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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question. 1. What is the ability to do work?
A heat B energy C reproduction D DNA

2. What is the study of life? A physics B chemistry C biology D economics

3. What is the basic unit of a living thing? A DNA B atom C molecule D cell

4. What are the changes that occur to a species that make it better able to survive? A speciation B extinctions C adaptations D reproduction

5. What do all of the living and nonliving things in an area make up? A ecosystem B environment C species D ecology

Part B Write the answer to each question on the line.


6. Define energy and give an example of one form of energy.

7. What role does energy play in the growth cycle?

8. How do a fishs adaptations help it survive in the water?

9. How is DNA involved in reproduction?

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Mastery Test A, continued


10. What are some things you would expect to find in a forest ecosystem?

Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. observation ______ 12. experiment ______ 13. hypothesis ______ 14. analysis ______ 15. communication
A an educated guess B describing an experiment on a poster C a person sees something that he or she wants to know

more about
D making sense of data gathered during an experiment E a procedure used to test a hypothesis

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. New life is created through the process of _________________________. 17. A pattern of repeating events is a _________________________. 18. If two life forms can reproduce together, they are the same _________________________. 19. _________________________ is a molecule that directs all of a cells activities. 20. Cells produce _________________________, chemicals that enable them to grow and work.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Define biology and give three examples of things that a biologist might study. (2 points)

22. How could extinction result in the appearance of a new species? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain what happens during a growth cycle. (3 points)

24. An advertisement claims that Super Fine flour produces taller, fluffier biscuits

than Old Mill flour. Explain how you could use the steps of the scientific method to find out whether or not this claim is true. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Mastery Test B


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. protein ______ 2. adaptation ______ 3. ecosystem ______ 4. species ______ 5. cell
A the basic unit of life B all of the living and nonliving things in an

environment
C a change that helps an organism survive D a group of organisms that can reproduce with

each other
E a chemical used in a cell to work and grow

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. Which of the following is a specific adaptation of fish to life in the water? A eyes B fins C bones D muscles

7. What is the molecule within a cell that carries instructions for living things? A DNA B protein C enzyme D mineral

8. What is a process of repeating events? A adaptation B cycle C ecology D speciation

9. Who is a person that studies life and living things? A geologist B chemist C biologist D astronomer

10. What is the process that produces new life? A ecology B cycling C reproduction D adaptation

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Write the answer to each question on the line.
11. What are some of the living and nonliving things you could find

in a desert ecosystem?

12. What are some topics that a biologist might study?

13. Why do living things need energy?

14. Describe how a polar bear is adapted to cold weather.

15. Why do scientists use the scientific method to solve problems?

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence about the scientific method.
16. _________________________ is an important step of the scientific method.

This is the time when a person shares his or her findings with others.
17. A(n) _________________________ is a procedure to test a hypothesis. 18. During _________________________ a person makes sense of the data collected

during the experiment.


19. In the _________________________ step of the scientific method, a person

may see something that he or she wants to know more about.


20. An educated guess that explains how something works is called a(n) _________________________.

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Describe energy and give three examples of how energy is used. (2 points)

22. Explain how the energy and growth cycles are related. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe the science of biology. Explain how an understanding of biology is useful

in every persons life. (3 points)

24. Explain speciation. How does speciation lead to the development of living things

with new adaptations? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mastery Test A


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
1. Water is a _________________________ molecule because its electrons are

unevenly distributed. One end of the molecule has a slight positive charge and the other end a slight negative charge.
2. Fats and oils are described as _________________________, or water-hating molecules

because they do not mix with water.


3. Salt is described as _________________________ because it has a regularly

repeating internal structure.


4. _________________________, or potential hydrogen, is a measure of hydrogen

ion concentration.
5. Blood acts as a _________________________ because it can receive moderate

amounts of acid or base without a significant change in pH. Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.
6. What is the smallest particle of water that has all the properties of water? A one atom B one molecule C one electron D one ion

7. What is the study of matter and how it changes? A physics B chemistry C biology D economics

8. During what kinds of processes are atoms and molecules rearranged? A chemical B physical C radical D electrical

9. What are the parts of an atom? A isotopes B ions C subatomic particles D molecules

10. The average mass of one atom of an element is described as what? A atomic number B nucleic number C mass D atomic mass

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. formula ______ 12. product ______ 13. element symbol ______ 14. compound ______ 15. reactant
A the substance formed in a chemical reaction B the substance altered in a chemical reaction C tells the kind and number of atoms in a compound D letters that represent the name of an element E substance created when two or more elements

join together Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.
16. Why does water heat more slowly than other types of matter?

