current wireless technology are far too high for serious coverage. Satellite, whilst providing excellent coverage, conflicts with the idea of value for money due to its high cost, not to mention high latency, making it unsuitable for many would-be broadband users.

BPL, on the other hand, works over the existing power lines that feed electricity to every house and business (according to providers), so there is no need to lay new infrastructure. It can also operate at high speeds (currently 45Mbps using the DS2 chip, and Mitsubishi says it will be able to feed 200Mbps in the future), so it has the headroom to far exceed DSL and Cable for speeds to the house. It is also very cost effective to roll out. In fact, it is far cheaper to implement BPL than it is to roll out new DSLAMs for DSL access. Like many cable systems, though, BPL is based on shared bandwidth for nearby users, so top speeds are not guaranteed. But anything is better than dialup, right?

However, it isn't all green lights for BPL. Amateur radio users insist BPL is not a technology for the future, claiming radio interference is being caused by the worldwide trials. Reports vary, but there is indeed a real threat involved with interference on BPL that now seems impossible to avoid. BPL uses your power lines for "last mile" delivery, and in most worldwide cases, these are above ground cables without any sort of shielding whatsoever. Cable TV/Internet gets around this by placing cabling underground with suitable cable shielding. If interference does become a problem for BPL, it could result in required upgrades to power networks worldwide, almost certainly eliminating the cost effective nature of ideal BPL and almost certainly making it just as bothersome as Cable to deploy.

With most failed trial reports coming from the US, it is no surprise that these small-scale BPL networks fail. With a significant amount of Internet users in the US still on dialup, BPL companies are rushing into the market, hoping they can cash in on this emerging technology without properly considering the consequences. BPL is a technology that doesn't even have set standards of implementation, and many companies aren't willing to wait until it does, creating what one could only describe as a messy network of immature technology.

BPL's problems could go beyond interference, though. Some suggest that the BLP community is not telling the truth about BPL distance capability and latency over certain power setups. It is also said the actual BPL signal itself could easily be interfered with by other sources. However, these claims cannot be confirmed quite yet. Unfortunately, the only trial results that seem to be available to the masses are based on old technology. The results of newer generation BPL technology seem to be very closely guarded by the industry. In any case, it is completely possible every BPL system will be unique and could vary when concerning the above issues. Only time will tell.

The final word on BPL:

BPL has been given a bad wrap by many news sources. At this stage, it is really impossible to tell whether the interference complaints are legit for the actual technology as a whole, or whether they are based purely on BPL networks that were not researched or planned well enough before deployment - some reports even suggest false claims have been made to try and derail the deployment of BPL by pro-radio enthusiasts. With most information about BPL being very dated, it is hard to say what we can expect. There is nothing we can do but sit back and hope this

technology can become sturdy enough for widespread deployment, because the potential is almost unmatched. Fast forward to the mid 1980s, bypassing lots of development, and now the Internet was ready for everyone else. So the Internet was ready but there was no means for consumers to use it (other than universities, research centers and military establishments).Get Instant Broadband Internet Pricing Now! The birth of dial-up allowed residential users to connect to the Internet. This helped gain popularity for the Internet, but suffered from two major downsides; it was painfully slow and you needed a dedicated phone line to connect. Push the fast forward button again and we are in the early 2000s when broadband really started to become available to consumers. This breathed a whole new life into the Internet. Since the early 2000s broadband has gone from strength to strength, and available speeds have become faster and faster. Initially it was slow to take off due to the few companies that provided broadband access and the high cost to the consumer. As Internet Service Providers (ISPs) grew, so did the competition. As the competition grew, the prices started to drop and became affordable to the consumer causing a huge growth in Broadband for the home. Now that there are more and more ISPs it has become a buyers market. There are now more people using Broadband high-speed Internet service in their homes than there are using dial-up. For the people who already have Broadband, its always worth checkin g out some of the newest deals as ISPs try and grab a bigger piece of the pie. With the Internet growing at exponential rates and more and more applications related to Broadband access becoming available, such as digital photos, downloading music, downloading

movies, and high speed gaming with people you have never even met, the future for Broadband appears very bright. Not only is Broadband access growing in the home but for business use also. More and more businesses are utilizing Broadband access to help their growth. There are even broadband Internet solutions for hotels and vacation resorts so people can stay in touch while away from home. Our children are growing up where Broadband and Internet usage is commonplace, just like the wireless radio or television were commonplace to some of us when we were growing up.

Why Use Broadband ?


