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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction: The changing library........................................................................................................ 1 Chapter 1: The foundation..................................................................................................................... 2 1.1 Personal development ................................................................................................................. 2 1.2 Educational theories ..................................................................................................................... 2 1.2.1 Theory of Multiple Intelligences ............................................................................................ 3 1.2.2 New Media Literacy ............................................................................................................... 3 1.2.3 The Reggio Emilia approach to education ........................................................................ 4 1.3 Bringing it all together ................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 2: From theory to design ......................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Library spaces................................................................................................................................. 6 2.2 The model ....................................................................................................................................... 8 Chapter 3: Coherency in the library................................................................................................... 11 3.1 The talent lab, a practical example ......................................................................................... 11 Chapter 4: The catalogue ................................................................................................................... 13 Chapter 5: Further development ........................................................................................................ 14 Appendixes ............................................................................................................................................ 15

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INTRODUCTION: THE CHANGING LIBRARY
The role of public libraries in the society is changing. While the amount of media and media content grows, the amount of spare time people have becomes less with each passing year. Because of this, people have to prioritise their list of possible activities. In most cases, going to the library is far from the top of the list. In order to provide for the functions the library currently offers, people use internet services such as Google Search and Wikipedia to quickly find the information they need. Furthermore, they order books online at stores like Amazon and Bol.com, which usually deliver the books on your doorstep the next day. Even if some people don’t like to read books, almost everyone reads their favourite weblogs and news sites, discusses on online forums or reads tons of member profiles of various social networking sites (eg. Hyves, MySpace). For libraries to remain a meaningful commodity to the community, its role has to change. The Dutch Public Library Association has acknowledged this and launched the Library 2040 project in response. A large number of people and institutions with different backgrounds gave their point of view on the future library, these are documented in the book “Bibliotheken 2040: De toekomst in uitvoering”. In the context of Library 2040, the Treehouse Project is the latest instalment in a series of cooperations between the Dutch Public Library Association and the Utrecht School of the Arts. The Treehouse Project team, an interdisciplinary team consisting of both Master and PSAU students, was asked by the Dutch Public Library Association to develop a concept for the children’s section in the library of the future, in which sharing and imagination should play a big role. This report contains the results of the Treehouse Project team its efforts to envision a possible future for the Dutch public libraries in which they do not compete with but supplement peoples’ everyday usage of different media. During this project we chose not to focus on specific details within this vision, but to create a broad spectrum sketch of the future library. Thus, we mean to push the Dutch Public Library Association in the direction we think is correct by handing them a solid foundation, for them to be able to continue building on top of our work. This report is built around the processes and notions we think are important in the library of the future. The fact that these processes work is then proven by the supplemented test data of specific implementations. This report does not offer information about our design process, which can be found in our process documentation instead.

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CHAPTER 1: THE FOUNDATION
The Dutch Public Library Association has defined five core functions, which are the primary areas for which the libraries provide services. The core functions are knowledge & information, education, reading & literature and meeting & debate. These five core functions manifest themselves in dozens of different ways, but there is one thread that runs through them all; libraries intend you to leave more knowledgeable or wiser than you were when you came in. In other words, all five core functions contribute to the personal development of people.

1.1 PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT
Personal development however, takes both time and effort. This poses a problem for today’s society, where people continually search for ways to do things faster and with less effort. We order our books from bol.com or Amazon, sometimes based on what other customers bought, without the website exactly telling us why. Children base their essays on information retrieved from Wikipedia, assuming every word that’s written down is true. Although the internet, and other media, offer large amounts of content, we increasingly tend to forget to reflect on what it tells us and just accept the information at face value. Thus, in order to stimulate personal development, people need an environment which stimulates curiosity and inspires them to ask questions. This is a quality that modern media, such as the world wide web, cannot offer. Modern media overload people with information, which only results in people not being able to ask questions. However, this is exactly the point where libraries can distinguish themselves from other content providers. Libraries have a physical space and real people walking around who can assist you in your quest for knowledge and/or wisdom. In order for this to happen, several things have to change within the current libraries. First of all, libraries should stop offering ever more content to people and switch to a contextcentred approach instead. Overloading people with information does not help them and, even more important, it does not help if a librarian points to the computer running search software if you ask a question that’s harder to answer than asking for the section with travel guides. A context-centred approach to libraries makes use of the advantages the library has over the use of modern media in that it can better support people in their personal development. For a context-centred approach to personal development to work, libraries should not only inspire people to ask questions but also enable and assist them to find the answer to their question and finally help them reflect on both question and answer. In other words, the library of the future enables and stimulates people to get inspired, use that inspiration to find answers and reflect back on what they found. To help us envision this environment, we have taken elements from several theories on education.

