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Milling

Entering angle
Also linked to chip thickness in milling is the entering angle of a facemill. This is the angle between the main, leading cutting edge of the insert and the workpiece surface. Chip thickness, cutting forces and tool-life are affected especially by the entering angle. Decreasing the entering angle reduces chip thickness for a given feed rate and this chip thinning effect spreads the amount of material over a larger part of the cutting edge. A smaller entering angle also provides a more gradual entry into cut, reducing radial pressure and protecting the cutting edge. The higher axial forces, however, increases the pressure on the workpiece. The most common entering angles today are 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 10 degrees and those of the round insert. The 90 degree cutter will generate mostly radial forces, in direction of the feed. This means that the surface being machined will not be subjected to very much axial pressure, which is positive for milling workpieces with a weak structure or thin walls. The main application area however is for square shoulder milling, achieving a right-angled edge as a result of the cut. The 45 degree cutter has radial and axial cutting forces which are about the same in value, giving rise to more balanced pressure and being less demanding as regards machine power. This is the general purpose facemilling entering angle. It is also especially suitable for milling workpieces in short-chipping materials that will fritter, because of excessive radial forces acting on the dwindling amount of material left at the end of a cut. It also presents the cutting edge more gently at the start of cut and gives rise to a lower tendency for vibrations when milling with long overhangs or smaller toolholding facilities. The thinnner chip allows for high productivity in many applications because of the scope for higher table feed while maintaining a moderate cutting edge load. This often makes up for the smaller depth of cut capability which the smaller angle provides. The 10 degree entering angle is used on high-feed and plunge milling cutters. This allows them to perfom at very high cutting data, where the chip thickness is small but the table feed is very high. Low cutting forces are advantageous because the dominant direction is axial, both as regards radial and axial milling, limiting vibration tendencies and providing a potential for very high metal removal rates. The round insert cutter has a continuously variable entering angle, from zero upwards to 90 degrees, depending upon the cutting depth. The insert radius provides a very strong cutting edge, suitable for high table feed rates because of the thinner chip generated along the

90

45

10

ap fz hex hex fz

ap fz

ap fz

ap

Common milling cutter entering angles and their effect on cutting forces and chip thickness.

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Milling

fz
long cutting edge. The chip-thining effect is suitable for machining titanium and heat resistant alloys. The change in cutting force direction along the insert radius and the resulting pressure during the operation will depend upon the depth of cut. Modern insert geometry developments have made the round insert milling cutters more widely suitable because of the smoother cutting action, requiring less power and stability from the machine tool. Today, it is not a specialized cutter anymore and should be regarded as an efcient roughing cutter, capable of high material removal rates.

90 entering angle cutters


Thin walled components Weak xtured components Where 90 form is required

fz hex

45 entering angle cutters


General purpose rst choice Reduces vibration on long overhang Chip thinning effect allows increased productivity

Round insert cutters


45 30

Strongest cutting edge with multiple indexes General purpose cutter Increased chip thinning effect for heat resistant alloys

100% chip load 75% 50% 25%

On round inserts the chip load and entering angle vary with the depth of cut.

r
90 75 60 45 10 O

hex hex = fz hex = 0.96 fz hex = 0.86 fz hex = 0.707 fz hex = 0.18 fz hex=
The values for hex are given for operations with the cutter centered on the workpiece. For sidemilling the hex value varies depending on cutter diameter and working engagement.

iC2 (iC2ap) 2 fz
iC
Entering angle and max. chip thickness.

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Milling

Methods for machining a cavity


Ramping is an efcient way to approach the workpiece when machining pockets. For larger holes, however, circular interpolation in helix is much more power efcient and exible than using a large boring tool.
Ramping and circular interpolation in helix Conventional method

1 2 3 4 5

Required depth of cut for machining the rst layer.

