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3D Prestack Depth Migration

This chapter explains key processing steps, ow requirements, and usage guidelines of the ProMAX 3D Prestack Depth Migration (3D PreSDM).

In This Chapter

3D Prestack Depth Migration Overview 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows 3D Travel Time Grid Denition 3D Travel Time Grid Denition from Headers3014 3D QC Travel Time Plot 3020 3D Travel Time Generator 3026 3D Prestack Depth Migration Access 3DPSDM Checkpoint File30340343034

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Overview
This overview discusses the requirements and guidelines for running the 3D Prestack Depth Migration package. We will discuss in detail the following topics:

Dataset Requirements Velocity Model Requirements Preprocessing Requirements


Statics Muting Filtering Binning NMO DMO Deconvolution Scaling

Flow Requirements Usage Guidelines


Imaging Options: Target vs. Volume Target Oriented 3D Volume Dening the relationship between the grid, traveltimes, and the migration Determining sparse gathers parameters for velocity analysis Using 3D QC Travel Time Plot Using Save Depth and Restart Comparing Original gathers and Image gathers

Post Processing Guidelines


Post Migration Statics Post Migration Muting Post Migration Filtering Post Migration Scaling

The ProMAX 3D Prestack Depth Migration product is designed to be a fast, efcient, and exible process for target oriented 3D prestack migrations. Output targets include: Other Docs Search Page Known Problems

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Selected Inlines Selected Crosslines Sparse gathers for quality control or velocity analysis Target oriented volumes The 3D Prestack Depth Migration product consists of several additional processes to the ProMAX 3D processing system; three out of four are required to prestack depth migrate your data and one is an optional process. These processes must run in a series of steps to prestack depth migrate your dataset. We have included the following requirements and guidelines to help you get the best results from 3D Prestack Depth Migration. Dataset Requirements Preprocessing Requirements Flow Requirements Usage Guidelines Postprocessing Guidelines

Dataset Requirements
There are several requirements that must be met before trying to 3D prestack depth migrate your data: You must create a 3D velocity model. You must have enough disk space to store traveltime les. You must have an SMP machine running threads, such as IBM-Power PC, SGI-Sgimips4, Sun-Solaris to run multi nodes.

Velocity Model Requirements


You must create a 3D depth/interval velocity model. This model must to be hung from a at datum higher than the highest point on the line, not a oating datum (See 3D Travel Time Generator). Note: Because 3DPSDM migrates from topography, the velocity between the at datum and topography does not

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matter, but in practice the velocity should be close to the surface velocity. Migration from Topography.

Flat Datum Topography

B Figure A is the true earth model and at datum above topography that will be used. Figure B is the velocity model hung from the at datum above topography. Since the source and receiver elevations are in the database, traveltimes are determined from topography. Traveltimes are not generated between the at datum and topography (X). The velocity in region X is not used, thus can be any value, but in practice is the should be close to the surface velocity, as displayed in gure B.

If your depth/interval velocity model is converted from stacking/RMS/DMO velocities via Dix, the interval velocity model is probably hung from a oating datum. This can cause errors if there is topography. Marine surveys do not have this pitfall

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Stacking velocities from a oating to a at datum. Correct Answer For this example the true earth velocities dip to the right(A). A RMS velocities are often picked from a oating datum Flat Datum Topography

Floating datum B C

A oating datum is determined(B), then all subsequent velocities are picked relative to the oating datum(C).

When RMS velocities are picked, you will have an RMS velocity model as seen in gure D. If this model is then converted directly to a depth/interval model, via Dix without correction to a at datum and used in 3DPSDM, the migration will use the velocity model as seen in gure E. Figure E, does not have dipping velocities as in gure A, and the velocities at topography are wrong. By properly datumizing from a oating to a at datum, the velocity model in gure F can be obtained. See the 3D Prestack Depth Migration F Workows for the methodology to correctly datumize your velocity model.

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If your velocity model is not hung from a at datum, see the 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows for the methodology to change from a oating datum to a at datum.

Preprocessing Requirements
3D PreSDM requires good quality seismic data in order to obtain good results. Below are some processing suggestions and requirements that can help prepare your seismic data for 3D PreSDM. Statics Statics may be applied for determining an RMS velocity eld and other processes. However, all statics except for residual statics should be removed from the input before using 3D Prestack Depth Migration. Datum statics are not needed because the migration images from source and receiver elevations that are stored in the Database; not necessarily from a at datum. Muting Do not mute off steep dips, especially deep in the section. Filtering Determine and apply a lter to the prestack data as you would for standard processing. Binning The prestack data must match the database. DMO binning or Flex binning is not recommended because it will change the prestack data relative to the Database. NMO NMO may be applied to the data for multiple removal, statics, and other processes. However, you must back out NMO from the input prior to using 3D Prestack Depth Migration. Caution: If NMO is applied in complex areas, you may affect your data without noticing it due to non-hyperbolic moveout.