1.2 EDUCATIONAL THEORIES
During the project, we have borrowed from three different theoretical and practical approaches to learning. The first and most influential to our project is Howard Gardner’s 2

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Theory of Multiple Intelligence, the second are Henry Jenkins’ ideas on new media literacy and the third is Regio Emilia’s approach to preschool and primary education. Together, these approaches to learning form the second cornerstone of the library of the future the way we envisioned it.

1.2.1 Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence deals with different ways of thinking and learning. It acknowledges that different people absorb information in different ways and thus have talents in different areas. The theory distinguishes between eight different intelligences:         Bodily – Kinesthetic Interpersonal Verbal – Linguistic Logical – Mathematical Naturalistic Intrapersonal Visual – Spatial Musical – Rhythmical

Taken back into context of the library, the fact that people have different talents, and assuming that all those talents can be included in one of Gardner’s eight intelligences, means the library should enable people to process information and develop themselves in different ways. In today’s libraries, a person can look at pictures in books if he or she is strong in the visual – spatial talent or listen to music if the person is strong in the musical – rhythmical talent. It is possible for everyone having one to find information in the library which can be processed by using the talent the person in question is strong in. Thus, people cannot improve the use of their talents within the library, or in other words, one’s personal development is currently limited to processing information. This brings us back to the context-centred approach, in which different people should be inspired by and able to search for answers in different ways. This is not limited to reading a book or watching episodes of a tv-show, but can also include creating a movie yourself, learning to play or compose a piece of music and building a robot, just to name a few examples. Because people are actually creating stuff, the answers to people’s questions, can often be added to the library again to act as fuel for someone else’s curiosity.

1.2.2 New Media Literacy
The second part of theoretical background is about new media literacy. Henry Jenkins identified eleven skills dealing with new media, which people need to function well in today’s high-tech. These skills include:   PLAY: The capacity to experiment with one’s surroundings as a form of problem solving. PERFORMANCE: The ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery.

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   

SIMLATION: The ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes. APPROPRIATION: The ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content. MULTITASKING: The ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details. DISTRIBUTED COGINITION: The ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand our mental capacities. COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE: The ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal. JUDGEMENT: The ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources. TRANSMEDIA NAVIGATION: The ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities. NETWORKING: The ability to search for, synthesize and disseminate information. NEGOTIATION: The ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms.

Although these skills are important in today’s society, they are rarely taught to people. Skill sets dealing with new media literacy, such as using Google to find what you are looking for or distinguishing between commercial and informative content on websites are often learned through trial-and-error. The library can offer guidance in successfully tapping into the wealth of information that can be accessed through modern media. By helping people to learn and eventually master the use of modern media, libraries can offer access to much more content than can be stored in physical media. This further decreases the importance of the library as content provider, but shows that libraries can offer services such as helping people to successfully make use of other content providers.

1.2.3 The Reggio Emilia approach to education
The third and last part of the theoretical background stems from the Reggio Emilia approach to education. The philosophy of Reggio Emilia is centred around the natural development of children, which coincides with the library of the future’s focus on personal development. This development-centred approach manifests itself through the following principles:     Children must have some control over the direction of their learning. Children must be able to learn through experiences of touching, moving, listening, seeing and hearing. Children have a relationship with other children and with material items in the world that children must be allowed to explore. Children must have endless ways and opportunities to express themselves.