17. Why does water have a lot of surface tension?

18. Explain the difference in the two isotopes C-12 and C-13.

19. Where is energy stored in compounds?

20. Arrange the following in order of increasing pH: water, soap, acetic acid.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Describe the parts of an atom and explain where each part is located. (2 points)

22. Explain the number and kinds of atoms in the formula H2O2 . (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain why burning is a chemical reaction. What is the source of energy

that fuels burning? (3 points)

24. Explain the difference between an ionic compound and a covalent compound. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. What is created when two or more elements join together? A atom B molecule C compound D ion

2. During a chemical reaction, what is the substance that is altered? A reactant B water C product D acid

3. What is used to indicate the number and kinds of atoms in a compound? A symbol B subscript C formula D equation

4. What are the parts of an atom? A isotopes B ions C subatomic particles D molecules

5. What is the basic unit of matter? A atom B element C formula D molecule

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. molecule ______ 7. atomic mass ______ 8. chemistry ______ 9. subatomic particles ______ 10. chemical process
A the study of matter and how it changes B the smallest particle of a substance that can exist

and still have that substance


C reaction in which atoms and molecules are

rearranged
D the average mass of one atom of an element E the parts of an atom, which include protons,

neutrons, and electrons

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. Water warms up more slowly than other substances because of the ________________________

between individual water molecules.


12. The energy in a compound is stored within the ________________________ of that compound. 13. C-14 is a(n) ________________________ of C-12 and C-13. 14. Water exhibits ________________________ because hydrogen bonds cause water molecules

to stick together.
15. Which has the lowest pH, water, nitric acid, or lye (a strong base)? ________________________

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. Hydrogen and chlorine combine to form hydrochloric acid. What are the reactants

in this chemical reaction?

17. Why are fats and oils described as hydrophobic?

18. What is pH?

19. What are buffers?

20. What is a crystalline substance?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Mastery Test B, continued

Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What are some of the unique properties of water? (2 points)

22. The chemical formula for sulfuric acid is H2 SO4. Give the names and number of atoms

in one molecule of sulfuric acid. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Hydrogen (H) has an atomic number of 1 and a mass number of 1.

How many protons, neutrons, and electrons can be found in one hydrogen atom? Where are these subatomic particles located? (3 points)

24. Explain why water is a polar molecule. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Mastery Test A


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. isomers ______ 2. steroids ______ 3. glycogen ______ 4. peptide ______ 5. cellulose
A a plant polysaccharide used to provide structure B molecules with the same formula but different shapes C a compound of two or more amino acids D a group of lipids that include hormones E the main form of glucose storage in animal cells

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. Chains of _______ form polymers. A functional groups B fats C monomers D glycerol molecules

7. An enzyme is a _______ that brings about chemical reactions in living things. A carbohydrate B fat C protein D nucleic acid

8. The monosaccharide that cells depend on for energy is _______. A glucose B fructose C sucrose D cellulose

9. Large, carbon-containing molecules in living things are referred to as _______. A polysaccharides B isomers C organic molecules D synthetic molecules

10. The nucleic acid that translates the genetic code contained within a cell is ______. A DNA B RNA C nucleotide D peptide

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. _____________ are organic molecules that are not soluble in water and function to store energy. 12. Lipids are made up of fatty acids, _________________________, and other components. 13. A monosaccharide found in fruit and honey is ______________________________. 14. Plants store starches in small structures called _______________________________. 15. __________________________________ are walls made of molecules that

separate a cell from its surroundings. Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.
16. Name three examples of steroids.