Two axis ramping One of the best methods to reach a full axial depth of cut, is linear ramping in the X/Y and Z axis. Note that if choosing the right starting point, there will be no need for milling away stock from the ramping section. Ramping can start from in to out or from out to in, depending on the geometry of the die or mould. The main criterion is how to get rid of the chips in the best way e.g. down milling should be performed in a continuous cut. When taking a new radial depth of cut it is important to approach it with a ramping movement or, preferably using smooth circular interpolation. In HSM applications this is crucial. The ramping angle is dependent upon the diameter of the cutter used, clearance to the cutter body, insert size and depth of cut. The clearance also depends upon the diameter of the cutter.

Three axis ramping Feeding the tool in a helical shaped path in the axial direction of the spindle is mainly used in die and mould making. This has several advantages when machining holes with large diameters. Machining can be performed with only one tool, usually with no chip breaking and evacuation or vibration problems, as the diameter of the tool is smaller compared to the diameter of the hole to be machined. It is recommended that the diameter of the hole is twice the diameter of the cutter. The maximum ramping angle for the cutter should also be checked when using circular interpolation in helix.

Pre-drilling/peck-milling Pre-drilling of a starting hole is not recommended as one extra tool is needed. Unproductive time for positioning and tool changing are negative factors, and also tool magazine positions are unnecessarily lled. Axial feed capability is an advantage in many operations. Holes, cavities as well as contours can be more efciently machined. A number of Coromant tools with this capability are available in this catalogue. These tools are also favourable for weak machine spindles and when using long overhangs, since the cutting forces are mainly directed axially. If using a ball nose endmill it is pretty common to use a peck-drilling cycle to reach a full axial depth of cut and then mill away a layer of the cavity. This is then repeated until the cavity is nished. The drawback with this approach is that chip evacuation problems rise at the centre of the end mill. A better method is to reach the full axial depth of cut using circular interpolation in helix. It is also important then to facilitate chip evacuation.

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Milling

Milling method recommendations


Facemilling
Avoid milling over holes or slots whenever possible as these interrrupted cuts are demanding on the cutting edges with mul tiple entries and exits. If possible make the holes in a subse quent operation. Alternatively, reduce the recommended feed rate by 50% over the workpiece area containing the holes. When machining large workpiece surface areas, select tool path to keep the milling cutter in full contact rather than per form several parallel passes. When changing direction, include a small radial tool path to keep cutter moving, avoiding dwell and chatter tendencies. Consider round insert cutters as first choice for facemilling CoroMill 200 or CoroMill 300 with 45-degree cutter as alter native CoroMill 245. For milling against shoulders, select the 90 degree cutter CoroMill 390 as first choice.

C Pocket milling
- Rough machining of rectangular pockets through circular interpolation. Suitable tools are CoroDrill 880 or Coromant U-drill for drilling and the CoroMill 390 long-edge cutter for milling. The application is suitable for this method with drilling first and then opening up through long-edge milling. The drill diameter (Dc) should be 5 to 10 mm larger than that of the long-edge cutter. Apply a maximum depth of cut of 2 x Dc for the long-edge cutter and programme radial step-overs (ae) of 30 to 40%. A large-diameter cutter will be capable of a high metal removal rate but leaves more material in the corners to be machined in a subsequent operation. All programmed radii should be 15% larger than the cutter ra dius.

E
ae = max 0.4 x Dc

- Ramping circular interpolation Suitable tool is CoroMill 300 round insert cutter Helical interpolation to depth of cut : ap = 0.4 x iC (insert size) with a maximum ramping angle depending upon cutter diameter For maximum material removal rate select insert size (iC) 12 or 16 mm and fine-pitch cutter. Ensure all programmed radii are 15% larger than cutter radius.

- Drilling followed by plunge milling , when pockets are deeper than twice the cutter diameter Suitable tools are CoroDrill 880 or Coromant U drill and CoroMill 2 10 The largets possible cutter diameter should be used and ensure that two teeth are constantly engaged in cut.