For the people who are new to broadband internet service you may be wondering what Broadband is. Well, the term Broadband is used to describe any kind of high speed internet access service. There are many reasons why Broadband internet service is a must over your dial up modem. Follow this What is Broadband Service and Why Use It link to read our introductory guide to Broadband Internet Service and all of its advantages. To summarize our guide here, the main advantages of Broadband over dial-up modem service are Speed, an always-on connection, it does not tie up your phone line, you can connect more than 1 computer, and the vast array of applications that become available to you.

Another great advantage of having a Broadband internet service is that it is the only requirement for using VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol), also known as Broadband Phone Service. VoIP is taking the US by storm and can save up to $500/year on your phone bill. VoIP can be used to replace your traditional phone line. VoIP broadband phone service uses your high speed internet

access to 'carry' your voice call instead of your dedicated phone line like your normal telephone service. For more information take a look at our VoIP section.

There are three (3) main types of Broadband internet access technologies that are commonly available to both residential and business users: DSL Service, Cable Internet Service and Satellite Internet Service. Follow this DSL Service link to read our introductory guide to DSL Service, how it works and its advantages and disadvantages. Follow our Cable Internet link to read our introductory guide to Cable Internet service, how it works and its advantages and disadvantages. Follow our Satellite Internet Service link to read our introductory guide to Satellite Internet service, how it works and its advantages and disadvantages.

Alternatively, see below for a brief introduction into the three of these technologies.

DSL High Speed Internet Service Explained


DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line. DSL service is a technology for bringing highbandwidth broadband internet service to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines. What does this mean? It means that you can get high speed internet access over your traditional phone line. DSL service is known as an "always-on" internet service. This means that when your computer is on you are always connected to the internet. Unlike dial-up service there is no logging on with user name and passwords required. With DSL service all you need to do is plug your PC into your DSL modem and then from your modem to your normal telephone jack, as illustrated in the general set-up diagram below. Typically, the DSL modem is provided by your DSL Service Internet Provider.

For more information on DSL Service, what it is, how it works, various configuration set-up diagrams and its main advantages and disadvantages, please read our introductory guide to What is DSL Service.

Internet Without Phone Line - Cable Broadband Internet Service Explained

Internet Without Phone Line - Cable Internet Service is a technology for bringing highbandwidth broadband internet service to homes and small businesses over your Cable TV line. What does this mean? It means that you can get high speed internet access over your existing Cable TV connection. Cable is known as an "always-on" internet service. This means that when your computer is on you are always connected to the internet. Unlike dial-up service there is no logging on with user name and passwords required. With Cable internet service all you need to do is plug your PC into your Cable modem and your Cable modem into your normal Cable television outlet on the wall. Typically, the Cable modem is provided by your Broadband Internet Provider.

For more information on Cable Internet Service, what it is, how it works, configuration set-up diagrams, and its main advantages and disadvantages, please read our introductory guide to What is Cable Internet Service. The Beginnings of Broadband..... Since the early 2000s broadband has gone from strength to strength, and available speeds have become faster and faster. Initially it was slow to take off due to the few companies that provided broadband access and the high cost to the consumer. As Internet Service Providers (ISPs) grew, so did the competition. As the competition grew, the prices started to drop and became affordable to the consumer causing a huge growth in Broadband for the home.

Broadband becomes Mainstream..... Now that there are more and more ISPs it has become a buyers market. There are now more people using Broadband high-speed Internet service in their homes than there are using dial-up. For the people who already have Broadband, its always worth checking out some of the newest deals as ISPs try and grab a bigger piece of the pie.

Broadband Today and Beyond.....

With the Internet growing at exponential rates and more and more applications related to Broadband access becoming available, such as digital photos, downloading music, downloading movies, and high speed gaming with people you have never even met, the future for Broadband appears very bright. Not only is Broadband access growing in the home but for business use also. More and more businesses are utilizing Broadband access to help their growth. There are even broadband Internet solutions for hotels and vacation resorts so people can stay in touch while away from home. Our children are growing up where Broadband and Internet usage is commonplace, just like the wireless radio or television were commonplace to some of us when we were growing up.

Cable Broadband Internet Service Explained

Cable internet is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth broadband internet service to homes and small businesses over your cable TV line. What does this mean? It means that you can get high speed internet access over your existing cable TV connection. Cable is known as an "always-on" internet service. This means that when your computer is on you are always connected to the internet. Unlike dial-up service there is no logging on with user name and passwords required. With Cable internet service all you need to do is plug your PC into your Cable Modem and your Cable Modem into your normal cable television outlet on the wall. Typically, the Cable Modem is provided by your Broadband Internet Provider. Cable internet service is typically offered by the same companies that provide cable TV. The high speed internet access works over the same coaxial cable that the TV signal comes into your

home on, but does not effect or interfere with your TV signal. Therefore you can use your internet service and watch TV at the same time without any problems. Typically, cable internet service provides a maximum of 1.5Mbps to 6Mbps (Megabits per second) of bandwidth (internet speed) on the system. However, everyone on your network segment is sharing that bandwidth, so performance (internet speed) can be much lower, especially if a lot of people in your neighborhood use the service. They may also limit your individual bandwidth, so that you will never see the peak bandwidth even when your network segment is clear. Since you are sharing the network segment with other users, there can also be security risks with Cable Modems.