17. Explain how amino acids are joined in the process of dehydration synthesis.

18. Define a disaccharide and give an example.

19. Name two polysaccharides found in plants and describe their functions.

20. What is a phospholipid?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How do the functions of DNA and RNA differ? (2 points)

22. Describe a meal that includes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe the functions of lipids in living things. (3 points)

24. Compare and contrast the structures of proteins and carbohydrates. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Mastery Test B


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
1. Carbon containing molecules in living things, except for carbonates, carbon dioxide,

and carbon monoxide, are known as _________________________ molecules.


2. _________________________ is a nucleic acid that translates the genetic code

used in protein production.


3. Polymers are long molecules made from smaller units called _________________________. 4. _________________________ is the monosaccharide that all cells depend on for energy. 5. Proteins that bring about chemical reactions in living things are known as

_________________________. Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. peptide ______ 7. glycerol ______ 8. lipid ______ 9. plastids ______ 10. fructose
A one of the components of lipids B a macromolecule that is not soluble in water C a monosaccharide found in fruit and honey D a compound of two or more amino acids E the structures where plants store starch

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Circle the correct answer to each question.
11. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different shapes are called _______. A polymers B isomers C monomers D proteins

12. In plants, _______ is a polysaccharide that provides support and structure. A starch B fat C glycogen D cellulose

13. _______ are a group of lipids that include hormones. A steroids B fats C proteins D phospholipids

14. In animal cells, _______ is a molecule that stores glucose. A starch B DNA C phospholipids D glycogen

15. In cells, _______ are made of lipid bilayers composed of phospholipids. A nuclei B membranes C DNA molecules D RNA molecules

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What is the job of RNA? ________________________________________________

17. What is a polysaccharide? Give one example. ________________________________

18. What is the role of hydrolysis in the breakdown of proteins?

19. How are carbohydrates and proteins similar?

20. Why is a diet that is high in saturated fat linked to heart disease?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Describe four types of organic molecules found in all living things. (2 points)

22. What kind of molecule is glucose, and what is its role in all cells? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How are RNA and DNA similar? How are they different? (3 points)

24. Explain why proteins, carbohydrates, and fats should be included in the diet. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Mastery Test A


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
1. Cells must maintain ________________________, a balance of internal conditions. 2. Salt water is a ________________________ environment for a cell because the

concentration of salt is greater outside the cell than inside it.


3. In the process of ________________________, molecules move from an area of

high concentration to an area of low concentration.


4. Osmosis is the diffusion of ________________________ across a cell membrane. 5. Cells are able to keep some molecules out, while allowing others to enter, because they have

________________________ membranes. Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. The basic unit of life is a(n) ________. A atom B molecule C compound D cell

7. The energy of carbohydrates is stored in ________. A DNA B RNA C ATP D peptides

8. The body sends out chemical signals in the form of ________. A carbohydrates B hormones C polysaccharides D proteins

9. The job of _______ is to store information in cells. A nucleic acids B proteins C ATP D lipids

10. Hydrophobic molecules that can store energy for long periods of time are ________. A lipids B proteins C carbohydrates D nucleic acids

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. Hooke ______ 12. Schleiden ______ 13. Schwann ______ 14. Leeuwenhoek ______ 15. Virchow
A found that all plants are made of cells B first person to see any type of cell under the microscope C stated that cells only come from other cells D found that all animals are made of cells E first person to see living cells under the microscope

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What are the levels of organization in living things, beginning with the simplest

and moving to the most complex?

17. Define a tissue and give one example.

18. What happens during binary fission?

19. Give an example of an organ system.

20. Name two organisms that are composed of eukaryotic cells.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Mastery Test A, continued

Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Name and briefly describe four types of molecules found in cells. (2 points)

22. How are the functions of cells related to their structures? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How do cells maintain homeostasis? (3 points)

24. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. The first person to see any type of cell under the microscope was ______. A Matthias Schleiden B Rudolph Virchow C Robert Hooke D Theodor Schwann

2. Matthias Schleiden helped develop the cell theory by showing that ______. A B C D

all plants are made of cells animal cells do not have cell walls microscopes are required for viewing cells pond water contains many one-celled organisms

3. ______ discovered that all animals are made of cells. A Matthias Schleiden B Rudolph Virchow C Robert Hooke D Theodor Schwann

4. At one time, people did not know where new living things came from.

Rudolph Virchow proved that ______.