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DMO Do not apply DMO to the data because it is a partial prestack time migration. The input data must be completely unmigrated prior to using 3D Prestack Depth Migration. Deconvolution Determine deconvolution parameters and apply as you would for standard processing. Scaling The amplitudes on the input data to should be equalized before migration. A long window AGC, spherical divergence or trace balancing should scale the data properly.

Flow Requirements
The 3D Prestack Depth Migration product consists of several additional processes to the ProMAX 3D processing system; three are required to prestack depth migrate your data and the rest are optional processes. These processes must run in a series of steps and each step has an effect on the next. 1. 3D Travel Time Grid Denition denes all possible traveltime locations and the maximum data area used in 3D prestack depth migration. This stand alone process is used when trace headers match the database. 2. 3D Travel Time Grid Denition from Headers denes all possible traveltime locations and the maximum data area used in 3D prestack depth migration. This process is used when trace headers do not match the database. This process needs a data input process such as Disk Data Input, preceeding it in the ow and a data output process such as Disk Data Output following it. 3. 3D QC Travel Time Plot is an optional step that calculates 3D traveltimes for one shot using an Eikonal solver. The output is a ProMAX data le. You can view this le in Trace Display to quality control the delity of the traveltime calculations. This process is a data input process and, therefore, needs a data output process such as Disk Data Output or Trace Display following it in the ow.

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4. 3D Travel time Generator calculates and stores on disk 3D traveltimes using an Eikonal solver. The 3D traveltimes are used in the imaging step of 3D PreSDM. This is a stand alone process. 5. 3D Prestack Depth Migration performs Kirchhoff migration by applying a precomputed Greens function (traveltimes) to each requested CDP location. This process needs a data input process such as Disk Data Input, preceeding it in the ow and a data output process such as Disk Data Output or Trace Display following it.

Usage Guidelines
3D PreSDM offers many ways to migrate your data. Below are guidelines for key options that will let you obtain the best results. Imaging options: Target vs. Volume. Target oriented 3D Volume Dening the relationship between the grid, traveltimes, and the migration Determining sparse gathers parameters for velocity analysis Using 3D QC Travel Time Plot Using Save Depth and Restart Comparing Original gathers and Image gathers Imaging Options: Target vs. Volume Choosing between the Target option and the Volume option in the 3D Travel Time Generator and 3D Prestack Depth Migration can be a tough decision. The target option is efcient for outputting target inlines and crosslines. It is also effective for small volumes. However for migrating entire volumes, or where you need to limit the inline/crossline aperture, the volume option can save run time. Caution: Selecting Volume when migrating targets or small volumes without limiting the aperture can increase run time by an order of magnitude.

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The following are a few of the differences between the two options: In this example, assume 3D Travel Time Grid Denition was run and grid nodes are located as seen below; also assume only inlines are to be migrated. Grid Node Locations. Inline direction Iln12 Iln14 Iln16 Iln18 Iln20 Xln5 # Xln10 Xln15 # Xln20 Xln25 Known Problems # # # # Xline direction

Every 2nd Inline is displayed Every 5th Xline is displayed # = Dened Grid Node location

Target generates and later migrates only the following inlines, without rerunning the 3D Travel Time Grid Denition and shifting the starting point (If minimum Inline=1, for second run, it will need to be set to 2). Volume migrates all of the inlines in one run of the migration.

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Target vs. Volume possible outputs.


Target only outputs inlines (or crosslines) on lines with grid nodes. Volume interpolates traveltimes between grid nodes, thus every line can be output. Volume should only be used on larger volumes or where inline/crossline aperture can be used, otherwise runtimes can increase by an order of magnitude.

Inline direction Iln12 Iln14 Iln16 Iln18 Iln20 Xln5 Xln10 Xln15 Xln20 Xln25

# # #

#
Xline direction

# #

Every 2nd Inline is displayed Every 5th Xline is displayed # = Dened Grid Node location
Possible Output Inlines in 1 run: Target Volume

&

Target and Volume options also differ in the amount of data allowed into each migrated location. Target migrates every trace in the entire 3D onto any output location. Volume allows you to dene an inline and crossline aperture, which only allows data from a specied number of inlines and crosslines away to image onto a specic output location.

