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# Question 1 When electrons drift in a metal from lower to higher potential, does it mean that all the free

electrons of the metal are moving in the same direction? Ans. No it does not mean that the all the electrons are moving in the same direction as the drift velocity means average velocity. Electrons are accelerating towards higher potential, having collisions and again accelerating towards higher potential.

Question 2 Two wires A and B are of same material, have same area of cross-section and have their length in the ration 2: 1. What will be the ratio of current flowing through them if the same potential is applied across the length of each of them? Ans.

Current

Question 3 What is the ratio of resistances of two conductors of same material having length l and 2l and radius r and r/2 respectively? Ans.

Question 4 Two wires of equal lengths, one of copper and other nickel have the same resistance. Which wire is thicker? Ans.

Let and be resistivities of copper and nickel. A1 and A2 be the area of cross-section these wires. Since the two wires have the equal lengths and have the same resistance, therefore:

Since the resistivity of copper is less than that of nickel ( ), it follows that area of cross-section of copper wire is less than that of nickel wire. Thus, nickel wire is thicker.

Question 5

Find the resistivity of a conductor in which a current density is -1 15Vm is applied on it.
Ans.

## and electric field of

Let l and A be the length and area of cross-section of the conductor respectively. Current density, Electric field, = 15 V m
-1

Now, resistivity,

Question 6 What will be the resistivity of a wire if it is stretched to double of its original length without loss of mass? Ans.

The resistively of a wire depends on the nature of material. Thus, the increase in length of the wire will not affect its resistivity.

## Question 7 What is conventional current? Ans.

The current that flows from positive pole to negative pole of a cell in the external circuit is called conventional current.

Question 8 Electric current has both magnitude and direction but it is not a vector quantity. Why? Ans.

The reason is that the laws of ordinary algebra are used to add electric current. The laws of vector algebra do not apply to the addition of electric currents.

Question 9 Why solid conductors conduct electricity when placed in an electric field? Ans.

In solid conductors, free charges move randomly in all direction due to thermal agitation, and their net effect becomes zero. So, there will be no electric current inside the conductor. When electric field is applied, the electrons move in opposite direction to that of electric field and constitute the current.

Question 10 Which layer of the atmosphere has free charge particles? Ans.

In nature, free charge particles exist in upper strata of atmosphere called the ionosphere.

## Charges in motion constitute the electric current.

Question 1

Define the terms (i) drift velocity, (ii) relaxation time. A conductor of length L is connected to a de source of emf . If this conductor is replaced by another conductor of same material and same area of cross-section but of length 3L, how will the drift velocity change?
Ans.

The average velocity of electrons, independent of time, although accelarated through a conductor is called drift velocity. The average time interval between successive collisions is called relaxation time. Drift velocity

Where V is the potential difference applied across the length of the conductor. Keeping V constant,if Length L of the conductor is made 3 times, the drift velocity will become 1/3rd.

Question 2

A cylindrical metallic wire is stretched to increase its length by 5%. Calculate the percentage change in its resistance.
Ans.

## Percentage increase in resistance is

Question 3

Write the mathematical relation between mobility and drift velocity of charge carriers in a conductor. Name of mobile charge carriers responsible for conduction of electric current in (i) an electrolyte (ii) an ionized gas.
Ans.

(i) The charge carriers in an electrolyte are positive and negative ions. (ii) The charge carriers in an ionized gas are electrons and positively charged ions.

Question 4

Ans.

## The resistivity of carbon decreases with increasing temperature as shown in figure.

Question 5

Define the terms (i) drift velocity, (ii) relaxation time. A conductor of length L connected to a de source of emf . If this conductor is replaced by another conductor of same material and same area of cross-section but of length 3L, how will the drift velocity change?
Ans.

The average velocity of electrons, independent of time, although accelerated through a conductor is called drift velocity. The average time interval between successive collisions is called relaxation time. Drift velocity

Where V is the potential difference applied across the length of the conductor. Keeping V constant, if Length L of the conductor is made 3 times, the drift velocity will become 1/3rd.
Question 6

A wire of resistance 8R is bent in the form of a circle. What is the effective resi stance between theends of a diameter AB? 1

Ans.

## Equivalent resistance across the diameter:

Question 7

A cylindrical metallic wire is stretched to increase its length by 5%.Calculate the percentage change in its resistance.
Ans.

Question 8 A conductor of length l is connected to battery of potential V. If the length of the conductor is tripled by stretching it, keeping V constant, explain how the following factors vary in the conductor. (i) Drift velocity of electrons (ii) Resistivity Ans.

(i) , hence on increasing the length three times, the drift velocity becomes one-third of its original value.

(ii) Resistivity

Question 9 What will be trajectory of an electron in the absence and in the presence of an external electric field? Ans.

In the absence of an external electric field, the trajectory of electron will be straight line. And in the presence of an external electric field, the trajectory of an electron will be curved one with acceleration along the field.

Question 10 Ans.

