You are on page 1of 19

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mrs.Pusparani as well as our principal Mr.

Haji Wahid bin Takad who gave me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic Air Pollution, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and I came to know about so many new things. I am really thankful to them. Secondly I would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in finishing this project within the limited time. I am making this project not only for marks but to also increase my knowledge. THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED ME.

NO. 1.

SUBTITLE THE COMPOSITION OF AIR

PAGE NUM. 1-2

2.

AIR POLLUTION

3-5

3.

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION

6-12

4.

WAYS TO CONTROL POLLUTION

13-14

5.

THE IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE AIR CLEAN

14-15

THE COMPOSITION OF AIR


1) Air is a mixture of several gases. Each gas is present in a certain average percentage. 2) The word average is used because the percentage of these gases in the air is different from place to place and from time to time. 3) For example, during the day, the air in the forest has more oxygen than the air in the city. The trees produce oxygen in sunlight. 4) The average percentage of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air are 78%,21% and 0.03% respectively. 5) Rare gases such as helium and argon make up less than 1% of the air. 6) Water vapour, microorganisms and dust are also present in the air.

Microorganism s Nitrogen Dust

Air r
Water vapour Carbon dioxide

Oxygen

Rare gas

7) Microorganisms in the air can be virus, bacteria and very tiny fungus. 8) They are not active in air. When they settle on a suitable surface, they become active again and will multiply. 9) Dust in the air comes from soil or burning fuel in factories and motor vehicles.

AIR POLLUTANTS
1)A substance in the air that can be adverse to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. 2) In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. 3) Usually, primary pollutants are directly produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. 4)Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact.

Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include:

Sulfur oxides (SO x) - especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Nitrogen oxides (NO x) - especially nitrogen dioxide are expelled from high temperature combustion, and are also produced naturally during thunderstorms by electric discharge. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Carbon monoxide (CO)- is a colourless, odourless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. Toxic metals, such as lead and mercury, especially their compounds. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. Ammonia (NH3) - emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Odors such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes

Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, nuclear events, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon

Secondary pollutants include:

Particulates created from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. Per oxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) - similarly formed from NOx and VOCs.

Minor air pollutants include:

A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulates

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bio accumulate in human and animal tissue, bio magnify in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.

EXAMPLES OF AIR POLLUTANTS

Carbon monoxide reduces oxygen content in blood.

Radioactive waste causes cancer and defects in foetus.

Carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect.

Nicotine causes lung cancer.

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION


1)HEALTH PROBLEMS

(a) Lung diseases (b) Brain damage in children (c) Skin cancer (d) Eye irritations (e) Death

2)ACID RAIN

1) Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). 2) It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, humans and infrastructure. 3) Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. 4) Governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere with positive results. 5) Nitrogen oxides can also be produced naturally by lightning strikes and sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. The chemicals in acid rain can cause paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, and erosion of stone statues.

6) Acid rain can make the soil infertile. The acid dissolves mineral salts in the soil that are important for plants such as magnesium and nitrates. 3)THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER

1)Ozone is a subtances with three oxygen atoms. 2)The ozone layer is the the topmost layer of the atmosphere and it shields us from damaging ultraviolet rays. 3)Chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) causes the thinning of this protective layer. 4)Soon holes form in the ozone layer and allow ultraviolet rays through. It cause skin cancer and cataract. 5)Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970 a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions. 6)The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to these well-known stratospheric phenomena, there are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion events. 7)CFCs and other contributory substances are referred to as ozonedepleting substances (ODS). Since the ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (280315 nm) of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth's atmosphere, observed and projected decreases in ozone have generated worldwide concern leading to adoption of the Montreal Protocol that bans the production of CFCs, halons, and other ozone-depleting chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethane.

4)GREENHOUSE EFFECT

1) The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. 2) Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases. 3) Solar radiation at the frequencies of visible light largely passes through the atmosphere to warm the planetary surface, which then emits this energy at the lower frequencies of infrared thermal radiation. 4) Infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which in turn re-radiate much of the energy to the surface and lower atmosphere.

5) The mechanism is named after the effect of solar radiation passing through glass and warming a greenhouse, but the way it retains heat is fundamentally different as a greenhouse works by reducing airflow, isolating the warm air inside the structure so that heat is not lost by convection. 6) If an ideal thermally conductive blackbody was the same distance from the Sun as the Earth is, it would have a temperature of about 5.3 C. 7) Since the Earth reflects about 30% of the incoming sunlight, this idealized planet's effective temperature would be about 18 C. The surface temperature of this hypothetical planet is 33 C below Earth's actual surface temperature of approximately 14 C. 8) The mechanism that produces this difference between the actual surface temperature and the effective temperature is due to the atmosphere and is known as the greenhouse effect. 9) Earths natural greenhouse effect makes life as we know it possible. However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have intensified the natural greenhouse effect, causing global warming.

A) REAL GREENHOUSE

1) The "greenhouse effect" of the atmosphere is named by analogy to greenhouses which get warmer in sunlight, but the mechanism by which the atmosphere retains heat is different. 2) The greenhouse effect heats the earth because greenhouse gases absorb outgoing radiative energy and re-emit some of it back towards earth. 3)A greenhouse is built of any material that passes sunlight, usually glass, or plastic. It mainly heats up because the Sun warms the ground inside, which then warms the air in the greenhouse. 4)The air continues to heat because it is confined within the greenhouse, unlike the environment outside the greenhouse where warm air near the surface rises and mixes with cooler air aloft.

WAYS TO CONTROL POLLUTION


1) LAW ENFORCEMENT a) The Malaysian government can effectively control air pollution by law enforcement. b) The Environmental Quality Act 1974 aims to: (i) Control and prevent pollution of the environment. (ii) Protect and improve the quality of the environment. (iii) Ensure that waste products do not threaten the environment. 2) USE OF TECHNOLOGY a) Unleaded petrol is made to be a safer fuel for motor vehicles. b) Catalytic converters turn toxic gases into harmless substances such as water and nitrogen. They are fitted to exhaust pipes. c) Alternative sources of energy such as wind, water and solar energy can be used. d) Specific devices to filter dust and toxic gases can be installed in factory chimneys.

3) EDUCATION a) Campaigns and seminars should be held to inform the public about ways to control and prevent air pollution. b) Anti-smoking campaigns can help remind the public on the danger of smoking on our health. c) The public should be discouraged from using CFC products.

THE IMPORTANCE OF KEEPING THE AIR CLEAN


1. Our health will be affected if the air around us is not clean 2. We may experience breathing problems, eye and ling irritations, skin diseases or even cancer 3. Extremely dirty air may also cause death 4. If the pollutants are not cleared in time, the air composition will change and the world will becomes hotter 5. Acid rain may form and will cause plants and animals to die 6. Therefore, we must keep the air clean 7. Ways to keep our air clean: a) Reduce burning of fuels

b) Fit catalytic converters in cars c) Plants more trees. Trees help to remove carbon dioxide in the air through photosynthesis d) Stop deforestation e) Use CFC-free products f) Save electricity 8. Habits to keep the air clean: a) Choose to walk instead of drive if the distance is short. b) Practice car-pooling c) Do not smoke. Substances in cigarette smoke such as tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine are harmful to our health d) Avoid open burning. Use incinerators (enclosed containers for burning rubbish)

Cleanliness is next to godliness