A B C D

cells can form in piles of dust living things are produced by nonliving matter all cells come from other cells cells of rats and other rodents form in dirty corners

5. Anton von Leeuwenhoek was the first person to ______. A suggest the cell theory B view living cells under the microscope C dissect plants D discover nucleic acids in animal cells

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. nucleic acid ______ 7. ATP ______ 8. hormone ______ 9. lipids ______ 10. cell
A molecules in cells that store information B hydrophobic molecules that store energy for a long time C a cells main fuel source D the basic unit of life E a chemical signal sent from one part of the body to another

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11.During _________________________, bacteria copy their DNA, then divided in two. 12.A(n) _________________________ is a group of similar cells working together. 13.The circulatory system is an example of a(n) _________________________. 14.In living things, the simplest level of organization is the _________________________. 15._________________________ cells, like those in plants and animals, have organelles.

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What is the function of a selectively permeable membrane?

17. What is homeostasis?

18. Explain what happens during diffusion.

19. How is diffusion different from osmosis?

20. In a very salty solution, would cells take up or lose water?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What roles do osmosis and diffusion play in homeostasis? (2 points)

22. Compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. What are some of the cellular structures formed by carbohydrates, lipids,

proteins, and nucleic acids? (3 points)

24. Why are some cells capable of producing hormones while others are responsible

for transmitting nerve impulses? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. The tail or fatty acid end of a phospholipid molecule ___________. A is neutral B has a negative charge C has a positive charge D is polar

2. The _______ends of phospholipid molecules interact with the watery external environment. A fatty acid B hydrophobic C hydrophilic D nonpolar

3. The ________ separates the cells contents from the external environment. A nucleus B endoplasmic reticulum C plasma membrane D nucleus

4. Water molecules move into and out of cells by a passive transport method called ________. A osmosis B endocytosis C exocytosis D facilitated diffusion

5. In animals, similar cells are connected to one another by the _________. A plasmodesmata B nuclear pores C extracellular matrix D ionic bond

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. In the cell membrane, phospholipid molecules form a(n) _______________________________

that has hydrophobic tails on the inside and hydrophilic heads on the outside.
7. In the process of ___________________________________________, a membrane protein

helps move molecules across the cell membrane.


8. Cells send messages to one another through openings between membranes called

__________________________________________.
9. The _________________________________ is a region of the nucleus where ribosomes

are made.
10. Each chromosome within a nucleus is made up of a long strand of highly folded

___________________________________.

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. ribosome ______ 12. chloroplast ______ 13. mitochondrion ______ 14. vacuole ______ 15. lysosome
A organelle that converts glucose to ATP B a storage organelle C organelle where amino acids are assembled

into proteins
D organelle that holds digestive enzymes E energy gathering organelle

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. Describe the differences in the structures of rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

17. List two of the functions of the cytoskeleton.

18. Structurally, what do flagella and cilia have in common?

19. When a plant needs water, it will wilt but the tissues themselves remain rigid. Explain why.

20. How does a cells DNA control its activities?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes. (2 points)

22. What are the two energy organelles in plant and animal cells and what is the job of each? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Compare and contrast the functions and structures of microtubules and

microfilaments. (3 points)

24. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. Each chromosome in the cells nucleus is made of one highly folded _______. A microtubule B microfilament C strand of DNA D bilayer

2. In the process of _______, a protein helps move molecules across the plasma membrane

without the use of energy.


A osmosis B diffusion C facilitated diffusion D endocytosis

3. The cell membrane is made of a _______ of phospholipid molecules that have

hydrophobic tails on the inside and hydrophilic heads on the outside.


A bilayer B microtubule C protein D microfilament

4. Ribosomes are manufactured in the _______ of the nucleus. A nuclear envelope B chromatin C DNA D nucleolus

5. Cells communicate through openings in plasma membranes called _______. A plasmodesmata B nuclear pores C gap junctions D communication links

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. In animals, similar cells are connected to one another by the ____________________________. 7. Water moves into and out of cells by a type of passive transport called

______________________________________________.
8. The _________________________________________ is the structure that separates

a cells contents from its environment.