Electric field

## (i) (ii) (iii)

If V is halved then electric field E is halved and resistance R remains unchanged. If L is halved then electric field E is doubled and resistance R is halved. If diameter D is doubled electric field E remains unaffected but the resistance is reduced to one-fourth of its original value.
Question 11 Calculate the electrical conductivity of the material of a conductor of length 2 m, area of cross-section 0.02 mm2 having a resistance of Ans.

R=

, A = 0.02 mm = 0.02 x 10 m = 2 x 10 m , l = 2 m

-6

-8

## Using the relation

Electrical conductivity

Question 12 Name the mobile charge carriers responsible for the production of electric current in (i) metals (ii) an electrolyte (iii) an ionized gas. Ans.

(i) Mobile charge carriers responsible for production of electric current in metals are free electrons. (ii) Mobile charge carriers responsible for production of electric current in an electrolyte are cations and anions. (iii) Mobile charge carriers responsible for production of electric current in an ionized gas are electrons and positively charged gas ions.

Question 13 What is mobility of electrons and how is it related with the conductivity? Ans.

Mobility of electrons in a conductor is defined as the magnitude of the drift velocity per unit electric field.

Question 14 If the temperature of a conductor increases, how does the relaxation time of electrons in the conductor changes? Ans.

When the temperature of the conductor increases, the resistivity of the conductor increases and hence

## the relaxation period

decreases.

Question 15 What is the effect of heating on the drift velocity of electrons of a conductor? Ans.

On heating a conductor, its resistance increases and consequently, the drift velocity of electrons decreases.

Question 16 Large amount of current can be obtained from the small drift velocity and small electronic charge in a conductor. Why? Ans.

Magnitude of current is depends upon the electron density. The density of electrons per unit area is so enormous, that a small drift in electrons produce a large amount of current in a conductor.

## Question 17 Define drift velocity of electrons for a metallic conductor. Ans.

The average velocity gained by the free electrons of a conductor in the opposite direction of the externally applied electric field is known as drift velocity of electron.
Question 1

A heating element is marked 210 V, 630 W. Find the resistance of the element when connected to a 210 V dc source.

Ans.

## V=210V P=630W R=?

R=

Question 2

In the circuit shows, Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor.

Ans.

R3, R4, R2 : parallel Upon calculation comes out to be R p= 6 R1 and Rp are in series. Req = 6 +4 = 10 Using Kirchoff's rules we get following equations, E - I1R1-I2R2 =0 -R4I4+I2R2=0 -I3R3+I4R4 =0 E-I1R1-I3R3=0 -I3R3+I2R2 =0 I1 =I2+I3+I4 Solving the above equations we get I1 =1A I2 =10/25 A I3 = 10/25 A I4 =5/25 A
Question 3

Ans.

Question 4

Out of two bulbs marked 25 W and 100 W, which has higher resistance?
Ans.

Question 5 A battery consisting of 10 cells in series has two cells reverse connected by mistake. E.M.F. of each cell is 1.5 V and internal resistance 0.1 coils reverse connected. Ans. . The value of external resistance is 4 . Find the reduction in current due to the two

## When the 10 cells are properly connected

Total e.m.f. of the battery=n E=10 x 1.5 = 15 V Total circuit resistance = R + nr = 4+ 10 x 0.1 = 5 Circuit current = 15 /5 = 3A When two of the cells are reverse connected, Total e.m.f. of the battery= (8 x 1.5) (2 x 1.5) = 9V Total circuit resistance = 5 (i.e. the same as before) Circuit current = 9 /5 = 1.8A Hence, the reduction in current = 3 -1.8 = 1.2 A

Question 6 Determine the equivalent resistance between terminals A and B of network shown in the figure below:

Ans.

Two 2-ohm resistors at the extreme right are sufficient in determining the equivalent resistance and may be assumed as absent. The resistance in branch DEFG are in series (= 2+2+4+2+2= 12 ) and this branch is in parallel with the branch DG (= 6 ) Resistance between D and G , RDG= The circuit shown in the figure above reduces to the figure below:

## Resistance between C and H, RCH=

The

circuit

then

further

reduces

to

the

figure

below:

RAB = 2+2+4 = 8

Question 7 What is the equivalent resistance between the terminals A and B in the figure below:

Ans.

The network shown in the above figure can be redrawn as shown in the figure below.

It is a balanced wheatstone bridge. Therefore, point C and D are at the same potential. Since no current flows in the branch CD, this branch is ineffective in determining the equivalent resistance between terminal A and B and can be removed. The branch ABC (= R+R= 2R) is in parallel with the branch ADB (= R+R= 2R)

Question 8 A low voltage supply should have low resistance. Why? Ans.

, The maximum current that can be drawn is = , When R=0 Thus we can obtain a large maximum current from a low voltage supply only if its internal resistance is small.

Question 9 You are given n wires, each of resistance R. What is the ratio of maximum to minimum resistance obtained from these wires? Ans.

