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Seminar On


Presented by : -

Dr. Niju Aelias

DENTAL INVESTMENTS INTRODUCTION : The principal laboratory technique of making metal inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges, is based on casting practice. This application of casting practice is one of the major advances in restorative dentistry. This is mainly based on Lost Wa Technique!. This process of casting involves some basic steps. ". #reparation of a wa pattern. $. #reparation of mold % &t is done by pouring the mi ed investment material around the wa pattern and allow it to set. 'urnout ( Wa is eliminated from he investment by boiling )or* burning it in oven. +. Then casting is done by melting the alloy and forcing the molten metal into the mold cavity. HISTORY : This meticulous procedure of casting was used by various craftsmen to produce jewelary and ornaments. &ts history can be traced back around +,,, '.-. 'ut origin of lost wa technique, when viewed history makes its presence in the writings of Theophilus )""th century*. ""th -entury Theophilus described lost wa common practice prevailed in ""th century. "../ 'envenuto -ellini claimed to have attempted, use of wa and clay for preparation of castings. "//0 1guilhon de saran used $02 gold to form inlay. "//3 4.5. 2napp invented 'lowpipe. "/63 #hillibrook described a method of casting metal filling. "6,3 Taggart devised a practically useful casting machine. 7arious studies conducted on the properties of investment materials and casting alloys have led to a path for better, practical and useful processing methods. $ technique, which was a

DE INITIONS : ". &nvesting ( The process of covering, enveloping, wholly )or* in part an object such as denture tooth, wa form, crown etc with a suitable material before processing, casting. $. 8ental -asting &nvestment ( 9aterial consisting principally of an allotrope of silica and a bonding agent. The bonding substance may be gypsum )for use in lower casting temperature* or phosphates and silica )for use in higher casting temperatures*. +. 5efractory ( 8ifficult to fuse : corrode, capable of enduring high temperatures. 0. 5efractory investment ( 1n investment that can withstand high temperature using a soldiering :casting. .. 1llotropic phase ( #hases of similar composition but different crystallographic structures, with different properties. ;. -asting ( <oun ( =omething that has been cast in a mold, an object formed by the solidification of a fluid that has been formed : injected into a mold. 7erb ( the art of forming an objet in a mold. IDEAL RE!UIREMENTS O AN INVESTMENT MATERIAL : ". The powder should have a fine particle si>e to ensure a smooth surface on the casting. $. The mi ed unset material should have a smooth consistency. +. &t should be easy to manipulate % easy to mi and also harden within a relatively short time. 0. &t should have sufficient strength at room temperature =hould e hibit sufficient strength at high temperature. &nner surface of the mold should not break at a high temperature. =hould e hibit sufficient strength to withstand the force of molten alloy entering the mold. .. &nner surface of mold should be smooth.

;. 1t higher temperatures &t should be stable without any decomposition of investment. =hould show sufficient e pansion enough to compensate for shrinkage of wa pattern and solidification of molten metal. 3. The material should be sufficiently porous enough to permit escape of air:other gases from the mold cavity during casting of molten metal. /. &t should show ease of divestment. &t should not react with metal &t should easily break away from the surface of casting.

6. &t should be economical <o single material is known that can fulfill all the ideal requirements. =o various ingredients : modifiers are added to get the desired properties. CLASSI ICATION O DENTAL INVESTMENT : &. 'ased on #rocessing Temperatures ( 1. ?igh temperature casting investments #hosphate bonded investments =ilicate bonded investments @ypsum bonded investments )for low temperature gold alloy* Auart> investment -ristoballite investment

'. Low temperature casting investments &&. 8epending on type of refractory used )=ilica* &&&.

'ased on type of binder used 1. @ypsum bonded investments ( 1ccording to 181 =pecification $ Bses Type & Type && Type &&& &nlay, -rown &nlay and -rowns =hrinkage compensation #urely thermal e pansion #urely hygroscopic e pansion

5.#.8. Crame work Thermal

'. #hosphate bonded investments -. =ilicate bonded investments 0

"ASIC COMPOSITION O INVESTMENTS : &n general, an investment is a mi ture of the following + distinct types of materials, 1. 5efractory 9aterials ( 1 material that will withstand high temperatures without decomposing on disintegrating. The most commonly used refractory material is silicon dio ide such as quart>, tridymite, or cristoballite or a mi ture of these. Cunction ( 5esist the heat and forces of casting. To e pand and compensate for casting shrinkage

'. 'inder ( The refractory material alone do not form a coherent solid mass, so some kind of binder is needed. -ommonly used binders are D E -alcium sulfate hemihydrate Fthers are % =odium silicate, Gthyl silicate, 1mmonium sulfate, =odium phosphate. -. Fther -hemical 9odifiers ( Bsually a mi ture of refractory materials and a binder alone is not enough to produce all the desirable properties required of an investment. Fther chemicals such as sodium chloride, boric acid, potassium sulfate, graphite, copper powder or magnesium o ide are often added in small quantities to modify various physical properties. Gg. =mall amounts of chlorides or boric acid enhance the thermal e pansion of investment bonded by calcium sulfate. INVESTMENTS FOR LOW CASTING TEMPERATURE : #y$s%m "&nded In'estments : The gypsum based material represent the type traditionally used for conventional gold alloys.