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Milling

Milling of a closed slot


- drilling and full-slot milling Suitable tools are CoroDrill 880 or Coromant U-drill and CoroMill 390 long edge cutter. When a slot is long and narrow, circular interpolation is not pos sible so the three options available require full-width machin ing. If the machine power allows it the cutter diameter selected should be as close to the finished slot size, leaving just the finishing allowance. Drilling followe d by full-s lot milling us e a drill with a dia me te r 5 to 10 mm larger than the long-edge cutter. A maximum depth of cut of 1 x Dc should be applied and a reduced feed at the start to produce room for chip evacuation.

B
- drilling and plunge milling Suitable tools are CoroDrill 880 or Coromant U drill and CoroMill 2 10. Use a drill with a diameter (Dc) 1 mm larger than the milling cutte r. A maximum radial cutting depth of 12 mm (Dc : 50 mm) should be applied and two teeth should constantly be engaged in cut.

D
- two-axis ramping Suitable tool is CoroMill 300. Two-axis ramping to depth of cut ap = 0.3 x iC The maximum ramping angle is dependant upon cutter diameter. (5 degrees for 50 mm). For maximum metal removal rate select insert size 12 or 16 mm and a fine-pitch cutter.

F Semi-roughing of corners
Before actual finishing operations in a cavity, there are often requirements to remove material in the form of a large radius left by a roughing tool. Because of the normally small radius requirement and relatively deep cavities involved, tools are slender enough to get into corners. This operation can be time consuming, however, and is worth optimizing, even when two different cutter diameters are needed to arrive at the finish. - Rest-milling of 90-degree corners (pocket-depth up to 4 x Dc of finished radius) Suitable tools are CoroMill 390 and CoroMill Plura depending upon diameter. The cutter radius should be smaller than the corner radius to avoid vibrations.
Max. cutter Dc = 2 x R 1 (Dc = 11 mm)

R = 6 mm

- Plunge milling (pocket depths larger than 3 x Dc or finished corner) Suitable tools are CoroMill 390, CoroMill 300 and CoroMill Plura, depending upon diameter.

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Milling

- Rest-milling of 90-degree corner (pocket depth up to 4 x Dc of nished radius) If there is a lot of material left after the roughing operation a different machining strategy should be approached. Above all the cutter needs stability and good reach so as to be able to make the larger radial cuts. The Coromant U plunging drill is suitable here as it allows cuts of up to 75% of the cutter diameter which can then be followed by semi-nishing using previously described rest milling strategy. - closed angles are a common feature in cavities and, depending upon the angle involved between the two walls, two different approches can be used. A pocket with a 5-axis-land can be nished with a square endmill in a 4-axis machine. When a radius is specied, a ball nose endmill is needed to machine the radius. This, however, is much longer machining process and requires a 5-axis machine capability.

2 1 4 3 5

Dc = 2 x R

Machining sequence 1 to 5.

A
Dc = 20 mm

Dc = 12.7 mm

1 3 5 4
End radius = 6 mm

Dc = 12.7 mm

B
1 2
Start radius = 16 mm

Start radius = 16 mm End radius = 6 mm

Application hints for milling:


check power capability and machine rigidity, making sure that the machine can handle the cutter diameter required machine with the shortest possible tool overhang on the spindle use the correct cutter pitch for the operation to ensure that there are not too many inserts engaged in cut causing vibration

while on the other hand, ensure there is sufcient insert engagement with narrow workpieces or when milling over voids
ensure that the right feed per insert is used to achieve the right cutting action through the recommended maximum chip

thickness
use down milling whenever possible use positive-geometry indexable inserts whenever possible for smooth cutting action and lowest power consumption select the right diameter in relation to the the workpiece width select the most suitable entering angle position the milling cutter correctly only use coolant if considered necessary, milling is generally performed better without follow tool maintenance recommendations and monitor tool wear

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Milling

Achieving good surface nish in milling


A surface nish is best described by its roughness and waviness values. The key to obtaining a good surface nish is to use inserts with wiper ats.