The resistance obtained will be maximum when the wires are connected in series. However, when the wires are connected in parallel, the resistance will be minimum.

Question 10 Find the current in the circuit shown in the figure below

Ans.

The resistance in the branch ABC are in series and this branch is in parallel with the branch AC (= 30

## Total current resistance, R=

Question 11 Two coils connected in series have a resistance of 18 Find the value of individual resistances of the coils. and when connected in parallel have a resistance of 4 .

Ans.

2

## = .(iii) Solving eqs. (i) and (iii), we get R1=12

or 6

; R2=6

or 12

Question 12 The charge on an electron is extremely small and also the drift velocity is very small. Even then we get sufficient amount of current in a wire. Why? Ans.

. Although the values of and are small, the value of (density of electrons) is very large 28 -3 e.g., in metals its value is about 10 m . For this reason, we get a sizeable current in the wire.

Question 13 We knows that the large numbers of free electrons are present in the metals. Why is no current established in the absence of electric field? Ans.

In the absence of electric field, free electrons move in all directions haphazardly (randomly). During the motion they collide with positive ions of the metal again and again and after each collision their direction changes. The result is that the net motion in any particular direction is zero. However, when an electric field is applied, the free electrons experience a force and start drifting towards the positive terminal of the source with a small velocity called the drift velocity.

Question 14 Is Ohms law true for all conductors? Does the formula V=IR defines Ohms law? Ans.

No, it is only true for metallic conductors provided physical conditions do not change. No, the formula V=IR defines that resistance and can be applied to any conducting device whether or not it obeys Ohms law. The essence of Ohms law is that the graph between V and I is linear, i.e. the value of R is independent of the value of V.

Question 1

A resistance R is connected across a cell of emf and internal resistance r. A potentiometer now measures the potential difference between the terminals of the cell as V. Write the expression for 'r' in terms of , V and R.
Ans.

As emf

=I (r+R)

## /V = (r+R)/R =V(1+r/R) r = R(E/V - 1)

Question 2

Ans.

Question 3

Ans.

Question 4 A battery of emf 2.5 V and internal resistance r is connected in series with a resistor of 45 ohm through an ammeter of resistance of 1 ohm. The ammeter reads current of 50 mA. Draw the circuit diagram and calculate the value of r. Ans.

The total resistance of the circuit = 45 + 1 + r = (46 + r) ohm -3 Current = 50 x 10 A Emf = 2.5V Resistance = emf/current (46 + r) ohm = 2.5 V/
r= (50-46)ohm= 4 ohm.

50

10

-3

= 50

ohm

Question 5 A battery of emf 5 V and internal resistance of 0.5 ohm is connected across a resistance of 14.5 ohm. How many electrons pass through a cross-section of the resistance in 2 seconds? Ans.

## Current in the circuit is

Number of electron

Question 6 What is the purpose of using a resistance in series during charging a circuit? Ans.

During the charging of a battery, current will flow in a direction opposite to the direction of current drawn from a battery. Purpose of having a series resistance in charging circuit is to adjust the charging current.

Question 7 Why the light of a motor vehicle becomes dim when it is started? Ans.

On starting the vehicle initially, a large amount of current is draws from the battery. This causes a large voltage drop across the internal resistance of the battery. Consequently the potential difference across the terminals of battery also reduced. This potential drop across the terminal of the battery makes the light dim.

Question 8 The potential difference across a cell is 2 V when a current of 1 A is drawn from it. The potential difference falls to 1.8 V when a current of 1.2 A is drawn. Find the emf and internal resistance of the cell. Ans.

## Using the relation:

E=(2+1)V= 3 V

Question 9 A battery of 10 V and internal resistance of 2 ohm is connected to a resistor R. Calculate the value of R, if the current in the circuit is 0.5 A. Also find the terminal voltage of the battery when the circuit is closed? Ans.

## (ii) Terminal voltage of the battery when the circuit is closed

Question 10 A cell of emf 8 V and internal resistance of 0.5 ohm is connected across a load of resistance (i) 15.5 ohm (ii) 11.5 ohm. Calculate the potential drop in each case. Ans.

Question 11

## Differentiate between Emf and Potential difference of a cell. Ans.

Emf of a cell Emf of cell is amount of work done in driving a unit charge around the circuit

It is constant quantity and depends upon the nature and composition of the cell.

Terminal potential difference of a cell It is the potential difference between two terminals of the cell when the cell is in the closed circuit. That means, when the current is being drawn from the cell. It is variable quantity and depends upon the value of external resistance.

Question 12 Under what condition, the terminal potential difference of a cell is greater than its emf. Ans.

When current is being supplied to cell by some external source. That means at the time of charging the secondary cell.

Question 13 What do you know about the internal resistance of the cell? On what factors does it depend? Ans.

The resistance offered by the electrolyte of a cell between its electrodes, to the electric current, is called internal resistance. Internal resistance depends upon the following factors: It is directly proportional to the concentration of the electrolyte. Nature of electrolyte. It is directly proportional to the distance between two electrodes.