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Inline/Crossline aperture comparison: Target vs. Volume. Target Option


For the Target option, the aperture is set to the entire 3D survey, or put another way, every trace in the 3D can contribute to any given imaging point.

Inline direction Iln12 Iln14 Iln16 Iln18 Iln20 Xln5 # Xln10 Xln15 # Xln20 Xln25 Xline direction Xln25 # X # # Xline direction

Volume Option
For the Volume option, only traces within the aperture limits dened in the 3D Travel Time Generator menu can contribute to any given imaging point. If the aperture is set to the entire size of the 3D survey, as in the target option, you will get the same results, but take much longer to complete.

Inline direction Iln12 Iln14 Iln16 Iln18 Iln20 Xln10 Xln15 Xln20 Xln5 # X

- Imaging point - Traces that contribute to imaging point

Every 2nd Inline is displayed Every 5th Xline is displayed

If the Volume option is selected, several database attributes need transferred to the trace headers. Please See the 3D Prestack Depth Migration documentation or the 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows for the exact attributes and header names.

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Target oriented 3D Volume You can 3D prestack depth migrate an entire 3D volume. However, due to time and cost restrictions, you should consider a target oriented 3D prestack depth migration. By target oriented, we mean that you can focus on a subset of the 3D volume. Each process can create subsets of the data from the previous step. 1. 3D Travel Time Grid Denition or 3D Travel Time Grid Denition from Headers denes the grid for traveltime calculation and delimits the data to your target. 2. 3D Travel Time Generator calculates traveltimes on all or a part of the subset survey from step one. Traveltimes cannot be generated on locations that do not have a grid node from step one. 3. 3D Prestack Depth Migration migrates onto all or a subset of the traveltimes calculated in step two. Data may not be migrated onto inlines or crosslines that have not had traveltimes calculated from step two. See the 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows for the methodology to output a target volume. Target oriented 3D volume from process to process.

Entire 3D survey Target Oriented 3D survey after: 3D Travel Time Grid Denition 3D Travel Time Generator (Selected Output Inline Travel Times only) 3D Prestack Depth Migration (Migrate and output every 2nd crossline along inlines) Each step can dene a subset equal to or smaller than the previous step. Each step cannot dene a subset larger than the previous step.

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Dening relationships between grid, traveltimes, and migration When determining the traveltime grid, keep in mind that the way you dene the grid will effect the remaining steps. In the 3D Travel Time Grid Denition or 3D Travel Time Grid Denition from Headers menu, the Spacing for Travel Time Functions between Inlines and Spacing for Travel Time Functions between Xlines parameters can impact results. The example below outlines this methodology. For this example, grid nodes will be set at the intersection of every 4th inline and every 10th crossline. Note: A grid node at every 4th inline and every 10th crossline is being used for demonstration purposes. For production work, node spacing for every 2nd inline and every 2nd crossline is recommended. Values less than 2 will increase run time and disk space usage later when traveltimes are calculated. Values greater than 2 will reduce both run time and disk space usage but will also decrease the resolution in later traveltime calculations. If the Spacing for Travel Time functions between Inlines parameter in the 3D Travel Time Grid Denition or 3D Travel Time Grid Denition from Headers menu is set at 4 for inlines and 10 for crosslines, traveltimes can only be calculated at the intersection of those locations.

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Grid Node Locations. Inline direction Iln12 Iln14 Iln16 Iln18 Iln20 Xln5 # Xln10 Xln15 # Xln20 Xln25 Known Problems # # # # Xline direction

Every 2nd Inline is displayed Every 5th Xline is displayed # = Dened Grid Node location

While traveltimes can be calculated for a subset of the above grid, for this example, let us use 3D Travel Time Generator to calculate traveltimes on every grid node. The primary calculation orientation for traveltimes, in this example, will be inlines. Select Yes for the Output Inline traveltimes parameter. Next we will migrate inlines using 3D Prestack Depth Migration. If we migrate just the inlines, we can output inlines no denser than the spacing of the calculated traveltimes.