ADA S$e(i)i(ati&n N&*+ for casting investment for dental gold alloys comes in three types. Type & Type && Type &&& ( Cor inlay and crown ( Cor inlay and crown % Bse mainly thermal e pansion % Bse mainly hygroscopic e pansion

( Cor 5.#.8. frame work % Bse mainly thermal e pansion

C&mm&n "rands : 'akerHs =terling, 'egocast, -ristobalite, &nlay % 7est, Luster cast. C&m$&siti&n : ". 'inder ( E -alcium sulfate hemihydrate )$. % 0.I* $. 5efractory 9aterial =ilica % Auart> or -ristoballite or a blend of two in varying proportions );. % 3.I* +. -hemical modifiers a* -arbon : -opper powder )5educing agents* )$E+I* b* 'oric acid and sodium chloride )'alancing agents* %n(ti&ns &) Ea(, C&nstit%ent : -* #y$s%m Hemi,ydrate : The hemihydrate form of gypsum is the binder for investments used in casting gold containing alloys with melting ranges below ",,,o-. ?old other ingredients together and provide rigidity. @ypsum after heating undergoes dehydration with shrinkage and fracture of mold. Effect Of Temperature On Calcium Sulfate Binders : The binder used for gold investments in dentistry is E calcium sulfate hemihydrate.

8uring the investing process some of the water mi ed with the investment reacts with the hemihydrate and in converted to calcium sulfate dihydrate, whereas the remainder of e cess water is uniformly distributed in the mi . 8uring the heating process the e cess water is evaporated. 1s the

temperature rise about ",.o-, calcium sulfate dihydrate starts losing water and e pands, then shrink : contract considerably after dehydration between $,, oand 0,,o-. 1 slight e pansion then occurs between 0,, o- and appro imately at 3,,o- a large contraction occurs. This latter shrinkage in most likely caused by decomposition, and sulfur gases such as sulfurdio ide are emitted. This decomposition not only causes shrinkage but also contaminate the castings with the sulfides of the non noble alloying elements such as silver and copper. =o gypsum bonded investment should not be heated above 3,,o-. These properties are e plained as follows D Bpto about ",. o-, ordinary thermal e pansion occurs. 1bove ",.o-, the calcium sulfate dihydrate is converted to anhydrous calcium sulfate. 8ehydration of the dihydrate and a phase change of the calcium sulfate anhydrate cause a contraction. The form of tridymite )which might be present as an impurity* is e panding and sufficiently compensates for the contraction of the calcium sulfate to prevent the investments from registering a serious degree of contraction. 1t elevated temperature the forms of silica present in the investment are converted to the forms, which cause some additional e pansion.

+* Si.i(a : =ilica )=iF$* is added to provide a refractory during the heating of the investment and to regulate the thermal e pansion and also counter shrinkage of gypsum. Bsually the wa pattern is eliminated from the mold by heat. 8uring the heating, the investment is e pected to e pand thermally, to compensate partially or totally for the casting shrinkage of the gold alloy. @ypsum shrinks considerably when it is heated. &f the proper form of silica is employed in the investment, this contraction during heating can be eliminated and changed to an e pansion.

=ilica e ist in four allotropic forms ( Quartz Tridymite Cristobalite and Fused quartz

Effect Of Temperature On Silicon Dioxide Refractories : The most commonly used refractory material is silica )=iF $*. Gach of the polymorphic forms of silica, quart>, tridymite and cristoballite e pands when heated, but the percentage of e pansion varies from one type to another. #ure crystoballite e pands to ".;I at 0,,o-, whereas quart> e pands about ".0I at ;,,o- and the thermal e pansion of tridymite at ;,,o- is less than "I. The percentage of e pansion of the + types of silica versus temperature shows, none of the three forms of silica e pands uniformly, instead they all show a break )non linearity* in their thermal e pansion.

&n case of crystoballite the e pansion is somewhat uniform to about $,,o-. 1t this temperature its e pansion increases sharply from ,..I to ".$I, and then above $.,o- it again becomes more uniform. 1t .3+o - quart> also shows a break in the e pansion and tridymite shows a similar break at a much lower temperature. The breaks on the e pansion versus temperature indicate that cristoballite and quart>, each e ist in two polymorphic forms. Fne of which is more stable at a higher temperature and the other at a lower temperature. The form that is more stable at room temperature is called the )&rm/ and the more stable form at higher temperature is designated as the )r&m* Tridymite has three stable polymorphic forms. Thus the temperatures of $$,o- for cristobalite, .3+o - for quart> and ",.o and ";,o - for tridymite are displacive transition temperatures. 1 displacive change involves e pansion or contraction in the volume of the mass without breaking any bonds. &n changing from the form )which is the more stable form at room temperature* to the form )which is stable at higher temperatures*, all three forms of silica e pand. The amount of e pansion is highest for cristoballite and lowest for tridymite. The quart> form of silica is found abundantly in nature, and it can be converted to cristobalite and tridymite by being treated through a reconstructive transition during which bonds are broken and a new crystal structure is formed.