1. 2. 3.

Question 1

Prove that the current density of a metallic conductor is directly proportional to the drift speed of electrons. Or A number of identical cells, n, each of emf E, internal resistance r connected in series are charged by a d.c. source of emf E, using a resistor R. (i) Draw the circuit arrangement. (ii) Deduce the expressions for (a) the charging current and (b) the potential difference across the combination of the cells.
Ans.

Consider a conductor of length l and area of cross-section A, having n electrons per unit volume, as shown in the following figure.

Volume of the conductor = Al Total number of electrons in the conductor = Volume Electron density = Aln Since e is the charge of an electron, the total charge contained in the conductor: Q = Alen Let a potential difference V be applied across the conductor. The resulting electric field in the conductor is given by: E=V/I Hence, free electrons begin to drift in a direction opposite to that of the electric field E. The time taken by the free electrons to cross-over the conductor is given as:

vd is the drift velocity of free electrons. Current flowing through the conductor is given by:

Or (i) The following figure shows a simple circuit diagram that consists of n identical cells connected in series, each having an emf E and internal resistance r. The cells are charged by a dc source of emf E' using a load of resistance R.

## Equivalent emf of n cells connected in series is given as:

E = E + E + up to n terms = nE Equivalent internal resistance of n cells connected in series is given as: r' = r + r + up to n terms = nr Total resistance of the resistance R is given by: R' = r' + R = nr + R (ii) (a) Current flowing through resistor R is given by:

## (b) Potential difference across the combination of cells is given as:

Question 2

The plot of the variation of potential difference across a combination of three identical cells in series versus current is as shown below. What is the emf of each cell?

Ans.

When no current is drawn from the cell, V becomes equal to E total. E = V + ir i = 0, E = V From graph, when i = 0, V = 6V So, emf of each cell = Etotal /3 = 6/3 = 2 V

Question 3

Two cells E1 and E2 in the given circuit diagram have an emf of 5V and 9V and internal resistance of 0.3 and 1.2 respectively.

## Calculate the value of current flowing through the resistance of 3

Ans.

Net emf = E2 - E1 = 9 -5 = 4V

Total resistance =

## Current through the3

resistance =

Question 4 The following graph shows the variation of terminal potential difference V, across a combination of three cells in series to a resistor, versus current I :

(i) calculate the emf of each cell. (ii) for what current I, will th power dissipation of the circuit be maximum ? Ans.

Question 5

Ans.

Question 6 Ans.

Total internal resistance of n cells = nr Total resistance of the circuit = R + nr Current in the circuit = I From ohms law

## The internal resistance of a cell decreases with the increase in temperature.

Question 7 18 cells each of internal resistance 1 ohm and emf 2 V each are used to send current through an external circuit of 2 ohm resistance. Find the best mode of grouping them. Ans.

## Total number of cells = m n = 18 (1) For maximum current in mixed grouping =

Hence, for maximum current, there should be three rows in parallel each containing 6 cells in series.

Question 8 Which combination of cells is the best to get maximum current, when the external resistance is much higher than the total internal resistance? Ans.

If the external resistance is much higher than the total internal resistance, then the cell should be connected in series to get maximum current.

Question 9 In which condition, the current through the mixed grouping of cells is maximum? Ans.

In mixed grouping of cells, the current through the external resistance will be maximum when external resistance is equal to the total internal resistance of the circuit.

Question 10 In which condition, the cells connected in parallel has maximum current? Ans.

When external resistance is much smaller than the internal resistance, the cells should be connected in parallel to get maximum current.

Question 11 In the circuit shown, each battery is of 5 V and has internal resistance of 0.2 ohm. What will be the reading of an ideal voltmeter connecting across the battery?

Ans.

Total emf of the circuit = 5 x 8 = 40 V (as all are in series) Total resistance of the circuit = 8 x 0.2 = 1.6 ohm

## Current in the circuit = Reading of the voltmeter =

Question 12 In given circuit the cells E1 and E2 have emfs 4 V and 8 V and the internal resistance 0.5 ohm and 10 ohm respectively. Calculate the current in each resistance.

Ans.

## Effective emf of the cell =

Question 13 Three identical cells, each of emf 2V and internal resistance 0.2 ohm are connected in series to an external resistor of 5.4 ohm. Calculate the current in the circuit. Ans.

Net emf of the cell = 3 x 2 = 6 V Total resistance of the circuit = 0.2 + 0.2 + 0.2 + 5.4 = 6 ohm

Question 14 For the series combination of cells, derive the condition in which the current through externally connected resistance is maximum. Ans.

Suppose n similar cells each of emf and internal resistance r be connected in series. Let R be the external resistance. Now, the total emf of n cells = sum of all the emfs of n cells = Total internal resistance of n cells in series is = nr Total resistance of the circuit = R + nr The current in the circuit

is

## Question 15 Why we use a combination of cells? Ans.

A single cell provides a feeble current. In order to get a higher current in a circuit, we use combination of cells.
Question 1

In the circuit shown, R1 = 4 , R2 = R3 =15 , R4 = 30 and E = 10 V. Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit and the current in each resistor.