9. The ________________________________________ end of a phospholipid can interact

with a watery environment.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 10. rough ER ______ 11. ATP ______ 12. digestive enzymes ______ 13. proteins ______ 14. sun
A energy for the processes of life B manufactured on ribosomes C supplies energy to chloroplasts D found in lysosomes E part of the endoplasmic reticulum that is

covered with ribosomes Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.
15. Which end of the phospholipid molecule is neutral?

16. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?

17. Where would you find plasmodesmata? What is their function?

18. Explain the difference between passive and active transport.

19. A certain cell makes lipids for transport to other parts of the body. What happens

to a lipid molecule once it is manufactured in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

20. Why are the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts highly folded?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Describe the structure and function of a phospholipid molecule. (2 points)

22. Compare and contrast the functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. List and briefly describe three types of fibers in the cell cytoskeleton. (3 points)

24. Describe the differences in the cell structures of plant cells and animal cells. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. ATP is a high energy molecule made within the _______ of a cell. A chloroplasts B ribosomes C mitochondria D nucleus

2. ATP is made of ribose, adenine, and _______. A one phosphate group B two phosphate groups C three phosphate groups D a fatty acid

3. ATP is manufactured during the process of _______. A cellular respiration B photosynthesis C digestion D metabolism

4. The amount of energy within food is measured in _______. A calories B grams C milliliters D centimeters

5. ADP is made from ATP in the process of ________, which removes

a phosphate group and releases energy.


A digestion B metabolism C hydrolysis D photosynthesis

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence


6. In the process of phosphorylation, energy is used to add a phosphate group

to a molecule of _______________________________________ to make a molecule of ATP.


7. Chemicals that can change the rates of chemical reactions in nonliving systems

are called ______________________________________.


8. In the stomach, the enzyme ___________________________ helps in the digestion of proteins. 9. Plants use the energy of sunlight to make energy-rich ____________________________________

from carbon dioxide and water vapor.


10. The amount of energy needed to get a chemical reaction started is called

___________________________________________.

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. diabetes ______ 12. albinism ______ 13. active site ______ 14. substrate ______ 15. food
A

the place where an enzyme and substrate interact

B contains potential chemical energy C a condition of too much sugar in the blood D a condition due to lack of pigment in hair and skin E the material that reacts with an enzyme

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What is the difference in kinetic and potential energy?

17. What is metabolism?

18. What happens to the structure of an enzyme during a chemical reaction? Explain your answer.

19. Can your body use the same enzyme that breaks down protein in your stomach

in the reaction that builds proteins for your blood? Explain your answer.

20. Where is the potential energy in food stored?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Why does the cell need a source of energy? (2 points)

22. What is ATP? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain how ATP and ADP transfer energy through the cell. (3 points)

24. What are enzymes and how do they work with substrates? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. Energy of motion is known as ______ energy. A potential B solar C kinetic D enzymatic

2. All of the chemical processes in a cell are known as the cells ______. A digestion B phosphorylation C hydrolysis D metabolism

3. An enzyme and substrate interact at the enzymes ______. A polar head B active site C nonpolar tail D cell membrane

4. The chemical energy of food is held in the ______ of the food molecules. A bonds B carbon atoms C heads D membranes

5. The amount of energy needed to get a chemical reaction started is known as the

______ energy.
A potential B kinetic C activation D enzymatic

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. ________________________ is a high-energy molecule made within the cells mitochondria. 7. The amount of energy in food is measured in units called _______________________________. 8. In the process of phosphorylation, energy is used to add a phosphate group

to a molecule of ______________________________.
9. _________________________________ is a condition where someone is greatly overweight. 10. Any substance that reacts with an enzyme is known as a(n) _______________________________.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. ATP ______ 12. cellular respiration ______ 13. pepsin ______ 14. diabetes ______ 15. ADP
A made of adenine, ribose, and 2 phosphate groups B a disease that causes blood sugar levels to be high C made of adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups D process that makes ATP E stomach enzyme that helps digest protein

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. How is ADP converted to ATP?