The quart> is converted to quart> at a temperature of .3+o-. &f the quart> is heated to /3,o- and maintained at that temperature, it is converted to tridymite.

Crom tridymite obtaining either tridymite or cristoballite is possible. &f tridymite is cooled rapidly to "$,o- and hold at that temperature, it is changed to E tridymite, which is stable at room temperature. Fn the other hand, if tridymite is heated to "03.o - and hold at that

temperature, it is converted to E cristoballite. temperature, cristoballite is formed.

/3,o quart> tridymite ";,o.3+o9iddle tridymite ",.oEtridymite $$,o"03.o cristobalite

Curther heating of

cristoballite produces fused silica, but if it is cooled to $$, o- and held at that

"3,,oCused =ilica



1ll forms of silica are in either forms in the investment and during the heating process they are converted completely or in part to their corresponding forms. This transition involves an e pansion of the mass, which helps to compensate for casting shrinkage.

Cused quart> is amorphous and glass like in character and it e hibits no inversion at any temperature below its fusion point. &t has an e tremely low linear coefficient of thermal e pansion and is of little use in dental investments. Auart>, cristobalite or a combination of the two forms may be used in a dental investment. 'oth are now available in pure from. Tridymite is no longer an e pected impurity in cristobalite.

0* M&di)iers :


a* 5educing agents ( -arbon and powdered copper provide a non o idi>ing atmosphere in the mold when the gold alloy is cast. b* 'alancing agent ( 'oric acid and sodium chloride 5egulate =etting time =etting e pansion #revent shrinkage of gypsum when it is heated above +,,o-

Settin1 Rea(ti&n &) #y$s%m "&nded In'estments : =ame as 8ental stone. -a=F0 J ?$F K J ?$F -a=F0$?$F K +6,, -al : gmol. )-a. =ulfate hemihydrate* )-a. =ulfate dihydrate* When calcium sulfate hemihydrate is mi ed with water, calcium sulfate hemihydrate is converted back to calcium sulfate dihydrate which sets to form a solid mass which binds the silica particles together. The reaction is e othermic and whenever " gm mol of calcium sulfate hemihydrate is reacted with ".. gm mol of water. " gm mol of calcium sulfate dihydrate is formed and +6,, calories of heat are developed. The microstructure of set material showsD rod like particles of gypsum intermeshed with large irregular particles of silica refractory. Settin1 Time : &t is dependent on the gypsum content and upon the type of gypsum employed. &nitial setting time ( / % ". min Cinal setting time ( "$E$. min. This can be altered by addition of 2 $=F0, <a-l )&ncrease setting time*, 'ora and potassium citrate )decrease setting time*.


ADA S$e(i)i(ati&n N&.+ D =tates that setting time should not be less than . minutes and nor longer than $. minutes. 9odern inlay investments set initially in 6E"/ minutes. investing the pattern. a(t&rs C&ntr&..in1 Settin1 Time : 9anufacturing process % finer the particle si>e % faster setting 9i ing time and rate E mi ing time E setting time. Water : powder ratio E water ( powder ratio E setting time Temperature E temperature E setting time 9odifier % 1ccelerator and retarders % 1ccelerates setting time, 5etarders setting time Pr&$erties &) #y$s%m "&nded In'estment : ". G pansion $. -ontraction +. =trength 0. Fther consideration 1. Expansion : G pansion aids in enlarging the mold. This property of investment is needed for compensation of casting shrinkage of alloy. G pansions are of + types ( ". <ormal setting e pansion. $. ?ygroscopic setting e pansion +. Thermal e pansion N&rma. Settin1 E2$ansi&n : The setting e pansion of an investment, is the linear e pansion that take place during the normal setting of the investment in air. 1 mi ture of silica and gypsum hemihydrate results in setting e pansion greater than that of the This provides sufficient time for mi ing and