Ans.

R3, R4, R2 : parallel Upon calculation comes out to be Rp= 6 R1 and Rp are in series. Req = 6 +4 = 10 Using Kirchoff's rules we get following equations, E - I1R1-I2R2 =0 -R4I4+I2R2=0 -I3R3+I4R4 =0 E-I1R1-I3R3=0 -I3R3+I2R2 =0 I1 =I2+I3+I4 Solving the above equations we get I1=1A I2=10/25 A I3= 10/25 A I4 =5/25 A

Question 2

State Kirchhoff's rules of current distribution in an electrical network. Using these rules determine the value of the current in the electric circuit given below.

Ans.

Kirchhoff's rules for electrical networks are as follows:(i) Junction rule: At any junction, the sum of the currents entering the junction is equal to the sum of currents leaving the junction. (ii) Loop rule: The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed loop involving resistors and cells in the loop is zero. Numerical : By Kirchoff's rule, Applying loop rule to both the lower and upper loops, we get

## Adding the two equations, we get

Or

Or Again, Or

Or

Question 3

A 5 V battery of negligible internal resistance is connected across a 200 V battery and a resistance of 39 as shown in the figure. Find the value of the current.

Ans.

I=5 A

Question 4

Ans.

Question 5

Ans.

Question 6

Ans.

Question 7 Ans.

Question 8

## Find value of current I.

Ans.

7+5=I+2+1 I = 12 - 3 I = 9 Amp

Question 9 Ans.

Applying Kirchhoff's first law at junction B, I1 + I2 = I3 Applying Kirchhoff's second law to loops ABEFA and BCDEB: we get 2I3 + 6I1 = 16 (1) -2I3 -3I2 = -8 (2) Solving equation (1) and (2) we get

I1 = 8/3, I2 = 8/3, I3 = 0

Question 10

Ans.

## , if the values of current I1 = 1 A, I2 = 2 A, I3 =

Question 11

12 wires, each of resistance r ohms are connected to form a cube. What is the equivalent resistance of the cube when current enters through one corner and leaves from diagnally opposite corner.

Ans.

Let the current 6 I enter at point A and leave at G at the opposite end of the diagonal On applying Kirchhoff's Law to a path ABFG between AG , we get 2Ir + Ir + 2Ir = V = 6 I R 5Ir = 6IR

Question 12

A battery of 6 Volts emf and 0.5 ohm internal resistance is joined in parallel with another 10 volts emf and 1 ohm internal resistance. The combination is used to send a current through an external resistance of 12 ohm. Calculate, by application of Kirchhoff's law the current through each battery.
Ans.

Question 13

State the difference between Kirchhoff's first law and Kirchhoff's second law.
Ans.

Kirchhoff's First Law 1. According to it 2. This law supports the law of conservation of charge. Kirchhoff's Second Law 1. According to it 2. This law supports the law of conservation of energy.

Question 14

In this circuit, 5 amperes current enters node B through Resistor 1 and 2.5 amperes flows through resistor 3 from Node B to Node C. a) How many amperes flow through Resistor 2? b) How much charge flows through resistor 4 in 4 seconds? Give your answer in coulombs.
Ans.

a) According to the Kirchhoffs circuit law, I1 =I3 + I2 5 = 2.5 + I2 I2 = 5 - 2.5 I2 = 2.5 Amperes b) Current flowing through I4 is 2.5 A Therefore,

Question 15

(a) Apply Kirchoff's loop rule to loop 1. Write down the equation; from your equation, solve for.I 1. (b) Apply Kirchoff's loop rule to loop 2. Write down the equation and solve for I2. (c) How much power is the 5 V battery putting into the circuit?
Ans.

(a) Note that I3 = 0.500 A. Starting in the bottom left corner and going around the loop clockwise gives: Solving for I1 gives:

(b) Starting in the bottom right corner and going around the loop counter-clockwise gives: Solving for I2 gives:

(c) For a battery the simplest thing to do is to apply P = VI. For this battery the current is 0.2 A, so the power is P = 5 (0.2) = 1 W.

Question 16

What is Kirchhoff's second law or Kirchhoff's loop law or Kirchhoff's voltage law?

Ans.

According to the Kirchhoff's voltage law, In any closed path of an electrical circuit (or closed loop), the algebraic sum of all the potential differences is zero i.e

Question 17

What is Kirchhoff's first law, Kirchhoff's point rule, Kirchhoff's junction rule (or nodal rule), and Kirchhoff's first rule?
Ans.

Kirchhoffs first law Kirchhoff's current rule states that the algebraic sum of the currents meeting at a junction in a closed circuit is zero. Kirchhoffs junction rule or point rule. The current entering the junction is equal to the current leaving that junction.