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Migrated Output. Inline direction Iln12 Iln14 Iln16 Iln18 Iln20 Xln5 Xln10 Xln15 Xln20 Xln25 Known Problems

* * *

*
Xline direction

* *

Every 2nd Inline is displayed Every 5th Xline is displayed = Dened Traveltime location = Possible migrated output

The traveltimes are used in 3D Prestack Depth Migration to migrate the data. For sources and receivers that are not on the traveltime grid, 3D Prestack Depth Migration interpolates the traveltimes closest to the shot and receiver location. Note: A grid node at every 4th inline and every 10th crossline is being used for demonstration purposes. For production work, node spacing for every 2nd inline and every 2nd crossline is recommended. Values less than 2 will increase run time and disk space usage later when traveltimes are calculated. Values greater than 2 will reduce both run time and disk space usage but will also decrease the resolution in later traveltime calculations.

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Traveltime Interpolation. Inline direction Iln12

* A * C
Xln5 Q R

* B
Xline direction Q = Image Point S = Source R = Receiver

Iln16

* D
Xln15

Iln20

= Inlines to migrate onto A-F = Travel Time Location

To migrate one trace to image point Q, a travel time is needed from both the source, S, and the receiver, R. Since there is no traveltime at either S or R, the closest locations will be used: B and E. The traveltimes for the source to Q will now be interpolated from the traveltimes B to C and B to D. Likewise, the traveltimes for the receiver to Q will now be interpolated from the traveltimes E to C and E to D.

Determining sparse gathers parameters for velocity analysis Each process in 3D PreSDM needs a specic setup to obtain sparse gathers for either velocity analysis or quality control. The example below outlines this methodology. This example will outline how to output a 3D prestack depth migrated gather at every 50th inline and every 40th crossline. You should use 3D Travel Time Grid Denition to dene a grid point at every 2nd inline and every 2nd crossline. Values less than 2 will increase run time and disk space usage when traveltimes are calculated. Values greater than 2 will reduce Other Docs Search Page Known Problems

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both run time and disk space usage but will also decrease the resolution in later traveltime calculations. 3D Travel Time Grid Denition Inline direction Only every 25th inline and every 20th crossline is displayed in these gures. Xline direction

In the 3D Travel Time Generator menu, it does not matter if you output either inline or crossline traveltimes, but there is no general need to output both. For this example, we will output inline traveltimes at every 50th inline location. Enter 50 in number of inlines for the Increment Between Inlines to Output parameter. 3D Travel Time Generator

Generate travel times on every 50th inline

In the 3D Prestack Depth Migration menu, enter 40 in number of crosslines for the Output Spacing Between Xlines parameter. When executed, a gather located at the intersection of every 50th inline and every 40th crossline will be output.

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3D Prestack Depth Migration.

* * * *

* * * *

* * * *

* * * *

of * - Location migrated output gather

Output every 50th crossline along inlines that have had travel times generated

The above example calculates inline traveltimes, but the same holds true if crosslines traveltimes were calculated instead of inline traveltimes. See 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows for exact methodology used to output sparse gathers. Using 3D QC Travel Time Plot 3D QC Travel Time plot is an optional quality control process that determines acceptable parameters for the 3D Travel Time Generator. 3D QC Travel Time Plot calculates 3D traveltimes for a single shot or receiver location and creates a seismic dataset where each sample in the dataset is a traveltime as a function of X,Y and Z. 3D QC Travel Time Plot ow
3D QC Travel Time Plot Disk Data Output (Optional) Disk Data Input (Optional) Trace Display

See 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows for exact methodology. To view the traveltimes with Trace Display, set the Display Mode to Color, the Trace Scaling Mode to Range-Limited, Get Min/Max Amplitudes From the Data to No, Specify minimum amplitude to display to 0 (zero) and Specify maximum amplitude to display to 4000 (You may run Amplitude Statistics to get a better value for your data). The amplitude value seen in Trace Display is the calculated traveltime. Also, changing the color scale from the default spectrum to one Other Docs Search Page Known Problems

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that has more obvious color breaks, like rainbow3.rgb, will better highlight the traveltimes. Colormap Differences Travel Times displayed in Trace Display. Shot location is at crossline number 41

Default colormap: It is difcult to see the contours of the traveltimes.

Modied colormap (Rainbow3.rgb): With more colorbreaks, the traveltime contours are much easier to see.

Execute the process several times, varying the shot location. If you see irregularities through trial and error, change the following parameters to reduce these artifacts: Depth Sampling Interval of Output Traveltimes and Computation Depth Sampling Factor. Once acceptable parameters are determined, transfer these parameters into the 3D Travel Time Generator menu.