gypsum product when it is used alone. &t is because of interference of silica with the growing crystals. The silica particles interfere with the intermeshing and interlocking of the crystals as they form. Thus, the thrust of the crystals is outward during growth and therefore more effective in the production of e pansion. 181 =pecification <o.$ for Type & investment permits a ma imum setting e pansion in air of only ,.;I. 9odern investments show setting e pansion of appro imately ,.0I. &t is regulated by retarders and accelerators. E))e(t &) 3a2 Pattern &n N&rma. Settin1 E2$ansi&n : The setting reaction of gypsum bonded investment is e othermic in nature )+6,, cal:gmol*. The heat causes e pansion of wa pattern leading to e pansion of the mold. The amount of heat liberated depends on The ratio of gypsum % gypsum heat E =.G. W(# 5atio W(# ratio ?eat =.G. "* Hy1r&s(&$i( Settin1 E2$ansi&n : ?ygroscopic e pansion is the linear e pansion of the investment that occurs if the investment is in contact with water from any source during the setting process, after investing the wa pattern. -ontact with water can be achieved by placing the casting ring in a water bath, before initial set is complete or by putting some water on the surface of the investment in the ring or by using a wet liner inside the casting ring. 8istinguishing between a setting e pansion and hygroscopic e pansion is difficult because both take place almost at the same time and end at the same time. &n practice a sum of the hygroscopic and setting e pansion of the


investment is obtained, which is si e pansion.

times more than the normal setting

?ygroscopic e pansion may occur because of @ypsum 5efractory #y$s%m : 1ccording to some theories, 1ddition of water during the setting of an investment increases the surface film thickness on the inert particles and gypsum crystals, thereby forming them apart. 1dded water during the setting process permits further hydration of calcium sulfate, thus causing e pansion of the investment. 1dded water may force gypsum gel to swell. 1ddition of water provides additional volume in to which gypsum crystals can grow. Re)ra(t&ry : The water physically seperates the fine parities of silica by capillary action leading to e pansion of mass. This is reversible in case of absence of binder. 'ut if binder is present and set, the e pansion is retained. The decreased e pansion is affected by ( 1mount of silica amount of silica E e pansion W(# ratio W(# ratio G pansion Time of insertion % &nvestment immersed in water after initial setting cause decreased e pansion. 181 =pecification <o.$ for Type && &nvestments requires a 9inimum e pansion of ".$I "0

9a imum e pansion of $.$I




". -omposition ( ?=G is directly proportional to the amount of silica present. Ciner the particle si>e of silica ( &ncreased hygroscopic e pansion ?=G is greater in hemihydrate than hemihdyrate. 1 dental investment should have enough hemihdyrate binder with the silica to provide sufficient strength after hygroscopic e pansion. Ftherwise, a shrinkage occurs during the subsequent drying of the set investment. 1t least ".I of binder is necessary to prevent a drying shrinkage. $. Water #owder 5atio ( &ncreased water powder ratio 8ecreased ?ygroscopic e posure. +. =patulation ( &ncreased missing time ( &ncreased hygroscopic e pansion. 0. 5atio of =patulation ( &ncreased spatulation ( &ncreased hygroscopic e pansion. .. =helf life of investment ( Fld investment ( 8ecreased hygroscopic e pansion. ;. Time of investment ( &mmersion of setting investment. 'efore initial setting ( &ncreased hygroscopic e pansion 1fter initial setting ( 8ecreased hygroscopic e pansion 3. Gffect of confinement ( 'oth the normal and the hygroscopic setting e pansion are confined by opposing forces, such as the walls of the container in which the investment is placed or the walls of the wa pattern. The confining effect in the hygroscopic e pansion is more pronounced than the similar effect on the normal setting e pansion. /. Water bath temperature( 1lthough the water bath temperature has little effect on the hygroscopic e pansion of the investment, it has a definite effect on the wa pattern. 1t higher water bath temperature, the wa pattern e pands, requiring less e pansion of the investment to compensate for the total casting shrinkage.


&n addition higher water bath temperature soften the wa . The softened wa then gives less resistance to the e pansion of the investment, thus making the setting and hygroscopic e pansion more effective. The net effect is higher e pansion of the mold with higher water bath temperature. 8uring the setting process, dental casting investments actually absorb water from their surroundings and e pand. &f during setting more water, an investment is permitted to take up from any source, the higher the hygroscopic e pansion, upto a point where further addition of wa do not create any additional e pansion. This degree of e pansion or its corresponding quantity of water is called the critical point. Cor an investment to reach its ma imum hygroscopic e pansion, sufficient water should be available. &f hygroscopically e panding investments are in contact with less water than they are able to absorb, but they will not e hibit their ma imum hygroscopic e pansion. 6. 1mount of water added( 9ore amount of water added during setting period, more is the e pansion. T,erma. E2$ansi&n : &n case of gypsum investments, thermal e pansion is achieved by placing the mould in a furnace at a temperature not greater than 3,, o-. When the investment ring with the investment is heated two events take place. a. @ypsum undergoes shrinkage, as it becomes calcium sulfate anhydrate losing water. b. =ilica undergoes a thermal e pansion. -ristobalite contributes more to such e pansion. Thermal e pansion of a gypsum bonded investment is directly related to the amount of silica present and to the type of silica employed. 1 considerable amount of quart> is necessary to counterbalance the contraction of gypsum during heating.