Consider a junction O in an electrical circuit at which 5 conductors meets. If I1, I2 , I3 , I4 , I5 be the currents flowing through them then according to the Kirchhoff's Law, (-I1) + (-I2) + I3 + (-I4) + I5 = 0 -I1 + -I2 + I3 - I4 + I5 = 0

Question 1

In a meter bridge, the null point is found at a distance of 40 cm from A. If a resistance of 12 is connected in parallel with S, the null point occurs at 50.0 cm. from A. Determine the values of R and S.

Ans.

When 12

## Where l1 = 40 cm. Therefore, R = S (40/60) = (2/3)S..(i) When 12 is connected in parallel to S, then

The effective resistance can be written as 1/S1 = 1/S + 1/12 = (12+S)/12S i.e. S1 = 12S/(12+S) Now we can write,

## Where ' = 50 cm. i.e. R = 12S/(12+S) (50/50) = 12S/(12+S) ..(ii)

Now using (i) and (ii) we get, (2/3)S = 12S/(12+S) S=6 Therefore from (i), R = (2/3) (6) = 4 .

Question 2

Write the principle of working of a potentiometer. Describe briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram, how a potentiometer is used to determine the internal resistance of a given cell.
Ans.

Principle of working: The voltage drop along the wire is directly proportional to the length of the wire. The potentiometer works without drawing any current from the voltage source

We can also use a potentiometer to measure internal resistance of a cell. For this the cell (emf E) whose internal resistance (r) is to be determined is connected across a resistance box through a key K2, as shown in the figure. With key K2 open, balance is obtained at length L1 (AN1). Then, E= L1

When key K2 is closed, the cell sends a current ( I ) through the resistance box (R). If V is the terminal potential difference of the cell and balance is obtained at length L 2 (AN2), then V= L2
2

## On comparing the above equations, we get, (R+r)/R = L1/L 2

Using the above equation, we can find the internal resistance of a given cell.

Question 3

A potentiometer wire of length 1 m is connected to a driver cell of emf 3 V as shown in the figure. When a cell of 1.5 V emf is used in the secondary circuit, the balance point is found to be 60 cm. On replacing this cell and using a cell of unknown emf, the balance point shifts to 80 cm

(i) Calculate unknown emf of the cell. (ii) Explain with reason, whether the circuit works; if the driver cell is replaced with a cell of emf 1 V. (iii) Does the high resistance R, used in the secondary circuit affect the balance point? Justify your answer.
Ans.

## (i) Here E1 = 1.5 V, l1 = 60 cm, l2 = 80 cm and E2 = ? By the principle of potentiometer

(ii) The circuit will not work because there will be little drop of potential across the potentiometer wire in comparison to the emf of the unknown cell. Hence, the balance point

will not be obtained on the potentiometer wire. Thus, for the functioning of the potentiometer, the emf of the driver cell should be greater than the emfof the unknown cell. (iii) The high resistance does not affect the balance point. Because balancing point depends only on emf of potentiometer.

Question 4

A 10 m long wire of uniform cross-section and 20 resistance is used in a potentiometer. The wire is connected in series with a battery of 5 V along with an external resistance of 480 . If an unknown emf E is balanced at 6.o m length of the wire, calculate: 3 (i) the potential gradient of the potentiometer wire (ii) the value of unknown emf E
Ans.

Question 5

## (a) To construct an, electronic circuit, you want to select a 470 k

resistor with

5% tolerance. Draw a schematic diagram indicating the colour combinations that you will select. (b) As the temperature of a metallic resistor is increased; the product of its resistivity and conductivity ______ (i) Increases (ii) Decreases

(iii) Remains constant (iv) May increase or decrease (c) Draw a graph showing the relation between resistivity and temperature of a super conductor. (d) State Kirchhoff's rules for the analysis of electrical circuits. (e) The circuit diagram of a potentiometer for the determination of internal resistance of a cell is shown below. Calculate the value of the internal resistance (r) of the cell. Given R = 100 , balancing length when key (K) open = 60 cm.

Ans.

(a)

## (b) Remains constant (c)

(d)

(e)

Question 6

(a) State the working principle of a potentiometer. With the help of the circuit diagram, explain how a potentiometer is used to compare the emf's of two primary cells. Obtain the required expression used forcomparing the emfs. (b) Write two possible causes for one sided deflection in a potentiometer experiment. Or (a) State Kirchhoff's rules for an electric network. Using Kirchhoff's rules, obtain the balance condition in terms of the resistances of four arms of Wheatstone bridge. (b) In the meterbridge experimental set up, shown in the figure, the null point 'D' is obtained at a distance of 40 cm from end A of the meterbridge write. If a resistance of 10 is connected in series with R 1, null point is obtained at AD = 60 cm. Calculate the values of R1 and R2.

Ans.

(a)

(b)

Or (a) Kirchhoff's First Law ? Junction Rule The algebraic sum of the currents meeting at a point in an electrical circuit is always zero.