These principles match with the Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence, in that they enable children to learn and express themselves in various ways, depending on the preferences of the children. This also brings us back to our target group and original assignment: designing the children’s section of the future library. 4

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1.3 BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER
We envision the children’s section of the future libraries to be an inspiring place which stimulates children to learn, experience, create and share; factors which all contribute to a child’s personal development. By using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a base, children can do this in the way that suits them best. When the library also acts as a guide to using new media, all children have the chance to learn the skills they need in order to fully function in today’s society. Furthermore, the children’s section of the library of the future is influenced by the Reggio Emilia approach to education in that it gives children the choice, what, when and how they want to learn, experience, create and/or share.

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CHAPTER 2: FROM THEORY TO DESIGN
If the library is to stimulate learning, creating and sharing through meaningful experiences, the inside of the library has to change. Space is needed for things other than physical media containers (e.g. Books or compact discs). To achieve this, we split up the library into three different spaces, each of these spaces deals with a separate step in the process of inspiration, creation and exposition. Part of the furniture of these spaces consists of interactive installations. In these installations, one or more of Jenkins’ new media skills should be present and the installation needs to stimulate one or more of Gardner’s intelligences. To make it easier for designers to think up good concepts, we developed a grid based on the theoretical side of this project.

2.1 LIBRARY SPACES
In our concept for the youth section in the library of the future we have divided the available library space into three sections. This makes it easier for a library to incorporate the process of inspiration, creation and exposition. The three different spaces in the library are the inspiration area, the work area and the flexible area.

Each space serves a different purpose. The inspiration space contains books, magazines, news papers, movies, cartoons and other TV series, music and computers with internet access among other stuff. All these sources of information can act as a stimulus for one’s imagination. This still sounds a lot like a traditional library, but this is where the changes start. One of the changes is that the inspiration area also contains requests from other people. Like a notice board, everyone can put a note with a question on the question board. These questions can be answered by people who already know the answer or by people who have an interest in the subject and are willing to spend time into finding the answer.

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Aside from the notice board, a large part of the interactive installations briefly mentioned before are positioned within the inspiration area. These installations are meant to inspire children in ways not possible through traditional library content. One such installation is the Kijkende Handen box. Kijkende Handen is a large box of about 9 square meters in which children can engage with an audio story while being deprived from their sense of sight. Before entering, children have to blindfold themselves and put on a set of headphones. This way, the installation simulates being blind. But it doesn’t stop by being deprived from your sight, the immersion is also increased by the combination of audio effects and the use of physical objects.

Being engaged with installations like Kijkende Handen or finding information in traditional media can inspire children to create something. This brings us to the second of the three spaces, the work area. The work area can be used to transform your inspiration into something you create yourself or with others. This can be an essay for school, a poem, a song or just about anything else. If you’re interested in robots, it should be possible to build one. If you want to form a band with other people and practice songs, this should also be possible. Working in the work area can be done alone or with others, you can work on a subject of your own choosing or participate in a workshop organised by someone else. The interactive installations in the inspiration space are a good place to start for workshops. Let us take Kijkende Handen as an example once more. It is possible to organise various workshops around the installation, in which children go through the process of creating their own audio-story step-by-step. Starting with a story writing workshop, the children can continue in a sensory workshop, a prop building workshop and finally an audio editing workshop. When working in a series of workshops centred around an installation, it is impossible to do all the work on your own. In these cases, children with different roles work together to finish the workshop. In case of the workshops centred around Kijkende Handen, some children work on the props while someone else is doing the voice acting and others are doing the audio editing. 7

