2010

Journalism History in Sub-continent
Submitted to: Miss Faiza Bajwa Subject: Media History
Iram
Section B

............................................................................... 3 Conveyance: ................................................................................................................................................... 5 Jam-e.................................................................................................................Contents Beginning Of Journalism In Sub-continent: ...................................................................................................... 6 1835 Press Law:.................................... 4 Significance: ........................................................ 8 ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Maraat-ul............................................................................................................................................... 4 Journalism of British in Sub-continent: ....................................................................... 4 Hickey Gazette: ................... 8 Conclusion: ...................................................................................... 6 Urdu Journalism: ...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Indian World: ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Progress and Development: ..............................................................................Jahan Numa: ......................................... 3 Propagation:. 3 News Organization: .... 5 Press Laws: ..............................Akhbar:........................................................................................ 7 About Urdu Newspapers:........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6 1799 Press Law..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 1857 Revolution and Role of Journalism: ........ 6 1823 Press Law:..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

But the legendary Mughal emperors enhanced and strengthened it to the superior degree of excellence. Brutal and cruel governors were detached of the government and honest officials were encouraged. Amusingly. Since. with the King himself. journalism started with preliminary handwritten news sheets. So.Beginning Of Journalism in Sub-continent: In the sub-continent. It is safe to say that the idea of free press had surface in the sub-continent. rulers were promptly updated of maladministration and mismanagement in the social structure. they remained far from the influence of provincial governors and reported whenever necessary. News-writers or stringers were assigned in all the areas of the empire to collect news and assemble it in the paper for the court of King. the bitter facts of governors and other officials also. dated. there were no trains or by no means any electric channel. through the newspapers. From this information. mischief in societies and hardships faced by the people. though not well standardized. Nonetheless. current-events. Horse rider’s trend initiated during the Mughal’s time. . Such news sheets provided the rulers with information from all corners of the empire. agents behind them were employed for their surveillance. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was the first Muslim ruler who resourcefully structured postal system in the Sub-continent. that stringers used to send their news sheets to the capital. Conveyance: At that time. This is the reason why Muslims ruled for centuries with prestige prosperity. the rulers used to take decisions and plan initiatives to uphold good governance. They were written. For this reason. regarding public occurrences. the speed of delivery was two hundred and fifty miles a day with horse-riders. they earned good salaries and their appointment or abolition was solely. News Organization: The initial system of hand-written news sheets. a firstclass postal system existed. it was possible that the stringers would work for bribes. there remained no chance of fake reports. Indeed. prepared by government news-writers during the Muslim rule. the pedestrians post and second through horse-riders. the early hand-written sheets proved effective social mobilization vehicle to hold peace and contentment in the empire. was instigated on strong foundations during the rule of Delhi emperors. appeared at regular and frequent intervals. there was a fine established system of surveillance. Most prominent and honest individuals were designated for such posts. Ibn-e-Batutah. First. A well-known Arab voyager. In short. quoted that there were two kinds of post.

Significance: It was the supreme intellectual potential of Muslim rulers that they shaped and established a network of people who provided them news from other lands and hence a system of assembling news successful started. Hickey Gazette: The first ever printing press was set up by the British at Bombay in 1674. More to the point. it befitted in internal and external security. such papers played an effective role. The size of that paper was12" x 8" with only 4 pages. essential news for public was overtly announced in the cities from pulpits of mosques or in specially arranged gatherings. many new newspapers came on the scene. With this haphazard changing scenario. sent to the capital were read aloud in the court for the King. Furthermore. Britain started offensive invasion into the sub-continent. people started privately-owned secret handwritten papers in order to induce and stimulate more abhorrence against East India Company. he used to give specific instructions. published by James August Hicky. In this way.Propagation: Newspapers from all the corners of the sub-continent. Above and beyond. printing presses were installed at Madras and Calcutta. Journalism of British in Sub-continent: With the downfall of Mughal rule. with the name of“Hicky Gazette”. the court had its own news-writers who covered the daily proceedings of the court and pronounced it the next day. In short. Some supported the government and others strived for freedom. Wherever hatred for British surfaced. But. The first printed newspaper of sub-continent appeared in 1780. this communication system between rulers and ruled helped the government maintain and sustain good governance. So. For the reason that James Augustus Hicky was against East India Company and always brought forth the corruption of Government. Hicky continued editing in the jail too. all the government officials were kept informed. in November1781. In the end of eighteenth century. a newspaper with name of “India Gazette” was introduced which was pro government and against Hickey. In accordance. In the revolution of 1857. . he was soon jailed. Governors of far-flung provinces also kept their representatives in the court.