Length of the wiper edge If the feed per rev. is smaller than the length of the parallel land the surface will be generated by the highest insert.

Parallel land bs mm 2.0 2.3 1.46 2.12 0.4 1.6 0.4 1.5 1.6 2.0 1.5 1.4 2.7 1.2 1.4 2.0 2.2

Inserts

R245 R290 N331.1A / R/L331.1A R390 SEKR / SEMN / SEER /SEHN / SEKN SNKN / SNAN SPKR / SPAN / SPKN TPKR / TPKN LNCX

bs

Surface nish with wiper inserts D


The wiper protrudes below the other inserts by approximately 0.05 mm. The wiper facet is crowned (large radius) to give a step-free surface allowing for different spindle inclinations. The feed per rev. (fn) should be limited to 60% of parallel land to ensure a stepfree surface.
0.05

The most common reason for a bad result with a wiper insert is incorrect mounting. To mount correctly, push the wiper radially and slide axially against the third support point, before clamping.

8.2 Wiper insert set below other inserts.

Parallel land bs mm 8.2 10.0 10.0

Dc
Wiper inserts R245 SPEX SNEX

H=

fz2 4xDc

Endmills The surface nish will depend on the radial run-out of the endmill and both the cutter and its clamping have to be considered. The worst situation is where only one tooth generates the surface nish, see sketch. A change from down to up-milling can for some materials improve the surface nish, and the same applies to the use of coolants, especially when nishing sticky materials. For nishing operations the radial depth of cut should be kept low. This has an important effect on the deection of cutter. With an indexable endmill, tolerances and cutter deection will contribute to a deviation from a true 90 shoulder.

fz

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Milling

Countering vibrations in milling


Due to a number of factors tuned adapters are being used more and more when machining with long overhangs. Workpieces are becoming increasingly more complicated while machining operations need to be done ever faster. This means that there is no time to re-position the workpiece, instead long tools are used to reach all the surfaces to be machined in one mounting. This in turn means that in many cases the workpiece does not have sufcient support in the xture at every machining point. To maintain maximum productivity when machining e.g a cavity its important to choose the right extentions. To start with the longest will in many cases decrease the productivity due to vibration problems. Therefore its better to choose a series of extensions and start with the shortest one and use a tuned adapter in the deepest sections. On those occasions when cutting data has to be reduced because of problems with vibration, a tuned adapter provides an increase in productivity. Tapered tool adapters can be used in order to achieve as advantageous a mounting as possible and in relation to machine and tool. This optimizes the rigidity throughout the whole tool. Workpiece support: In order to achieve the best results, the workpiece should have correct support in relation to the cutting forces which arise during the machining process. Machining in a workpiece with an overhang should be avoided where there is no support. The condition and stability of the machine has an effect on the quality of the surface which is generated. Excessive wear of the spindle bearings or feed mechanism can result in a poor surface structure. If the machine is not properly set and maintained, vibration can cause impaired tool-life and poor surface quality. Tool: Choose the right milling cutter for the job in hand. Use the correct ratio between the milling cutter diameter and the width of the workpiece. Choose the correct tooth pitch, since too many teeth in the milling cutter can cause excessive loading. Where possible, use a positive geometry to reduce the cutting forces. The positioning of the cutter is also extremely important in this connection. A basic rule/recommendation: When the total tool length, from the gauge line to the lowest point on the cutting edge, exceeds 4-5 times the diameter at the gauge line, tuned, tapered bars should be used.

Sandvik Coromant offers tuned adapters in different versions, such as Coromant Capto and HSK mountings, for both arbor mounting face and shoulder milling cutters and smaller shank cutters with threaded coupling. These tuned adapters for milling are preset as for turning tools, which means that they can be used without any additional measures.