Cable internet service is typically priced from $30 to $50 a month, which covers the Cable Modem rental fee; unlimited Internet access; and Internet application software, such as a Web browser and e-mail applications. Cable internet service installation fees, which usually run from $50 to $150, cover cable wiring, an Ethernet card for your computer, and software configuration. If you don't want to pay the Cable Modem rental fee you can buy your own Cable Modem. Follow this link for Great Deals on Cable Modems.

Some advantages of Cable internet service are as follows:


Cable internet service is "always-on" and you can still watch your TV channels. Broadband speed is much faster than dial-up service. Cable internet service can use the cable outlet you already have at your home or business. A Cable Modem is typically supplied to you by your Cable internet provider. Fixed monthly billing, regardless of usage time. The distance between you and your internet provider will not affect your internet speed.

With Cable Internet Service you can take advantage of VoIP Broadband Phone technology, an extremely cost effective telephone service option. For more information take a look at our VoIP section and start saving now.

Some disadvantages of Cable internet service are as follows:


Cable internet service is shared between you and other people on your network segment. Cable internet service is not symmetrical in that the upload (send) internet speed is slower than the download (receive) internet speed.

Cable internet service is not available everywhere.

Whichvoip.com's Summary of Cable Internet Service:

Overall, Cable Internet Service is an excellent choice for high speed access to the internet. Check out our DSL Service Versus Cable Internet Service Guide for a comparison summary between the two main broadband technologies available.

Also, check out our Broadband Internet Provider Comparisons. This provides a quick glance summary of how the major Cable Internet Service Providers compare with each other, feature by feature. You can also see our current special deals and promotions for each provider that we can bring to you through our partnerships with these major broadband providers. These special deals are only available through the internet, so sign up, save money and start surfing the internet at lightning fast speeds NOW!

Satellite High Speed Internet Service Explained


Satellite high speed internet service is a technology for bringing high-bandwidth broadband internet service to homes and small businesses via satellite link, between your satellite dish and an orbiting satellite. Satellite internet service is known as an "always-on" internet service. This means that when your computer is on you are always connected to the internet. Unlike dial-up service there is no logging on with user name and passwords required. With satellite internet service your provider will install a satellite dish at a preferred location at your home. The only requirement is that you have a clear view of the southern sky. Once installed and set up all you need to do is plug your PC into your satellite internet modem and your off and running.

For more information on Satellite Internet Service, what it is, how it works, and its main advantages and disadvantages, please read our introductory guide to What is Satellite High Speed Internet Service.

What Broadband Internet do I Choose?


Once you decide to go ahead and get Broadband service you may be asking yourself what broadband technology should I choose, DSL Service, Cable Internet service, or Satellite Internet Service and what internet provider should I go with? These are common questions to ask and we suggest the following approach:

Read our guide to the Advantages and Disadvantages of DSL Service Versus Cable Internet Service. This will provide an overview of the differences between the two main broadband technologies and may help you decide which technology is right for you.

Read our Comparison Summary of the DSL/Cable Internet Service Providers. This may help you decide which Internet Provider is the right choice for you.

If you are interested in Satellite Internet Service, then read our Comparison Summary of the Major Satellite Internet Providers. This may help you decide which Satellite Internet Provider is right for you.

Look through our special deals on our site. These special deals are only available through the internet and in some cases are only available through this web site. Take advantage of these special deals before they change or go away, and start enjoying lightning speeds on the internet NOW!

Want to test your Broadband Internet Speed or Verify your VoIP Phone Service Capability?

Follow this 'Broadband Speed and VoIP Capability Test' link to test the download internet speed and the upload internet speed of your broadband internet service connection, as well as your internet connection's VoIP Phone Service capability. This broadband speed test will accurately judge your current internet speed and measure your internet connections jitter and packet loss data to show how successfully your internet connection can support VoIP Phone Service.

Business Internet Services Explained


High speed Internet service for businesses come in many different flavors in terms of the physical interface used to transport the data, the data speed available to you and of course the cost. The following sections provide a summary of some of the Business Internet Service access types available, other than DSL, Cable or Satallite, explained above.

If you are not sure what is best for you simply request a quote using the form on this page and we will find the best service provider(s) based on your particular requirements and location.