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Looking at QC traveltimes A Irregularities Colors are travel times through a smooth basically V(z) velocity model from a shot located at Inline 60, Xline 150. Figure A shows irregularities in the travel times. Output Travel Time Depth Interval - 500 Computation depth sampling factor - 2 B

Sometimes irregularities can be explained by a complicated velocity model, however, here they are caused by the Output Travel Time Depth Interval being unreasonably large.

By changing the parameters, the artifacts can be eliminated, gure B.

Output Travel Time Depth Interval - 50 Computation depth sampling factor - 2

In this example a very * -unreasonable parameter for Output Travel Time Depth Interval was used to induce an artifact.

Using Save Depth and Restart Traveltime datasets can easily become larger than the available disk space. For this reason, it is often necessary to calculate traveltimes and migrate your 3D survey in pieces. You can do this by using the Restart from a Previous Save Depth and Save Depth For Travel Time Functions parameters in 3D Travel Time Generator. This technique is also useful Other Docs Search Page Known Problems

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in layer stripping. Once the velocity is determined to a specic depth, you only have to migrate to that depth once, allowing you to work on the next deeper section. If a non-zero value is used for Save Depth for Travel Time Functions, a slice of traveltimes will be saved. You can use these saved traveltimes to calculate traveltimes deeper in the section, overwriting the previous traveltime le. By overwriting previously used traveltime les, the disk space used is reused instead of doubled.

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Concept of the Travel Time Save Depth and Restart. 1. Calculate traveltimes to a specied depth and save bottom slice of traveltimes, A. 2. Migrate to the bottom of the calculated traveltimes, B. 3. Calculate traveltimes from Save depth to next specied depth and save bottom slice of traveltimes, overwriting the old traveltime le, C. 4. Migrate to the bottom of the calculated traveltimes, D. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until data is migrated to the desired depth. 6. Add different migrations together to get nal result, E. A

A C D E

Save depth travel time slices Migrated lines

Migrated stacks are pictured. However, *the same technique works for migrated gathers. Note: In the 3D Travel Time Generator menu, the Save Depth for Travel Time Functions value should be evenly divisible by the Depth sampling interval of output travel times (ft./m) or errors will result near See 3D Prestack Depth Migration Workows for exact methodology to use Save Depth and Restart. Comparing Original gathers and Image gathers Image gathers are a different way to bin the traces output from 3DPSDM. Data binned with respect to the shot to receiver distance are Standard or Original offset gathers. Other Docs Search Page Known Problems

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Data binned with respect to the sum of surface distances between the source to common surface location and receiver to common surface location are Image offset gathers
Original and Image Offsets

3D Perspective R CSL S RP A

A = CRP (Common Reection Point) location at depth CSL = Surface location of the CRP (CSL =Common Surface Location) RP =The ray path from the source to A to the receiver R = Receiver location S = Shot location Top View R CSL S I2 I1 I = I1+ I2 CSL

Top View R O S Original Offset = O Original offset migrated traces are binned to traces based on the distance from the source to the receiver (O).

Image Offset = I Image offset migrated traces are binned to traces based on the distance from the source to the CSL to the receiver (I).

For at dips, data is distributed on each type of gather the same. However for dipping events, each gather is considerably different. The following gures show the similarities and differences of original gathers and image gathers.

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Original gathers and Image gathers with at reectors

When dips are at and the velocity is constant, Original gathers and Image gathers map data to the same location.

Near offset

Original Gather Far offset

Cross section View Near offset S 3 S 2 S 1R 1 R2 R3

Image Gather Far offset

CRP Reector dips = 0 (zero) S = Shot location R = Receiver location Note: The maximum offset for image gathers is typically twice as large as the maximum offset for original gathers

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Original gathers and Image gathers with dipping reectors

With dipping reectors, original gathers map data across all offsets. Image gathers focus the energy onto a few offsets. Image gathers map steeper dips onto farther offsets. Because of this, muting can act like a dip lter.