Handling, storage and maintenance of tuned products


A tuned bar should be handled with care and should never be exposed to blows or shaking to free a tuning system which has stuck. A tuned bar is often stored horizontally for practical reasons without causing any harm. Under normal conditions a tuned bar will operate without maintenance. However, rubber bushes which are vital for the functioning of the damping system will age with time and lose their spring characteristic and their capacity to act as a complement to the oil in the damping system. When the critical point for service life of the rubber bushes has been reached, the damping system will cease to function. The service life of the damping system is shortened if it is exposed to intense heat. Therefore coolant should be used to extend the service life of the damping system.

Tuned tools
Tuned tools used for milling, function in the same way as previously described for turning tools. That is to say that inside the tool there is a heavy tuning body suspended on rubber bushes. If the tool begins to vibrate, the heavy tuning body tries to counteract the vibration so that it disappears entirely.

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Milling

Flywheel
Vibration occurs frequently during side and face milling but this problem can be remedied in an effective and simple way. In addition to up milling, a ywheel can be tted to the arbor on which the milling cutter is set up. In order to improve stability further when side and face milling, it is a basic rule to use the largest possible ywheel to which the application permits.

Some rules of thumb for use of a ywheel


In a small machine with low power the need for a ywheel is greater than in a large powerful machine. Position the ywheel as close to the tool as possible. Strengthening the workpiece mounting is always a good investment. The smoother machining, which results from using a ywheel, leads to a reduction in noise and vibration, and a longer tool-life.

The best way to make a ywheel is to use a number of round carbon steel discs, each with a centre hole and key groove to t the arbor. For a particular ywheel weight the effect increases as the diameter of the ywheel increases. This means that if circumstances permit a large diameter, the weight of the ywheel can be reduced. The ywheel weight can, if necessary, be distributed over several ywheels where space permits. Higher spindle speeds and a larger cut reduces the need for a ywheel. The smallest possible milling cutter diameter should be used for this so that the spindle speed can be increased for a particular cutting speed.

d 27 mm m 15 2025 2535 3550 32 40 50

kg

When mounting a tool on a tuned adapter it is important to remember that there is a tuning body inside the adapter. Since the adapter is not solid it can easily be deformed and therefore must not be clamped in a screw clamp when mounting is taking place. Deformation means that the tun-

ing system will be impaired or cease to function entirely. The best way to mount a tool and adapter is to use xtures designed for the purpose.

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Milling

When the machining results are affected by vibration


Cause Unstable/weak tool holding Action
Establish the direction of the cutting forces and position the material support accordingly. Try to improve the clamping generally. Reduce the cutting forces by reducing the radial and axial cutting depth. Choose a milling cutter with a coarse tooth pitch and positive design. Choose positive inserts with a small corner radius and small parallel ats. Where possible, choose an insert grade with a thin coating and a sharp cutting edge. If necessary, choose an uncoated insert grade. Avoid machining where the work-piece has poor support against cutting forces.

C
Unstable/weak workpiece clamping
The rst choice is a square shoulder facemill with positive inserts. Choose an L-geometry with a sharp cutting edge and a large clearance angle which produces low cutting forces. Try to reduce the axial cutting forces by reducing the axial cutting depth, as well as using positive inserts with a small corner radius, small parallel ats and sharp cutting edges.

Large overhang either on the spindle or the tool

Always use a coarse tooth pitch and a differentially pitched milling cutter. Balance the cutting forces axially and radially. Use a 45 degree entering angle, large corner radius or round inserts. Use inserts with a light cutting geometry. Try to reduce the overhang, every millimetre counts.

Square shoulder milling with a radially pliable spindle

Choose the smallest possible milling cutter diameter in order to obtain the most favourable entering angle. The smaller the milling cutter diameter the smaller the radial cutting forces will be. Choose positive and light cutting geometries. Try up milling.

Uneven table feed

Try up milling. Look at the possibility of adjusting the feed screw on CNC machines. Adjust the locking screw or replace the ball screw on conventional machines.

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