17. Name two health problems that result from the lack of enzymes.

18. What happens during hydrolysis of ATP?

19. How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?

20. What is the difference between a catalyst and an enzyme?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain why enzymes are necessary for life. (2 points)

22. If a cell were to run out of ATP, what would happen to it? Explain your answer. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How does the energy of the sun become incorporated into the bonds of ATP? (3 points)

24. How does ATP cycle through the cell? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Mastery Test A


Part A Write the answer to each question on the line.
1. What is the control mechanism used by cells to stop and start metabolic pathways?

2. What is the enzyme that helps make ATP molecules in the last stage of cellular respiration?

3. What is the name of the product of anaerobic fermentation that can accumulate

in muscle tissues and make them sore?

4. What two electron carriers help move electrons through cellular fermentation?

5. What chemical reaction involves the transfer of electrons?

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. A sharp-smelling product of the breakdown of pyruvic acid is _________. A oxygen B coenzyme A C acetic acid D sulfuric acid

7. Before acetic acid can be carried into the mitochondria, it is changed to _________. A acetyl CoA B ethyl alcohol C lactic acid D pyruvic acid

8. The goal of cellular respiration is to produce ________. A pyruvic acid B alcohol C ATP D glycolysis

9. If a chemical loses electrons, it has undergone ________. A oxidation B reduction C fermentation D glycolysis

10. During ________, cells produce ATP, NADH, and FADH2. A photosynthesis B reduction C glycolysis D the Krebs cycle
Biology: Cycles of Life

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. Anaerobic fermentation used during the bread-making process produces

carbon dioxide gas and a liquid called ________________________.


12. The final stage of cellular respiration is called the _______________________. 13. The breakdown of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid is known as ____________________. 14. A(n) _______________________________ reaction or process is one that requires oxygen. 15. If oxygen is not present for cellular respiration, some cells can get energy

through a process called ________________________________. Part D Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 16. FADH2 ______ 17. pyruvic acid ______ 18. reduction ______ 19. coenzyme A ______ 20. oxidation
A helps acetic acid cross the membrane of the mitochondria B a reaction in which electrons are lost C the results of a split in a glucose molecule D a reaction in which electrons are gained E an electron-carrying molecule

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What are the three stages of cellular respiration? (2 points)

22. Some bacteria live in mud on the deep ocean floor. They cannot get any oxygen.

Can these bacteria carry out cellular respiration? Explain your answer. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain how fermentation and cellular respiration are alike and how they are different. (3 points)

24. Where in your body would you expect to find cells that have a lot of mitochondria?

Explain your answer. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Mastery Test B


Part A Write the answer to each question on the line.
1. What is the sharp-smelling product made when pyruvic acid breaks down?

2. What is acetyl CoA?

3. What is the purpose of cellular respiration?

4. What happens when a molecule undergoes oxidation?

5. What simple sugar is the source of the energy in ATP molecules?

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. Acetyl CoA moves from the cytoplasm to the _______ where it enters the Krebs cycle. A ribosomes B nucleus C mitochondria D vacuole

7. _______ is an electron-carrying molecule. A Oxygen B FADH2 C H2O D ATP

8. _______ is a waste product of some types of fermentation that can cause muscle soreness. A ATP B Lactic acid C Pyruvic acid D FADH2

9. _______ bacteria live deep in the soil where oxygen cannot reach. A Photosynthetic B Anaerobic C Aerobic D Oxidized

10. Two processes that produce ATP in cells are cellular respiration and _______. A fermentation B oxidation C photosynthesis D diffusion

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. aerobic ______ 12. anaerobic ______ 13. ethyl alcohol ______ 14. fermentation ______ 15. pyruvic acid
A a molecule produced by the breakdown of glucose B an anaerobic method of producing energy C without oxygen D a product of fermentation E with oxygen

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. The cells in the human body create ATP during the process of ______________________________. 17. The Krebs cycle and electron transport chain occur in tiny cell structures called

_________________________________.
18. During cellular respiration, oxygen undergoes ______________________________________

and loses electrons.