T1 Internet Service
The T1 Internet connection is the most commonly used high speed digital transmission line for Small to Medium-sized Businesses (SMB) in the United States and are also often referred to as DS1 lines. The bandwidth of a T1 line is 1.544Mbps in each direction. In other words you will get this full dedicated high speed bandwidth in both your uplink and downlink directions. This is significantly higher than DSL or Cable for uplink communication. It is for this reason that it is

often used for high speed Data and VoIP traffic. VoIP traffic typically needs around 90Kbps per voice call due to the voice codec so it is easy to see that this can be an area of concern for SMBs considering DSL or cable - it limits the amount of simultaneous calls they can make. In Europe the equivalent transmission media is known as an E1 line. This is very similar to T1 except it can run at 2.048Mbps.

One reason many SMBs choose a T1 trunk is that they are usually leased from large Telecomm companies and built into the Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a well defined Quality of Service (QoS) guaranteeing that minimal downtime will occur during the lease of the T1 line. However, as you would expect, a premium is paid for this type of high speed data service.

There are many other forms of T1 service that you may come across. A fractional T1 line is, as you would expect, a fraction of a full T1 line. A T1 cable can be thought of as 24 unique timeslots so when you lease a full T1 line, you have the ability to use all 24 timeslots (also referred to as DS0). A fractional T1 gives you access to a specific number of DS0s. The most common rates are 256Kbps and 384Kbps. Obviously you pay a fraction of the cost of a full T1 service. Yes the speed may be less than DSL or Cable but the QoS is in place. Frame Relay T1 is another form of T1 service and uses a packet switched protocol to transfer data across Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Networks (WAN). Instead of being allocated a fixed amount of bandwidth, Frame-Relay servicesoffer a CIR (Committed Information Rate) at which data is transmitted, in other words an absolute minimum connection speed. Point-to-point T1 connection offers the best QoS for transmission over a T1 line. The SLA guarantees maximum throughput at all times and is typically leased by companies who transfer a lot of private files or for corporate Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and WANs.

One final point to note for T1 bandwidth. If you need additional bandwidth simply add more T1 leased lines. Likewise if you decide to add VoIP simply add another T1 line and all of your packetized voice traffic can be delivered over this additional T1 line.

T3 Internet Service
A T3 line is equivalent to 28 T1 lines (see above) at a speed of 45Mbps, and is often referred to as DS3. Typically you would see large businesses, universities and web hosting companies lease a T3 line due to the large amount of users requiring access to the internet and Wide Area Networks (WAN). The physical medium for a T3 line tends to be fiber-optic cable. Note that T3 lines are such high speed that it is feasible to pass full screen, full motion video over this interface.

Similar to the T1 connection, a T3 line can also be sub-divided and is known as fractional T3. Basically one would lease a fraction of the 45Mbps bandwidth available with a T3 line, obviously at a lower cost.

OC-3 / OC-12 / OC-48


Optical Carrier level 1 (OC-1) is the designation for a Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) with transmission rates of 51.84 Mbps, using fiber optics as the transmission medium. However the most typical SONET rates found in optical networks today are OC-3 (155Mbps), OC-12 (622Mbps) and OC-48 (2.5Gbps). OC-48 will often be used as the long-haul backbone for high speed internet traffic containing everything from regular data and VoIP to streaming video.

Ethernet
Ethernet (IEEE Standard 802.3) tends to be the protocol of choice for LANs inside a business, using twisted pair cables to connect computers in a workplace to the local network and to the internet. These interfaces usually run at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps (referred to as Fast Ethernet).

However fairly recently there has been a push for what is referred to as Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) which provides carrier-class Ethernet between a business and the Internet Service Provider (ISP) over Ethernet. The interface speed for such interfaces is usually one Gigabit (1000Mbps) hence the term Gigabit Ethernet. A point of demarcation is required between the ISP and end user in order to provide end-to-end Service Level Agreements (SLA). This broadband high speed data connection is becoming very popular for businesses in metropolitan areas.

A GOVERNMENT scheme to encourage super fast broadband could bring the service to all of rural Worcestershire according to MP Peter Luff.

The MP arranged a meeting with senior officials from BT last week to discuss the issue. Mr Luff explained, A number of parish councils have recently been expressing concern to me about the adequacy of broadband provision in Worcestershire. Access to high speed broadband is crucial for a range of reasons, not least the economic advantage it brings, particularly to remoter, more rural communities. Ninty nine per cent of my Mid-Worcestershire constituents are connected to a broadband exchange and Droitwich, Evesham and Fernhill Heath exchanges will shortly provide superfast

broadband speeds of up to 40 mbps. However, large areas of rural Mid Worcestershire will not, on current plans, have early access to superfast broadband.