When the quart> content of the investment is increased to ;,I with the balance being hemihydrate binder, the initial contraction of gypsum is not eliminated. The contraction of gypsum is entirely balanced when the quart> content is increased to 3.I. &f a sufficient amount of setting e pansion had been present, the casting made at 3,,o- would have fit the die reasonably well. Auart> e pands to ".0I at .3.o -ristobalite e pands to ".;I at $.,o-ristobalite produce adequate mold e pansion at lower temperature because of the lower inversion temperature of the cristobalite in comparison with that of quart>. Thus the normal contraction of the gypsum during heating is easily eliminated. 1 reasonably good fit of the casting is obtained when the gold alloy is cast into the mold at temperature of .,,o- and higher. The amount of thermal e pansion of a dental investment depend on it use. &f the hygroscopic e pansion is used to compensate for the contraction of the gold alloy for Type && investments, 181 specification <o.$ requires that the thermal e pansion be between ,I and ,.;I at .,,o-. ?owever, for the Type & investments which rely principally on thermal e pansion for compensation, the thermal e pansion must be not less than "I nor greater than ".;I. 1nother desirable feature of an inlay investment is that its ma imal thermal e pansion be attained at a temperature not higher than 3,, o-. Thus when a thermal e pansion technique is used, the ma imum mold temperature for the casting of gold alloy should be less than 3,,o-. The gold alloys can become contaminated at a mold temperature higher than this.




". Water #owder 5atio ( The magnitude of thermal e pansion is related to the amount of solids present. W(# ratio thermal e pansion. $. Gffect of chemical modifiers ( 8isadvantage of an investment that contains sufficient silica to prevent any contraction during heating is that the weakening effect of silica in such quantities is likely to be too great. 1ddition of small amounts of sodium, potassium or lithium chlorides to the investment. Gliminate the contraction caused by the gypsum. &ncreases e pansion without the presence of an e cessive amount of silica. 'oric acid has a similar effect &ncreases e pansion ?ardens the set investment &t apparently disintegrates during the heating of the investment and a roughened surface on the casting may result. =ilica do not prevent gypsum shrinkage but counter balance it. -hlorides actually reduce gypsum shrinkage below temperatures of appro imately 3,,o-. +* T,erma. C&ntra(ti&n : When the investment is allowed to cool from 3,,o- the refractory and binder contact )This contraction is because of gypsum when it is first heated*. Fn cooling to room temperature, the investment e hibits an overall contraction compared with its dimension before heating.


Fn reheating to the temperature previously attained, the investment does not e pand thermally to the previous level. 9oreover the process of cooling and reheating causes internal cracks in the investment that can affect the quality of the casting. 0* Stren1t, : The strength of the investment must be adequate to prevent fracture or chipping of the mold during heating and casting of the gold alloy. The total thermal contraction of the investment is similar to that of the gold alloy from the casting temperature to room temperature, the contraction of the investment is fairly constant, until it cools to below .., o-. Thus, when the alloy is still quite hot and weak, the investment can resist alloy shrinkage by virtue of its strength and constant dimension. This can cause distortion and even fracture in the casting if the hot strength of the alloy is low. 1lthough this is rarely a factor with gypsumE bonded investments, it can be important with other types of investments. The compressive strength of the investment mold is a primary factor to be considered in addition to the e pansion when evaluating the dimensional accuracy of dental castings. &deally, the investment should have sufficient e pansion to compensate for all of the thermal contraction of the alloy. ?owever, after burnout of the mold, the strength need be no greater than that required to resist the impact of the metal entering the mold. 1ccording to 181 =pecification <o.$, the compressive strength for the inlay investment should not be less than $.0 9#a )+., psi* when tested $ hours after setting. a(t&rs A))e(tin1 Stren1t, : ". &ncreased W(# ratio (decreased compressive strength. $. ?eating the investment to 3,,o- may increase or decrease strength by ;.I.


@reatest reduction in strength on heating is found in investments containing <a-l. +. 1fter the investment has cooled to room temperature, its strength decreases considerably, because of fine cracks that form during cooling. 0. The use of hemihydrate instead of plaster increases the compressive strength. .. The use of chemical modifiers increases the strength because more of binder can be used without a marked reduction in the thermal e pansion. 5* OTHER CONSIDERATIONS : a. ineness ( Cineness of the investment affects its setting time, surface roughness of the casting. Cine the silica particle % greater the hygroscopic e pansion than a coarse silica. Ciner the investment % =maller are the surface irregularities on the casting. b. P&r&sity : 8uring the casting process, the molten metal is forced into the mold under pressure. 1s the molten metal enters the mold, the air must be forced out ahead of it. &f the air is not completely eliminated, a backpressure builds up, which prevent the gold alloy from completely filling the mold. The common method for venting the mold is through the pores of the investment. The amount of porosity depends on ( @ypsum crystals. 9ore gypsum crystals are present in the set investment less porosity. Therefore lower the amount of hemihdyrate and greater the amount of water used to mi the investment more porous it becomes. 9ore uniform the particle si>e @reater is the porosity. 1 mi ture of coarse and fine particles Less porosity than an investment composed of a uniform particle si>e.