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The result of what happens in the work area varies according to the subject. A story made for Kijkende Handen can be put back into the library and a drawing or movie can be uploaded to the internet to act as inspiration for someone else. In this way, the smaller creations return to the library as new content. The larger-scale creations however, cannot easily be exhibited in the inspiration area. For this purpose, we added a third space to the library, the flexible area. The flexible area can be used for various purposes. As such, the contents of the flexible area change over time. It is entirely possible to use it as an art gallery one week, while children perform a play the week after. There is one thread running through all the activities in the flexible area, the activities are meant to expose the work the children have created in the work area. Since the library is still a public space, everyone can walk in, take a look at the work, meet other people and discuss the work that is being exposed at the moment. Besides choosing to show your work in the flexible area or putting it back in the inspiration area, children can also choose to upload their work to the internet. This can then be shared with other people through systems we call hotspots. These hotspots are placed within as well as outside the library. Hotspots allow people to search through everything that’s been uploaded, comment on creations and contact the person who uploaded the creation. This way, the hotspots serve not only to expose someone’s work, but also to connect people with similar interest. The different spaces and the hotspots helps the library stimulate learning, creating and sharing. The installations in the inspiration area, the workshops in the work area and the exposure through the flexible area and hotspots all help to do this through meaningful experiences. However, for the inspiration area to really work, different installations dealing with different talents and skills have to be designed.

2.2 THE MODEL
We devised a model to help designers filter their ideas and analyse their concepts for interactive installations. This model is based on the theory discussed in a previous chapter. Its base consists of an 88-square grid, combining Gardner’s eight multiple talents along one axis with Jenkins’ new media skills along the other. Each installation that can be designed for the library has a different footprint in this grid, as different installations utilise different talents and help to master different skills.

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The model can be used in two ways by designers. The first is to analyse existing concepts or installations and us it as a filter to find the most promising concept. Using the model as a tool for analysis is perhaps the easiest method, but probably not the best. The other way to use the model is by taking one or more talents and or new media skills as basis for generating ideas. A good example of this second usage is the way we have designed the SourceWell. The SourceWell is from the start on designed for children to master the skill Jenkins defined as Judgement. The SourceWell is a tabletop computer on which you can put one or multiple sources of information for comparison, such as a news paper article or a book. The SourceWell then displays information about the writer and the publisher, based on which you can determine the value of the source’s information. This way, children learn to distinguish valuable information from gossip or commercial content.

Analysis of the different installations we designed show that the model is a usable tool during the design process. And although this was our initial usage for the model, it can also be used by librarians to select a sub-section from all the available installations. To make the selection process easier, we expanded the model to include three additional layers of information. The first of these additional layers is about what we call the ‘Amount of Guide Units’ (short:AGU). Some installations cannot be used by children without guidance, although the amount of guidance they need can differ per age. The AGU layer shows the amount of guidance, expressed in percentages, a child of a certain age needs to safely and meaningfully interact with an installation. The second additional layer shows in which balance an installation adds something to the implementation of one of the libraries’ core functions. The last additional layer of information is about the process of inspiration, creation and expression. The layer shows in which part of the process the installation fits by displaying the balance between the different steps of the process in a pie-chart.

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The model brings theory and practice together. It is the bridge between the Theory of Multiple Intelligence, Jenkins’ ideas on New Media Literacy and the actual design of installations dealing either directly or indirectly with these skills. Furthermore, the model can also be used as a tool for selecting installations to be used in the three library spaces; the inspiration area, the work area and the flexible area. The description of the three library spaces and the model help to bridge the gap between our ideas and an actual implementation of the future library the way we envisioned it. They help enable libraries to become an inspiring place which stimulates children to learn, experience, create and share in meaningful ways.

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CHAPTER 3: COHERENCY IN THE LIBRARY
Although the three library spaces, the dozens of different workshop tools and installations all contribute to the library of the future, things can become an incoherent mess at this point. When done wrong, future libraries can look like institutions with different purposes meshed together. To make sure the library still feels like a coherent whole, we used themes to connect the three library spaces and their contents. Themes can differ in many ways from each other, but they always strengthen the connection between the different spaces and the different steps in the process of inspiration, creation and exposition. Although being the most commonly seen element of a theme, the different library themes not only contain style guides. Library themes also come with props which can be placed in the library, installations which fit the theme and advise on different workshops stemming from the installations included with the theme. As different library themes come with different artefacts, each library theme has a different footprint in the grid. Also, the themes can differ across a wide variety of subjects. A library theme can be centred around a place such as an oasis, the ocean or a jungle, it can be centred around ancient civilizations such as the Romans, Greeks or Egyptians or around a scientific subject such as astronomy, physics or biology. The possibilities are endless. To show how this works in practice, we designed a single theme: the Talent Lab.