He has now written to every parish and town council in his constituency urging them to get behind a scheme that could transform broadband access in the county. In his letter, Mr Luff says: The good news is that the government has establish ed a 530m fund in this parliament, with additional sums in the next parliament, to pay for the installation of affordable high speed broadband roll out to rural areas through an organisation known as Broadband Delivery UK. BT has been in active discussion with Worcestershire County Council and the Local Enterprise Partnership about the development of a bid to Broadband Delivery UK for money to pay for the roll out of superfast broadband using this allocation. I have already encouraged the county council to work constructively with BT and it would appear that BT was confident that a bid from Worcestershire could well succeed. The purpose of this letter is to encourage your council to contact its district and county councillors and to draw to their attention the need to ensure that a good, robust and effective bid is made. I am confident that if Worcestershire acts in unison it should be possible to secure a revolution in broadband coverage.

5 Importance of Using a Broadband Internet Connection

Broadband internet is presently the best form of internet connection and it keeps on improving. Broadband internet connection is also widely used and is available in most parts of the world; with its widespread development it is sure to be available everywhere in no time.

A Broadband internet connection has so many importance that make it far better and more effective compared to other forms of internet connection, this post will be listing some major importance of using a broadband internet connection in your home and offices.

1. It is Reliable
Broadband connection is known for its reliability because this is one major feature that distinguishes it from other forms of internet connection types. By using a broadband internet connection youre sure to get the best from your money because a broadband connection is not dependent on weather thus youre always able to get the best from your internet connection come rain or sun. A broadband internet connection can also access any type of website at blazing speed and you can always trust it to be available when you need it.

2. It is Consistent
Nothing beats consistency. Imagine using a very fast internet connection service that was downloading at around 100mbps today only to try to use it tomorrow and see it downloading at 50kbps Or Imagine using a very fast and super effective network service today only to try and use it tomorrow and discover its service is unavailable. Consistency is a major factor when it

comes to choosing an internet connection and a broadband service over delivers when it comes to that. Youre always sure of being able to use your internet connection anytime of the day you try to do so.

3. It is Always Developing
There is nothing smarter than staying with something that is bound to progress. A broadband internet service is bound to progress because it is operating on a latest and developing platform and it has been discovered that there are still several great features to be brought out of the main broadband infrastructure. Some forms of connection (such as dial-up) are no longer developing but the future is secure with a great and developing form of internet connection like broadband. With a broadband internet connection, youre sure of the future so there is no more fear for you.

4. It is Fast
If I was asked to give another name for broadband internet I will say it is speed. Imagine trying to load your favorite website only to see it load in a second. A typical broadband internet service gives you enough bandwidth than can download a heavy web page in milliseconds so there is no other option for it than to be fast. Also, were in a world that is characterized by speed so one of your best decisions would be to go with the fastest form of internet connection you can lay your hands on.

5. It is Flexible
A broadband internet connection service is also mostly known for its flexibility and portability. You dont need to begin to carry big and heavy modems around with you anytime youre about to access the internet but you can have a broadband modem as small as your USB flash. Broadband technology has been developed that such great internet type can be embedded in a small equipment so you get the best form of flexibility and portability with using a broadband internet connection.

OBJECTIVE
1. To study about broad band services. 2. To know about companies provide the broadband service in Ghazipur. 3. To know about awareness of people regarding broad band services. 4. To know about the factor which effect the customer performance. 5. To know about the satisfaction level of broad band service users.

Importance:
The frame work placed in this proposal by emphasis on to find out the market share of broad band servicesin Ghazipur city.to out the problem which are being face by consumer and market share of broad band services. To find out the which provider ,provide better servicesin Ghazipur city. To find out the how many broad band servicesin Ghazipur city. To find out the broad band servicesbetter then other services. To find out the broad band servicesreliable in other services. To find out , how many problem in broad band servicesin Ghazipur city

Scope

In now a days the broadband serviceslaunched in over India including rural and urban sector. But other technologies are still not aware but of internet in the primary need of everywhere. My selected space in Ghazipur .which is a small district of [ u p] . This report for use full for the companies. which provide Ghazipur city , for those companies which are interested to provide its servicesin Ghazipur city .and also useful broadband user and potential customer of broadband services.

LIMITATIONS

Observations of a particular case cannot be universally applied to all instances universally.

For the sake of convenience the sample size taken is very small so as to be a true representative of the entire population.

Parameters taken in the questionnaire might be insufficient to represent all the issues. The research report done only Ghazipur city . The respondent is not take to fill the questionrior in Ghazipur city. Most respondent use internet though data card.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Research is a common language refers to a search of knowledge. Research is scientific & systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic, infect research is an art of scientific investigation. Research Methodology is a scientific way to solve research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is dont scientifically. In it we study various steps that are generally adopted by researchers in studying their research problem. It is necessary for researchers to know not only know research method techniques but also technology.