c. St&ra1e : Bnder conditions of high relative humidity, the setting time may change. Bnder such conditions, the setting e pansion and the hygroscopic e pansion may be altered so that the entire casting procedure may be adversely affected. Therefore the investments should be stored in airtight and moisture proof containers. 8uring use, the containers should be opened for short time as possible. 1ll investments are composed of a number of ingredients each of which possess a different specific gravity. Therefore there is tendency for these components to separate according to the specific gravity. This separation may sometimes influence the setting e pansion and other properties of the investment so it is advisable to purchase the investment in relatively small quantities. The investment should be weighed and the water should be measured according to the proportion of the investment mi . Fnly in this manner can one e pect to control the setting or the thermal e pansion in relation to the compensation needed for the casting shrinkage and other important properties. =ome manufacturers supply their investment in preweighed packages so that one needs only to measure the gauging water. Uses : Cor casting of inlays, bridges, removable partial denture frame works using gold alloys and other low fusing alloys. MODI IED TYPES O #YPSUM 6 "ONDED INVESTMENTS : Hy1r&s(&$i( T,erma. In.ay Castin1 In'estment : 1 new inlay casting investment that can be used as a hygroscopic or thermal type has became available. This investment contains a blend of quart> and cristobalite as the refractory. When hygroscopic casting technique is used, the investment is heated to 0/$o- after setting in accordance with the normal water immersion technique. When used in the thermal casting technique, the $$

investment is not immersed in water, but after setting it is heated to ;00 o-, then the appropriate e pansion is achieved.

INVESTMENTS USED FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CASTING PROCEDURE : 9ost palladium and base metal alloys used for partial dentures and porcelain fusedEtoEmetal restoration have high melting temperatures. They are cast in moulds at /., to "",,o-. =o, gypsum bonded investments cannot be used, because it disintegrates at such high temperature. To withstand these high temperatures, the molds require different types of binders such as silicate and phosphate compound. The investment used for this purpose are D #hosphate bonded investments =ilica bonded investments

P,&s$,ate "&nded In'estments : The most common type of investment for casting high melting alloys is the phosphate bonded investment. C&mm&n "rands : 1urobond, -alsite, -erafine, 8eguvest, 87#, Gurocent, <irobond, 5oma e alet etc. C&m$&siti&n : ". 'inder ( $,I &t consists of $ components. 1cidic part 1mmonium diacid phosphate )<?0?$#F0* 'asic part 9agnesium o ide )mgo*


Which react at room temperature to form a phosphate binder Ammonium magnesium phosphate )<?09g#F0.;?$F* which gives the investment green strength : room temperature strength. $. 5efractory ( =ilica. Gither cristoballite : quart> or a mi ture of two in a concentration of appro imately /,I. e pansion at high temperature. +. 9odifiers ( -arbon % 1ct as a reducing agent to produce clean casting and facilitate devesting of the casting from the mould. &t is used for high temperature gold casting alloys. 'ut with silver palladium or base metal alloy, carbon embrittles the alloy even though the investment is heated to temperatures that burnout the carbon. #alladium reacts with carbon at temperatures above ".,0 o-. Thus if the casting temperature of a high palladium alloy e ceeds this critical point, a phosphate investment without carbon should be used. s M&de &) S%$$.y : #owder in packets with special Liquid ( ". #owder contain <?0?$#F0, 9gF, =ilica, Traces of carbon. This powder may be mi ed with water to form the investment. $. =pecial liquid -ontain colloidal silica. -olloidal silica suspensions are available for use with phosphate investments in place of water. This liquid shows increased setting e pansion, produce significant amount of hygroscopic e pansion )as with pure water the amount of hygroscopic e pansion is less* and increases its strength. Cor base metal alloys a ++I dilution of colloidal silica is required. Settin1 Rea(ti&n : They function as refractory )i.e. to provide high temperature thermal shock resistance* and provide thermal