3.1 THE TALENT LAB, A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
A library themed with the Talent Lab poses itself as an experimental area, a facility that provides controlled conditions in which research, experiments, and measurement may be performed and where information, products and services are exchanged. The Talent Lab contains graphic elements in six different colours such as the ones pictured below:

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Aside from the graphic elements, the Talent Lab contains props for use in the work space, such as cordon tape, magnifying glasses, name tags, lab jackets, safety glasses, clipboards, lab access tickets and a hand scanner. These props are not just for decoration, most of them are actually useful in the work area and the access tickets and hand scanner provide children with access to the work area.

Finally, the Talent Lab ships with three installations, the mix machine, the microscope and the info pod. The three installations are all linked to the Talent Lab through the use of props or other elements that match with the Talent Lab. The mix machine remixes stories. Children can gather tags with words on them from within the work area and put these in test tubes. When the test tubes are placed in the mix machine, the machine will compile a new story out of other stories that match the tags. The second installation, the microscope, is a device through which children can review recordings of past workshops. By selecting a petri dish and placing it under the microscope, the corresponding recording is loaded and displayed. It is then possible to watch the recording through the microscope. The last installation included with the Talent Lab is the info pod. It is similar to the microscope installation in that it gives information about workshop. The info pod is a helmet-like device, which a child can put over his or her head, the child will then receive spoken information about the workshop that is currently in progress. More information on the mix machine, microscope and info pod can be found in the appendixes. As shown with the Talent Lab, through small enhancements to the overall experience of the three library spaces, the library themes create a feeling of coherency in the whole library while also creating a more joyful experience.

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CHAPTER 4: THE CATALOGUE
To bring all these installations and themes to the library, we devised a catalogue. The catalogue is a web application not unlike the well known web stores Amazon and Bol.com. Librarians can use the catalogue to step-by-step browse through its contents and select a library theme and one or more installations. To make it possible for librarians to make an educated choice, we built our catalogue application around the model discussed earlier.

When using the catalogue, librarians are first opted to select a theme for their library after which they can select one or multiple installations. This is done after each other, so as not to needlessly make the process more complicated. As a librarian navigates through the application, the complexity slightly increases with each step, so as not to create too steep a learning curve.

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CHAPTER 5: FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
In the past chapter, you have been introduced to the various components we created to support our vision of the library of the future. From the foundation consisting of the libraries’ core functions and educational theories to the different spaces in the library, the model and its various uses. This chapter talks about ways in which the “Vereniging van Openbare Bibliotheken” can build upon the foundation we have laid out. One of the ways in which the “Vereniging van Openbare Bibliotheken” can build upon this framework is by having people design new installations and prototyping our concepts for installations. Although various installations have been discussed in the previous chapters, only one of these, the Kijkende Handen, has been prototyped and tested. There has been thought about the technical requirements to create prototypes for these installations, as can be seen in the appendixes. Besides conceptualizing and prototyping new installations, a business model has to be thought out to make this work for the libraries. Since it should be possible for both small and large libraries to exchange their theme and installations periodically, letting libraries purchase their installations is out of the picture. The business model for the different themes and installations has to be embedded in the catalogue application, which need to be further developed itself. The catalogue application is not finished yet. Early usability testing with wireframes has shown several points of improvement and besides that, the wireframes have to be developed into a fully designed and functional website. Besides these pointers, evidence that this approach to the library of the future works already exists. The public library of Heerhugowaard is a good example, in which certain elements such as the combination of traditional library space with a workshop can be found. What is left is to go a few steps further and actually build the future library.

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APPENDIXES

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APPENDIX A: REFERENCES
Bruynzeels, R. & Tiggelen, N. van (2001) Bibliotheken 2040: De toekomst in uitvoering Biblion Uitgeverij Jenkins, H. (2006) Confronting the challenges in participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century Wikipedia The Reggio Emilia approach Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reggio_Emilia_approach Wikipedia The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_multiple_intelligences

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