The scope of Research Methodology is wider than that of research methods. The research problem consists of series of closely related activities. At times, the first step determines the native of the last step to be undertaken. Why a research has been defined, what data has been collected and what a particular methods have been adopted and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study. The project is a study where focus is on the following points:

A. RESEARCH DESIGN: A research design is defined, as the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the Information needed. It is a plant or organizing framework for doing the study and collecting the data. Designing a research plan requires decisions all the data sources, research approaches, Research instruments, sampling plan and contact methods.

Research design is mainly of following types: 1. Exploratory research. 2. Descriptive studies 3. Causal studies/Experimental studies

1. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: The major purposes of exploratory studies are the identification of problems, the more precise Formulation of problems and the formulations of new alternative courses of action. The design of exploratory studies is characterized by a great amount of flexibility and ad-hoc veracity.

2. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY: Descriptive research in contrast to exploratory research is marked by the prior formulation of specific research Questions. The investigator already knows a substantial amount

about the research problem. Perhaps as a Result of an exploratory study, before the project is initiated. Descriptive research is also characterized by a Preplanned and structured design. 3. CAUSAL OR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A casual design investigates the cause and effect relationships between two or more variables. The hypothesis is tested and the experiment is done. There are following types of casual designs:

I. II. III. IV. V.

After only with control design Before after with control design Before after without control design Consumer panel design Ex-post facto design

B. DATA COLLECTION METHOD

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Published Sources Direct personal Interview Indirect personal Interview

Unpublished Sources

Information from correspondents Mailed questionnaire Question filled by enumerators

Govt. publication Report Committees &Commissions Private Publication Research Institute

1. PRIMARY DATA: These data are collected first time as original data. The data is recorded as observed or encountered. Essentially they are raw materials. They may be combined, totaled but they have not extensively been statistically processed. For example, data obtained by the peoples and though questionnaire. 2. SECONDARY DATA: Sources of Secondary Data: Following are the main sources of secondary data: 1. Official Publications: Publications of the BROAD BAND SERVICES or by the corporate office of BROAD BAND SERVICES 2. Publications Relating to Trade: Publications of the trade associations, stock exchange, trade union etc. 3. Journal/ Newspapers etc.: Some newspapers/ Journals collect and publish their own data, e.g. Indian Journal of economics, economist, Economic Times. 4. Data Collected by Industry Associations: For example, data available with BROAD BAND SERVICES 5. Unpublished Data: Data may be obtained from several companies, organizations, working in the same areas. For example, data on BROAD BAND SERVICESby magazines. Period of Study: This study has been carried out for a maximum period of 6 weeks.

Area of study: The study is exclusively done in the area of marketing. It is a process requiring care, sophistication, experience, business judgment, and imagination for which there can be no mechanical substitutes. C. SAMPLING Sampling Design: The convenience sampling is done because any probability sampling procedure would require detailed information about the universe, which is not easily available further, it being an exploratory research.

Sample Procedure: In this study judgmental sampling procedure is used. Judgmental sampling is preferred because of some limitation and the complexity of the random sampling. Area sampling is used in combination with convenience sampling so as to collect the data from different regions of the city and to increase reliability.

Sampling Size: The sampling size of the study is 50 users.there are not so much user broad band servicesin Ghazipur city , so I am takn small msample size

Methods of the Sampling: 1. Probability Sampling It is also known as random sampling. Here, every item of the universe has an equal chance or probability of being chosen for sample.

Probability sampling may be taken inform of: (a) Simple Random Sampling A simple random sample gives each member of the population an equal chance of being chosen. It is not a haphazard sample as some people think! One way of achieving a simple random sample is to number each element in the sampling frame (e.g. give everyone on the Electoral register a number) and then use random numbers to select the required sample. Random numbers can be obtained using your calculator, a spreadsheet, printed tables of random numbers, or by the more traditional methods of drawing slips of paper from a hat, tossing coins or rolling dice. (b) Systematic Sampling This is random sampling with a system! From the sampling frame, a starting point is chosen at random, and thereafter at regular intervals. (c) Stratified Random Sampling With stratified random sampling, the population is first divided into a number of parts or 'strata' according to some characteristic, chosen to be related to the major variables being studied. For this survey, the variable of interest is the citizen's attitude to the redevelopment scheme, and the stratification factor will be the values of the respondents' homes. This factor was chosen because it seems reasonable to suppose that it will be related to people's attitudes (d) Cluster and area Sampling

Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. Then the required information is collected from the elements within each selected group. This may be done for every element in these groups or a subsample of elements may be selected within each of these groups. 2. Non-Probability Sampling It is also known as deliberate or purposive or judge mental sampling. In this type of sampling, every item in the universe does not have an equal, chance of being included in a sample. It is of following type: (a) Convenience Sampling A convenience sample chooses the individuals that are easiest to reach or sampling that is done easy. Convenience sampling does not represent the entire population so it is considered bias. (b) Quota Sampling In quota sampling the selection of the sample is made by the interviewer, who has been given quotas to fill from specified sub-groups of the population. (c) Judgment Sampling The sampling technique used here in probability > Random Sampling.