1t room temperature ammonium diacid phosphate reacts with magnesium o ide to give the investment green strength or room temperature strength. ". <?0?$#F0 K 9gF K .?$F <?0 9g#F0. ;?$F )1mmonium diacid phosphate* )9agnesium ammonium phosphate* The ammonium diacid phosphate is used in a greater amount than is necessary for this reaction, so that the additional amount can react with silica at an elevated temperature. 1t higher temperature there is probably a superficial reaction between #$F. and =iF$ to form silica phosphate, which increases strength of investment at higher temperature. #hosphates are quite comple and the reaction is not simple. The

stoichometric )determination of the relative proportion of the compounds involved in a chemical reaction* quantities are equal molecules of magnesia and ammonium diacid phosphate, an e cess of magnesia is usually present and some of it is never fully reacted. The product formed is predominantly colloidal multimolecular )<?09g#F0.;?$F*n which aggregate around e cess 9gF and fillers. 1fter the initial setting reaction, the set colloid undergoes various thermal reactions on heating. $. 9gF K <?0 ?$#F0 K ?$F )<?09g#F0. ;?$F*n 9gF <?0?$#F0 ?$F #rolonged setting at room temperature or dehydration at .,o)<?09g#F0.;?$F*n ?$F )<?0 9g#F0.?$F*n 8ehydrated at ";,o-olloidal type particles


?eated from +,, % ;.,o )9g$#$F3*n 9g$#$F3 9g+)#$F0*$ The final products are crystalline 9g $#$F3 and some e cess 9gF, along with essentially unchanged quart>, cristobalite or both. =ome 9g +)#F0*$ may be formed if the investment is grossly overheated or when the molten metal contacts the mold cavity surface. Mani$%.ati&n : The powder is mi ed with a measured amount of liquid using a bowl and spatula. ?and mi ing or mechanical mi ing under vacuum can be done. The mi ed material is vibrated into the casting ring. Settin1 and T,erma. E2$ansi&n : Theoretically, the setting reaction should show shrinkage but in practice there is slight e pansion when colloidal silica solution is used instead of water. When phosphate investments are mi ed with water, they e hibit a shrinkage at the same temperature range as gypsum bonded investments )$,, o- to 0,,o-*. This contraction is practically eliminated when a colloidal silica solution replaces the water. The shrinkage is due to decomposition of the binder, magnesium ammonium phosphate with evolution of ammonia, which is readily apparent by its odor, but this shrinkage is masked by e pansion of cristoballite. 1ccording to ADA s$e(i)i(ati&n N&*5+ there are $ types of phosphate bonded investments. Type & Type && ( &nlays, crown and other fi ed restorations. ( #artial dentures and other cast removable restorations <on crystalline polymeric phase 1bove ;6,o -rystalline in nature ?eated above ",0,o-


3&r7in1 and Settin1 Time : Working time =etting time ( $ minutes ( " hour

a(t&rs A))e(tin1 Settin1 Time : ". &ncreased Temperature Cast set The setting reaction itself is e othermic, and this further accelerates the rate of setting. $. &ncreased mi ing time Cast set @enerally mechanical mi ing under vacuum is preferred. +. &ncreased L ( # ratio &ncreased working time Mis(e..ane&%s Pr&$erties : -ompressive =trengths Type & Type && =etting e pansion ?ygroscopic e pansion Thermal e pansion ,.0I ,.; % ,./I With water ,./I With special liquid ".$I Advantages : ". ?igh green strength $. ?igh fired strength % Less mold cracking and few fins on casting. +. They can withstand temperatures upto ",,,o- for short periods of time. Disadvantages : ". 1t temperatures greater than "+3.o- -ause mold breakdown and roughen the surface of casting. $. 8ue to high strength devesting is defect. =hould not be less than $.. 9#a +., 9#a


+. To increase e pansion, with use of special liquid -ause less porous mold &ncomplete casting 0. ?igh tendency for reaction with nonEprecious alloy producing o ides which is difficult to remove from castings.

S%r)a(tant C&ntainin1 P,&s$,ate "&nded In'estment : 1ddition of surfactants to phosphate bonded investment can increase the hygroscopic setting e pansion. The surfactant also makes the unset investment more viscous and reduces the compressive strength. Et,y.-Si.i(ate "&nded In'estments : 1nother type of binding material for investments used with casting high melting alloys is silicate bonded investments. This investment material are being used since "6+,. 'ut now it is loosing popularity due to complicated and time consuming procedures involved. C&mm&n "rands : <obilium rapid set )low iron and sodium investment* =addle lock )a ferruginous investment* ?owmet 7ary rapid )intermediate iron and sodium*

C&m$&siti&n : 1. 'inder =ilica gel that reverts to silica )cristobalite* on heating. '. 5efractory =ilica )cristobalite* -. 1dditive 9agnesium o ide % 9ake it alkaline, strengthen the gel 8. Wetting agent To reduce accumulation of air bubbles on surface of wa pattern. 7arious methods of producing silica or silicic acid gel binder. $/

". p? of sodium silicate is lowered by the addition of an acid or acid salt =ilicic acid gel forms. $. 1queous suspension of colloidal silica can be converted to gel by addition of an accelerator such as ammonium chloride =ilicic acid gel.