This newspaper had a short life but it was appreciated at the highest degree. qualities and mischief of the British residents of that time. Later. He went to America through England and continued his practice. After some weeks. But the British disliked it because it preserved the memories of Muslim’s power of influence afresh. laws and line of action of the British government. Newspaper of National and Regional Languages: The language of educated people in the sub-continent was Persian. Jam-e-Jahan Numa featured news items from other hand-written news sheets of autonomous states. tales. the Government was looking for the trap. His intention to start newspapers in general was to enhance the knowledge of common people and acquaint them with the policies. translated Persian stories and sometime even the translated odes of native-poets Sadi and Hafiz. therefore. He was a valiant journalist. Its editor was Munshi Sada Sukh. Maraat-ul. Bombay and Madras. He was a spiritual leader of Hindus. circulation of Indian World increased more than expectations. it was integrated with a four-page Urdu news sheet for the reason that some of the British officials had learned Urdu where on the other hand people could be mobilized to use Urdu language. published in Calcutta in 1822 under the supervision of British. dozens of (English language) newspapers and periodicals appeared in the cities of Calcutta. “Indian World “which was more aut hentic and openly critical to East India Company. So.Akhbar: The first printed Persian newspaper “Marat-ul-Akhbar” appeared in Calcutta in1822. Its founder and editor was Raja Ram Mohan Raey. He started Bengali newspapers also. Now. he started his own newspaper. William Duane once criticized on judiciary. Earlier. its language was changed into Persian because the circulation remained extremely low. However readership was limited to British because of the difference of language. Moreover. These newspapers in general included poetry. . they promoted Urdu language and financially assisted in its publication. Progress and Development: Within twenty years of the installation of printing press in sub-continent. Soon. they brought to light the culture. after two years. but failed.Jahan Numa: First printed Urdu newspaper was “Jam-e-Jahan Numa”. English newspapers and some of its own.Indian World: William Duane was one of those editors who struggled hard for freedom of press. It was alarming for the Company and it feared that this Indian paper could get to England and may defame the Company in England. he was a fanatical editor of Bengal Journal. and short compositions. he was exiled and his investment of thirty thousand was seized by force. Jam-e. Interestingly. The British released two consecutive newspapers to combat it. but the government violently removed him with force.

the relations between Government and press got better. Persian newspapers from Calcutta. They tried their best to control prevailing press and strived to mold public opinion in favor of the then government. Eventually. When on one hand. newspapers set aside from the politics. Some years passed with silence. Some sacrificed their livelihood and some even exiled. otherwise they would be exiled or deport. Raja Ram Mohan Raey appealed in a high court for withdrawal of this press law. In other words. Newspapers accepted this law. During this difficult time newspapers decided to keep quite. press obtained freedom and many newspapers of regional languages came out.Press Laws: Before 1857. Agra. suppression-cum-censorship started. However people continued to print aggressive pamphlets against the government. the conditions of which made it mandatory to include the name of printer at the end of newspaper. Ladhiana. With this change. Especially. Sir Charles became the Governor General. the names of printer and publisher were required to be printed on all the pages of newspapers. 1835 Press Law: After the annoyance of 1823. Therefore. But not a single demand was noticed. . Editors and journalists were restricted to write against the government. But the endeavors of journalists and editors remained a major barrier in British intentions. according to which just a declaration was required for opening a newspaper. 1823 Press Law: Second press law was promulgated in 1823. but all the efforts were in vain. Consequently. which made it compulsory to obtain license before establishing a printing press or a newspaper. and that the material should have to be get approved from a government official before printing. In 1818 censorship was removed and press got liberty. Raja Ram Mohan Raey closed all his newspapers in protest. Sakkur and Bombay. Secondly. second law was brought into force. 1799 Press Law: First press law was enforced in 1799. newspapers did not create any trouble and on the other hand. Rallies and demonstrations were held. press law of 1823 was abolished and a new press act was passed in 1835. a broad minded person. Karachi. Otherwise forfeiture of one thousand rupees would be collected or six months imprisonment would be given or both the punishments at the same time. But tensions between the government and newspapers sustained long. Newspapers rejected and did not accept this law. the British government promulgated four press laws to curb newspapers.