Near offset

Original Gather Far offset

Cross section View Near offset S 3 S 2 S 1R 1 R2 R3

Image Gather Far offset

CRP

Reector dips >0 (zero) S = Shot location R = Receiver location

Note: The maximum offset for image gathers is typically twice as large as the maximum offset for original gathers

Velocity Analysis Original gathers are similar to CDP gathers in that if the correct velocity is used, reectors will be at. A velocity that is too fast or too slow will cause frowning or smiling along an event. This familiar response makes original gathers well

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suited for Residual Moveout (RMO) velocity updating techniques such as layer stripping and Derigowskis loop. Image gathers display a similar behavior to velocities, in that if the correct velocity is used, reectors will be at. A velocity that is too fast or too slow will cause frowning or smiling along an event, but the smile and frown is not centered around the zero offset trace making it very difcult for RMO dependant velocity analysis techniques. Velocity analysis techniques based on stack response, such as Constant Velocity Half Space (CVHS) are very well suited to both original and image gathers. Stack Response Original gathers distribute energy from reectors on every offset, making it difcult to reject noise. Image gathers focus dipping reectors onto a few offsets. Because of this, top, bottom and surgical mutes can be picked leaving all of the signal and eliminating most of the noise that would be stacked in with original gathers. This leads to a very clean, relatively noise free stack. Note: To get the full benet of migrated image gathers, muting must be done before stack. Caution: must be used when muting image gathers. Muting image gathers is similar to dip ltering where muting off far offsets can mute out steep dips. For more on Original gathers and Image gathers, see the Appendix.

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Stack Response.

Original gather stack

Image gather stack

stack was processed with comparable steps. The * Each data was prestack depth migrated, muted and stacked. The only real difference is the way the migrated data was output, original gathers vs. image gathers. NOTE: Muting after migration must be done to get full benet of image gathers

Postprocessing Guidelines
After the data has been 3D prestack depth migrated, the gathers can be improved with post migration processing. You need to realize that the data is now in depth, not time. Because most processes in the ProMAX processing system are designed to operate on time series (time data) not on a reectivity sequence (depth data), you must be careful in processing depth data. Most time processes will work on depth data but the parameters will be quite different than normal. Typically a trace mute and a bandpass lter will clean up the data enough to obtain a good stack, but for velocity analysis or quality control, the gathers usually require a bit more processing. Note: Remember that the data is now in depth, not time.

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Post Migration Statics Trim statics may be applied to the migrated prestack data, but is usually not required. Post Migration Muting The migrated gathers will need a top mute to remove migration artifacts. A top mute on depth data is picked the same way as time data using Trace Display to pick a mute and applying it with Trace Muting. If Image Offset Gathers were created in the migration, a bottom mute might also be needed. Because on image offset gathers, energy from dipping events appears on longer offsets than that from at events, caution needs to be exercised when muting Image Offset Gathers so the muting does not act as a dip lter. Post Migration Filtering After a 3D prestack depth migration, the data will need ltering, especially to remove low frequencies caused by the migration operator going to 90 degrees. The most technically correct way to apply a time lter to depth migrated data is to depth-to-time convert the data, apply the lter, then time-to-depth convert the data back to depth. Converting data from depth to time and back can take a lot of time, disk space and is often not necessary. You can use time lters on depth data and get very good results, but you must adjust the lter points. Typical time data will have lter points of 4-5-45-60, while typical depth data will have time lter points of 1-2-10-15. Depth data can be put into Interactive Spectral Analysis to help determine the lter points of the depth data. Post Migration Scaling Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is the most common post migration scaling option used. AGC works the same on depth data as it does on time data, but because the depth sample interval (~10 m/30ft.) is bigger that of time data (~4 ms), the operator length needs to be adjusted.

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While AGC operator lengths for time data is typically 5001000 ms, operator lengths of 1500-3000 m (4500-5000 ft.) should be used for depth data.

APPENDIX
Data is binned differently for Original gathers and Image gathers. The following stacking chart shows the difference between original and image gathers. Data for Original gathers is binned in a rectangular pattern as seen on the stacking chart. Data is binned in a circular pattern for image gathers.
Stacking Chart of Original and Image Gathers **

- Source - Receiver

CDP

* * * * * *
C om m on Sh
Image Offset

Original Offset

Original offsets are binned in rectangular pattern Image offsets are binned in a circular pattern

** For simplicity reasons, a 2D stacking chart is displayed


Another way to look at original gathers and image gathers is to look at how the data is summed along a diffraction surface. Original gathers are summed along constant offset, while image gathers are analogous to summing along circles at constant depth.

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Original Gathers Summation Depth Displayed on the left is a diffraction surface. Original offset gathers, in 2D, are created by summing along the edge of the diffraction on constant offset planes. X Offset In 3D, diffractions are also summed in the Y direction.

Image Gathers Summation Depth Displayed on the left is a diffraction surface. Image offset gathers, in 2D, are analogous to summing along the edge of circles at constant depth. X Offset In 3D, by adding the third dimension, image gathers are analogous to summing along the edge of spheres.

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