Another system for binder formation is based on ethyl silicate. 0 Sta1es : =tage & ( Hydrolysis ( 1 colloidal silicic acid is first formed by hydroly>ing ethyl silicate in the presence of hydrochloric acid, ethyl alcohol and water. ?-l, -$?.F? =i)F-$?.*0 K 0?$F =i)F?0* K 0-$?.F? )Gthyl alcohol* Gthyl silicate =ol of polysilicic acid 'ecause of the use of polymeri>ed form of ethyl silicate, a colloidal sol of polysilicic acid is e pected instead of simpler silicic acid sol. =tage && ( Gelation The sol is then mi ed with quart> or cristoballite, to which is added a small amount of finally powdered magnesium o ide to render the mi ture alkaline. n=i )F?*0 K 9go 9go L=i)F?*Mn 1 coherent gel of polysilicic acid forms, accompanied by a setting shrinkage. =tage &&& ( rying )N";/o-* This soft gel is dried at a temperature below ";/ o-. 8uring the drying process, the gel loses alcohol and water to form a concentrated hard gel. 1 volumetric contraction accompanies the drying, which reduces the si>e of the $6


This contraction is known as Green !hrinkage! and it occurs in

addition to the setting shrinkage. This gelatin process is slow and time consuming. 1n alternative and faster method for the production of silica gel is employed. -ertain types of amines can be added to the solution of ethyl silicate so that hydrolysis and gelation occur simultaneously. =imultaneous hydrolysis Gthyl silicate K #iperidine =ilica gel )amine* @elation With an investment of this type, the mold enlargement before casting must compensate not only for the casting shrinkage of the metal but also for the green shrinkage and setting shrinkage of the investment. M&de &) S%$$.y : ". #owder 5efractory particles of silica and glass -alcined 9gF Fther refractory o ide $. Liquid =ingle liquid of stabili>ed alcohol solution of silica gel. or With $ liquids Fne bottle contains a properly diluted water soluble silicate solution Fther bottle contains a properly diluted acid solution such as solution of hydrochloric acid. 'efore use equal volume of each bottle should be mi ed and allowed to stand for a prescribed time according to the manufacturers instruction. =o that hydrolysis can take place and freshly prepared silicic acid formed. Mani$%.ati&n :


#owder is added to the hydroly>ed ethyl silicate liquid, mi ed quickly and vibrated into a mold. This allows the heavier particles to settle quickly while the e cess liquid and some of the fine particles rise to the top. &n about +, minutes The accelerator )<?0-l* in the powder hardens the settled part, and the top e cess is poured off. Thus the liquid( powder ratio in the settled part is greatly reduced and the setting shrinkage is reduced to ,."I. &t is little more complicated than phosphate type in that care must be e ercised in handling and burnout, because flammable alcohol is given off. &f it is heated high enough, some silica converts to quart> and provides added e pansion. This type of investment can be heated to ",6, o- to ""/,o- and is compatible with the higher fusing alloys. &ts low setting e pansion minimi>es distortion. Pr&$erties : -ompressive strength =etting contraction Thermal e pansion <ot less than ".. 9#a , % ,.0I ".. % "./I )This material has only thermal e pansion and no other e pansion* -an withstand high temperature ",6,o- to ""/,o#orosity The particles in the set material are very closely packed leading to low porosity. 1ir space : vents must be left in investment to permit escape of air from the mould. Advantages : ". ?igh permeability, yields sharply defined castings. $. Low setting e pansion +. The investment has more refractory Corm smooth castings


0. Low burnout strength results in easy removal of castings and cleaning of o ides from the castings. Disadvantages : ". Limited shelf life of liquid $. 9ust wait for substantial period of time, prior to using freshly mi ed liquid. +. #otential of cracking e its during burnout, owing to high thermal e pansion. 0. 7ery e pensive .. @ives off flammable components during processing.

Uses : ". They are mainly used for casting -oE-r 5.#.8. frame work. $. 1ccurate casting of <ickel based alloys. Di'estments 8"y 3,i$mi2 C&r$&rati&n9 : &t is a combination of die stone and gypsum bounded investment material. The powder is mi ed with colloidal silica. Pr&$erties: =etting e pansion Thermal e pansion ( ,.6I ( ,.;I )at 633o-*

Advantages : The wa pattern and die are invested simultaneously without removal of pattern. Bseful with gold alloys. )Bsed for casting minute patterns* Di'estment P,&s$,ate 8D'$9 : =imilar to divestment, but used for casting post and core, crowns of base metal alloys without any need of removal of wa pattern. "ra:in1 In'estment : ADA S$* N&*;0 : Type & % @ypsum bonded dental bra>ing investment Type && % #hosphate bonded +$

=teps ( "* 'roken parts are stabili>ed by sticky wa . $* The broken parts are then embedded in investment with portion to be solder is left e posed and free of investment. They should have low setting and thermal e pansion. #article si>e is usually not fine. They possess usually a compressive strength of $E", 9#a. CONCLUSION : &t should be emphasi>ed that several investment techniques can produce comparable results. The dentist or technician should become familiar with different method and different investment materials. &n any technique the fundamentals of that techniques should be applied.