Sialkot. Consequently. Source of news were other hand-written news sheets of emperor’s stringers. Government intended to promote Western Studies in the sub-continent.However. Multan. We can safely assume that only well-off people were able to afford. One most enhanced quality of Koh-e-Noor was printing of annual Index. it became easier to start an Urdu newspaper. Rawalpindi. About Urdu Newspapers: The reason behind low readership was that most newspapers at that time cost fifty cents (8 aaney) per copy. many newspapers of regional languages came at frontline. Sometime. Newspapers were not very good-looking or impressive. English newspapers and contemporary Urdu and Persian newspapers. hand-made pictures were printed sometimes. however. Pictures were not used. In 1836.Amratsar. Koh-e-Noor was the only Urdu newspaper. Shimla. Agra. Newspapers had no well arrange material in order or sequence. though which concerned news items could be easily searched out. News of educational reforms had exceptional emphasis in Urdu newspapers. literacy rate was considerably low. Lukhnow. This setup financially supported some of the newspapers. the importance of Urdu increased fourfold. Some significant factors behind the progress of Urdu journalism were that: In 1830. Not all Urdu newspapers criticized the government. Regional. little bit. Breli. Maulvi Muhammad Baqar started “Delhi Urdu Akhbar”. At least forty customers were required to make self-govern (independent) a weekly. Lahore. Wherever necessary. Later. It was more attractive and inexpensive. schools and colleges. After that. Bombay. Gujarat. Gujranwala. the government used to purchase a certain quantity of newspapers for officials. many new Urdu papers started in Delhi. So. large number ofUrdu newspapers emerged in corner -to-corner of the sub-continent. Delhi and Lahore are considered to be the mother land of Urdu journalism. These were the four elements behind the growth and progress of Urdu journalism in subcontinent. Secondly. Ladhiana. So the cost of newspapers could be reduced.Urdu Journalism: Urdu journalism started with Jam-e-Jahan Numa but in point of fact its history begins from 1836. Since. Litho-type printing was started. Urdu newspapers were appropriate medium for the purpose. Banaras. Batala. when the father of Maulana Muhammad Hussain Azad. notes or comments were given at the end of columns. After 1835. Aligarh and Madras. editor’s suggestions and interpretations were also put in under separate column. Among them Urdu language newspapers were most important because Urdu was the official language. Peshawar. . East India Company declared Urdu the official language of small government institutions and court of law. national and international news were published. in which material was arranged in a definite series. Editorials were not included.

that journalism prospered throughout from corner to corner. When the revolution started. news-writers and editors enhanced their journalistic practice and skills. Conclusion: It is safe to say that journalism had its roots in the sub-continent since the Muslim rule. the courageous editors and their press didn’t stopped but continued to acquaint people with the conspiracies and awful determinations of the then British government. So. a few sentences were also written in praise of Britain. but an audience responsive to a mass press took birth. British supported the idea of free press but with certain limitations. the political scenario took quite haphazard shape. not only stringers. they yelped that it was solely the result of freedom of national press. it is necessary to go through some important myths. Their collective publication was six thousand. closed several newspapers and jailed or exiled some of those brilliant journalists who remained barrier in fulfillment of their intentions. If it is assumed that ten persons read one paper. It is true that British established printing presses and promoted literacy. many broad-minded people of sub-continent entered into the arena of journalism. then the total readership may be sixty thousand. Naturally. If any paper ever criticized the government. Lord Canning enforced a law which in Urdu is called “Qanoon-e-Zuban Bandi. They never tolerated criticism which was the major source of bringing forth their sins and mismanagement. it was the mutual co-ordination between press and readership. they aggressively appealed for limitations and strict restrictions on the national and regional newspapers. it was considered as personal problem between the members of a same social group All the newspapers of regional languages were weekly. A perfect communication system did exist when the British invaded the sub-continent. Even after the exclusion of Muslims from journalism in 1857. they were the patrons of British rule and their sympathies were with Britain. In short. but it was the endeavors of natives of sub-continent. As journalism flourished. Muslim newspapers did reporting in moderate way with temperateness and precautions. But comparatively all the papers of Delhi were in the hands of Muslims Likewise non-Muslim papers. Being the rulers. In the beginning of 1857.1857 Revolution and Role of Journalism: To identify with the role of journalism and journalists in the revolution of 1857. English newspapers could not even tolerate two or three Urdu papers critical to the British rule. Consequently. which paved the way to act upon the right of freedom of speech. please remember that in spite of British resistance or more exactly atrocities. Wherever denigration against British was observed. but their owners were either the British or Anglo Indians. Most of the Urdu language newspapers were owned by non-Muslims. With the development of press. However. . Historians tell that British crushed printing presses. There were dailies as well as weekly English newspapers. the Muslim press grew from scrap and fruitfully served the cause of independence.

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