The total sample size is 50 profiles.

Data Collection: Data is collected from various customers through personal interaction. Specific questionnaire is prepared for colleting data. Data is collected with mere interaction and formal discussion with different respondents and we collect data in and broadband face to face contact with the persons from whom the information is to be obtained (known as informants). The interviewer asks them questions pertaining to the survey and collects the desired information. Thus, we collect data about the working conditions of the workers of broadband services; we worked at broadband servicescontact the workers and obtain the information. The information obtained is first hand or original in character.

DATA ANALYSIS &

INTERPRETATION

1.

Are you a user of internet ?

S.NO.
1 2

Details
Yes No

Respondent
50 0 50

Percentage
100% 0% 100%

Total

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No

Analysis :
the above report so that 100% user say that thay have used access internet services.

Interpretation:
The data revels that all the respondents have access the internet service.

2: Have you your home for internet ?any type of connection of

S.No
1 2 3

Detail
Broad band Data card Through mobile Total

Respondent
30 10 10 50

Percentage
60% 20% 20% 100%

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 data card brand band through mobile

Analysis :
60% respondents are using the internet broad band , 20%though data card, and 20% through mobile.

Interpretation:

The maxiume users , using broad band services than data card. Mostly respondent using the broad band service.

3.

Which companies broad band services you are using? Detail Airtel Reliance BSNL Other Total Respondent 04 06 15 05 30 Percentage 13% 20% 50% 17% 100%

S.No 1 2 3 4

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 airtel relince bsnl other

Analyies :
50% respondents has using bsnl, 13% airtel, 20% reliance and 17% using other services. The data shows bsnl user are more than other company in ghazipur city.

Interpretation:
Maxium users are using B S N L broad band services in Ghazipur city .

4.

What are the criteria to select the broad band ? S.No 1 2 3 4 Detail Speed Service Cost Other Total Respondent 18 6 3 3 30 Percentage 60% 20% 10% 10% 100%

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 speed cost service other

Analyies :
The data shows 60% respondents are using broadband for speed.In this figure 36% user for speed, 12% user for cost, 6% user for service, 6% for other facilities.

Interpretation:
Maxium user setisfied broad band speed , becase of other company not provied better services In Ghazipur city .

5. Which types of problem you face in using broad band services?

S.No 1 2 3

Detail Speed Cost Other

Respondent 10 18 2 30

Percentage 20% 36% 4% 60%

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 speed cost other

Analyies :
In this figure the respondent facing the problem mostly cost. The figure show the 20% facing problem speed, 36% facing problem cost and 4% facing problem other.

Interpretation:
The maxium user say that the broad band servies so costly in Ghazipur city . 6. Whose connection is much faster ? S. No. 1 2 3 4 Detail Broad band Data card Through Other Respondent 25 13 7 5 Percentage 50% 26% 14% 10%

50

100%

25

20

15

10

0 broad band data card through other

Analyies :
In this figure the data show broadband is more faster than other services. Here 50% are broad band user, 26% are data card user, 14% are mobile user, 10% are other user in ghazipur city.

Interpretation:

The maxium user setisfied broad band conection is much faster than other services.

7. In present situation which service provide better service? S.No. 1 2 3 Detail Broad band 3G Through Mobile Respondent 19 13 10 Percentage 38% 26% 20%

Other Total

8 50

16% 100%

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 broad band data card through other

Analyses :
In this figure the data show broad band provide better services, in other provider hear 38% Broad band user , 26% 3G user , though mobile 20% and other services16% .

Interpretation:
In this figure the deta show broad band servicesis provide better servicesto other company

8. Which connection is much flexible ? S.No. 1 2 Detail Broad band Data card Respondent 29 10 Percentage 58% 20%

3 4

Through Other Total

8 3 50

16% 6% 100%

30

25

20

15

10

0 broad band data card through other

Analyses :
in this figure the data shows the broad band service is more flexible than other services. The data show the 58% respondent said that broadband is flexible, 20% respondent said that data card is

flexible, 16% respondent said that mobile is flexible and 6% respondent said that other servicesare flexible.