## Current away from the junction ? negative

Wheatstone Bridge: The Wheatstone Bridge is an arrangement of four resistances as shown in the following figure.

## This is the required balanced condition of Wheatstone Bridge.

(b)

Question 7

A resistance R is connected across a cell of emf and internal resistance r. A potentiometer now measures the potential difference between the terminals of the cell as V. Write the expression for 'r' in terms of , V and R.
Ans.

## As emf e =I (r+R) and pd =V = IR Taking the ratio, e/V = (r+R)/R e =V(1+r/R)

Question 8

In a meter bridge, the null point is found at a distance of 40 cm from A. If a resistance of 12 is connected in parallel with S, the null point occurs at 50.0 cm from A. Determine the values of R and S.

Ans.

When 12

## Where l1 = 40 cm. Therefore, R = S (40/60) = (2/3)S..(i) When 12 _ is connected in parallel to S, then

The effective resistance can be written as 1/S1 = 1/S + 1/12 = (12+S)/12S i.e. S1 = 12S/(12+S) Now we can write,

Where l' = 50 cm. i.e. R = 12S/(12+S) (50/50) = 12S/(12+S) ..(ii) Now using (i) and (ii) we get, (2/3)S = 12S/(12+S) S=6 Therefore from (i), R = (2/3) (6) = 4 .

Question 9

Write the principle of working of a potentiometer. Describe briefly, with the help of a circuit diagram, how a potentiometer is used to determine the internal resistance of a given cell.
Ans.

Principle of working: The voltage drop along the wire is directly proportional to the length of the wire. The potentiometer works without drawing any current from the voltage source.

We can also use a potentiometer to measure internal resistance of a cell. For this the cell (emf E) whose internal resistance (r) is to be determined is connected across a resistance box through a Key K2, as shown in the figure. With key K2 open, balance is obtained at length L1 (AN1). Then, E = L1 When key K2 is closed, the cell sends a current (I ) through the resistance box (R). If V is the terminal potential difference of the cell and balance is obtained at length L2 (AN2), then V = L2 So, we have E/V = L1/L2 But, E = I (r + R) and V = IR. This gives E/V = (r + R)/R On comparing the above equations, we get, (R + r)/R = L1/L2

Using the above equation, we can find the internal resistance of a given cell.

Question 10 A 10 m long wire of uniform cross- section and 20 resistance is used in a potentiometer. The wire is connected in series with a battery of 5 V along with an external resistance of 480 . If an unknown emf length of the wire,calculate : (i) the potential gradient of the potentiometer wire. (ii) Ans. is balanced at 6.0

Question 11 (i) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the given electrical network between points A and B. (ii) Also calculate the current through CD and ACB if a 10 V dc source is connected between points A and B and the value of R 2.

Ans. (i) The equivalent circuit is shown in fig. It is balanced wheatstone bridge. So, the resistance connected between C and D is ineffective.

Resistance of arm ACB, R1 = R + R = 2R Resistance of arm ADB, R2 = R + R = 2R Equivalent resistance between A and B, RAB is given by

Question 12 Why do we prefer a potentiometer to measure the emf of a cell rather than a voltemeter ?

Ans. A voltmeter draws current from a cell, therefore voltmeter measure terminal potential difference rather than emf, while a potentiometer at balance, does not draw any current from the cell; so the cell remains in open circuit. Hence potentiometer reasds the actual value of emf.

Question 13

Ans.

Question 14 In a potentiometer experiment the balancing with a cell is at length 140 cm. On shunting the cell with a resistance of 5 ohms, the balancing length becomes 100 cm. What is the internal resistance of the cell? Ans.

Question 15 The emf of the driver cell in the potentiometer experiment is greater than the emf of the cell to be measured. Why? Ans.

The emf of the driver cell in the potentiometer experiment is greater than the emf of the cell to be measured because , If not, then there will be a small potential difference across the potentiometer wire and balancing point will not be obtained.

Question 16 (i)The Wheatstone bridge method is more accurate than the other methods of measuring the resistances. Why? (ii)When the balance point is obtained in the potentiometer the current is drawn from which battery ? Ans.

(i) The Wheatstone bridge method is more accurate than the other methods of measuring resistances because it uses null method. Hence the internal resistance of the cell and resistance of galvanometer do not affect the null point. (ii) When the balance point is obtained in the potentiometer the current is drawn from auxiliary battery.

Question 17 The force on an electron in a potentiometer wire is 3.2 X 10-19 N. The length of the wire is 6 m. What is the e.m.f of the battery connected across the wire? Ans.

## Question 18 State the uses of potentiometer Ans.

Potentiometer is used for: (a) For finding internal resistance of a cell. (b) To find the value of an unknown current. (c) To determine or compare the unknown e.m.f (or potential difference). (d) To find or compare unknown resistances.

Question 19 The potential gradient along the length of uniform wire is 20 Vm-1. The length of wire is 1m. What is the potential difference across two points on the wire separated by distance 40 cm? Ans.