Interpretation:
in this figure data show broad band services, much faxable to other services.

09. Are you think so modern generation is attracted with broad band? S.No. 1 2 Detail Yes No Respondent 32 18 Percentage 64% 36%

Other

50

100%

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 yes no

Analyses:
in this figure the data revels the most respondent attracted with the broadband services. In this figure 64% respondent attracted with broadband servicesand 24% respondent are not attracted with broad band services.

Interpretation:
in this figure show that maximum respondent say that modern generation is atterted board band services. 10. What are the suggestion to give about broad band service?

S.No.

Detail

Respondent

Percentage

1 2 3 4

Improve problem Reduce cost Speed Other Total

network 10 9 21 10 50

20% 18% 42% 20% 100%

25

20

15

10

0 improve network problem reduce cost speed other

Analysis:
In this figure show that maximum user give suggestion to improved broad band services,

The data show that 20% user say that improved network problem broad band18% , reduces cost 42% improved speed 20% say improved broad band services.

Interpretation:
The large no. of user give suggestion about broad band servicesis improved network ,and speed problem

FINDING

FINDING The above report so that 100% user say that thay have used access internet services.

The respondent has using the internet through 60% broad band, 20% data card, and 20% through mobile. Mostly respondent using the broad band service.

the respondent has using 30% bsnl, 8% airtel, 12% relince and 10% using other services. The data shows bsnl user are more than other company in ghazipur city.

The data shows the respondents using broadband for speed. In this figure 36% user for speed, 12% user for cost, 6% user for service, 6% for other facilities.

In this figure the respondent facing the problem mostly cost. The figure show the 20% facing problem speed, 36% facing problem cost and 4% facing problem other.

In this figure the data show broadband is more faster than other services. Here 50% are broad band user, 26% are data card user, 14% are mobile user, 10% are other user in ghazipur city.

In this figure the data show broad band provide better services, in other provider hear 38% Broad band user , 26% 3G user , though mobile 20% and other services16% . in this figure the data shows the broad band service is more flexible than other services. The data show the 58% respondent said that broadband is flexible, 20% respondent said that data card is flexible, 16% respondent said that mobile is flexible and 6% respondent said that other servicesare flexible.

in this figure the data revels the most respondent attracted with the broadband services. In this figure 64% respondent attracted with broadband servicesand 24% respondent are not attracted with broad band services.

In this figure show that maximum user give suggestion to improved broad band services, The data show that 20% user say that improved network problem broad band18% , reduces cost 42% improved speed 20% say improved broad band services.

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

1 : The data revels that all the respondents have access the internet service.

2:

If the maxiume user , using broad band servicesthan data card.

3:

Maxium user use B S N L broad band servicesusing Ghazipur city .

4:

Maxium user setisfied broad band speed , becase of other company not provied better servicesIn Ghazipur city .

5:

The maxium user say that the broad band servies so costly in Ghazipur city .

6:

The maxium user setisfied broad band conection is much faster than other services

7:

In this figure the deta show broad band servicesis provide better servicesto other company.

8: .

in this figure data show broad band services, much faxable to other services

9 : in this figure show that maximum respondent say that modern generation is

atterted broad band services.

10:

The large no. of user give suggestion about broad band servicesis improved network ,and speed problem.

ANNEXURE
Questionnaire

Customer feedback form


Dear Respondent, My self NEERAJ KUMAR MISHRA , pursuing B.B.A. VI sem. at T.E.R.I P.G. College, Ghazipur. I seek your respondents and kind co-operation for the purpose of successful completion of my research report. NEERAJ KUMAR MISHRA Name..Age Address (City) ....................................... 1. Are you a user of internet ? a. Yes b. No

2. Have you any type of connection of your home for internet ? a. Broad band c.Through mobile 3. Which companies broad band servicesyou are using ? a. Airtel c. B S N L 4. Speed b. Reliances d. Other b. Data card

What are the criteria to select the broad band ? services

Cost

other

Which types of problem you face in using broad band services? Speed Cost other

Whose connection is much faster ? Broad band Through Which connection is much flexible ? Broad band Through Data card other Data card other

Are you think so modern generation is attracted with broad band ? Yes No

What are the suggestion to give about broad band services?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:

Kotler, Philip, Marketing Management, Analysis, Planning, Implementations and Control, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2003, 11th Ed.

Kotler, Philip, & Armstrong, Graw, Principles of Marketing, Pearson Education, New Delhi 2007.

Sharma, J. K., Business Statistics (Pearson Education) Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, Pvt. Ltd., 1978

Beri, Marketing Research, (Tata McGraw-Hill), 1993, 2nd Ed.

Research Methodology by C.R.KOTHARI www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.sharemarketbasics.com