## l = 40 cm = 0.4 m Potential Gradient = 20 Vm-1

Question 20 A potentiometer wire is 5 m long and a potential difference of 6 V is maintained between its ends. Find the emf of a cell which balances against a length of 180 cm of the potentiometer wire. Ans.

## Potential gradient of the potentiometer wire is:

Question 21 Length of the wire is 4m with the resistance of 8 ohm and is connected in series with a battery of e.m.f of 3V and resistor 6 ohms. The internal resistance of battery is 1ohm.Find the potential gradient. Ans.

Question 22 What do you mean by sensitivity of potentiometer? How can we increase the sensitivity of potentiometer? Ans.

A potentiometer is sensitive if it is capable of measuring the small potential differences and it shows significant change in balancing length for a small change in the potential difference being measured. Sensitivity of potentiometer means the smallest potential difference that can be measured by using it. And this can be achieved by decreasing the potential gradient by increasing the length of the wire or reducing the current in the potentiometer using rheostat.

Question 23 Why do we prefer a potentiometer of longer length for getting the accurate readings? Ans.

The potential gradient can be made quite small more conveniently by using a long wire as compared to a potentiometer of small wire. If Potential gradient is small, the balancing length for a particular unknown potential difference is more. Thus, the percentage error in balancing length is reduced.

Question 1

A wire of resistance 8R is bent in the form of a circle. What is the effective resistance between the ends of a diameter AB?

Ans.

## Equivalent resistance across the diameter:

So Req = 2R

Question 2

Write the mathematical relation for the resistivity of material in terms of relaxation time, number density and mass and charge of charge carriers in it. Explain, using this relation, why the resistivity of a metal increases and that of semi-conductor decreases with rise in temperature.
Ans.

Resistivity, (i) Metals: As the temperature increases, the thermal speed of electrons increases. Free electrons collide more frequently with the positive metal ions. The relaxation time decreases. Consequently, the resistivity of the metal increases.

(ii) Semiconductors: The relaxation time does not change with the temperature. But the number density (n) of free electrons increases exponentially with temperature. As result, the sensitivity of semiconductor decreases exponentially with the increase in temperature.

Question 3 Manganin is used for making standard resistors, why ? Ans. The temperature coefficient of resistivity of manganin is negligble.

Question 4 The resistance of a tungsten filament at 200oC is 160 ohm. What will be its resistance at 400o C? The temperature coefficient of resistance of tungsten is 0.0045oC-1. Ans.

Question 5 A carbon resistance of sequence of colours. Ans. is to be marked with rings of different colours for its identification. Write the

Resistance of can be written as 40 x 10 ohm. The first two significant figures represent yellow and black colour and the multiplier indicate orange colour. So, the rings on the resistor to be marked as: Yellow, black and orange.

## Question 6 How will you represent a resistance of Ans. by colour code?

The first two numbers represent the significant figures. From the carbon resistor colour code, number 3 2 and 5 represents orange and green colours respectively. Multiplier 10 is represented by red and tolerance is represented by silver colour. So, the colours on the resistor are in the sequence: Orange, green, red and silver.

Question 7 Show graphically the variation of resistivity with temperature for (i) Nichrome, (ii) carbon and (iii) semiconductors. Ans.

## (iii) Temperature dependence of resistivity for a semiconductor

Question 8 How does the resistivity of (i) conductor (ii) semiconductor vary with temperature? Ans.

The resistivity of conductors increases with rise in temperature. As the temperature of the conductor increases, the average speed of the electrons acting as the current carriers increases. This in result increases the number of collisions and the average time of collisions decreases with temperature. Since the resistivity is inversely proportional to the average time , therefore resistivity increases.

In semiconductors, resistivity decreases with rise in temperature. As the temperature increased, the numbers of free charge carriers are increased due to breaking of more and more covalent bonds. Hence, its conductivity increases and resistivity decreases with rise in temperature.

Question 9 Why alloys like Manganin, Constantan, Nichrome are used for making wire bound standard resistors? Ans.

Temperature dependence of resistivity of these alloys is very low. That means, their resistance value would change very little with temperature. Thats why these alloys are used for making wire bound standard resistors.

Question 10 Name the alloys which are used for making standard resistance coils? Ans.

## Manganin, Constantan, Nichrome.

Question 11 Name two substances whose resistivity decreases with the rise in temperature. Ans.

Resistivity of semiconductors decreases with rise in temperature. So, the two substances whose resistivity decreases with the rise in temperature are Silicon and Germanium.

Question 12 A carbon resistor is marked as orange, yellow, green and silver respectively. What is the approximate resistance of the resistance? Ans.

The first two colour from the end represent the two significant figures of the resistance in ohm. Third band indicate the decimal multiplier and last band stands for the tolerance. So, the resistance of resistor comes out to be .

## Question 13 What is temperature coefficient of resistance? Ans.

Temperature coefficient of resistance is the change in resistance per unit resistance rise or fall in temperature.