19. In the first step of glycolysis, a glucose molecule breaks into two molecules of

____________________________________________.
20. Electron carriers produced during the Krebs cycle are used during the

_______________________________________.

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain the difference between cellular respiration and fermentation. (2 points)

22. Describe the processes of oxidation and reduction. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. List and briefly describe the three stages of cellular respiration. (3 points)

24. How does feedback inhibition control the production of energy in cells? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. The process that captures sunlight and changes it to chemical energy is ________. A oxidation B synthesis C respiration D photosynthesis

2. Openings in leaves that allow gases to move in and out are called ________. A vascular bundles B stomata C the mesophyll D chlorophyll

3. Energy from the sun is known as ________. A hydroelectric energy B electromagnetic radiation C ionic energy D fluorescent radiation

4. The green pigment in plants that can absorb light is ________. A NADPH B carotene C chlorophyll D mesophyll

5. Particles of light are known as ________. A photons B waves C wavelengths D electromagnetic radiation

Part B Write the answer to each question on the line.


6. What is the function of an accessory pigment?

7. What gas do plants release during photosynthesis?

8. Describe the function and structure of a chloroplast.

9. List the two stages of photosynthesis.

10. What is the function of a photosystem?

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. light reaction ______ 12. dark reaction ______ 13. visible light ______ 14. carotenoid ______ 15. G3P
A the part of the electromagnetic spectrum used

in photosynthesis
B produces sugar C a simple sugar made in the dark reaction D produces ATP and NADPH E a yellow-orange accessory pigment

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. Crabgrass is classified as a ___________________________________ plant because

it can photosynthesize in hot, dry weather.


17. The dark reaction is also known as the _______________________________________. 18. The green tissue between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf

is the __________________________________________.
19. A ____________________________________________ is made up of several tiny

tubes that carry water and food through the leaf.


20. Plants and other organisms that make their own food are known as

_______________________________________.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Why must the light reaction occur before the dark reaction? (2 points)

22. Explain the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain why all animals depend on photosynthesis as their source of energy. (3 points)

24. What is the purpose of the dark reaction? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. The job of a(n) _______ is to capture light waves that chlorophyll might miss. A mesophyll B accessory pigment C chloroplast D waxy layer

2. The _______ transfers excited electrons to the reaction center. A chloroplast B G3P molecules C photosystem D epidermis

3. Organelles that contain sacs of thylakoids are called _______. A chloroplasts B mitochondria C ribosomes D tubules

4. The two stages of photosynthesis are the _______ and the dark reaction. A Calvin-Benson cycle B light reaction C oxidative reaction D reduction reaction

5. Plants release _______ gas during photosynthesis. A oxygen B carbon dioxide C argon D nitrogen

Part B Write the answer to each question on the line.


6. The process in which plants capture the suns energy and change it to the

chemical energy of sugar is called ____________________________________.


7. Photons can be defined as small particles of ____________________________________. 8. The primary light-absorbing pigment in plants is ____________________________________. 9. The sun gives off a wide range of ____________________________________

that includes visible light.


10. Oxygen made during photosynthesis escapes from leaves through

tiny openings called ____________________________________.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C On the line write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. The stage of photosynthesis that produces ATP and NADPH is the __________________________. 12. In the _____________________________ stage of photosynthesis, sugar molecules are formed. 13. Plants use _____________________________, a part of the electromagnetic spectrum, for energy. 14. ______________________________ are orange or gold accessory pigments found in some leaves. 15. G3P is a simple ___________________________________ made during the dark reaction.

Part D Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct term on the line. ______ 16. CAM plants ______ 17. vascular bundle ______ 18. mesophyll ______ 19. autotroph ______ 20. Calvin-Benson cycle
A another name for the dark reaction B an organism that can make its own food C plants such as pineapples that live in hot, dry places D tubes in leaves that carry food and water E green tissue where photosynthesis takes place

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain what happens in the light reaction. (2 points)

22. Briefly describe the dark reaction. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain why photosynthesis is the most important biological process on earth. (3 points)

24. Explain how autotrophs capture and use the suns energy. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. A tumor that spreads from its original site to other locations is ______. A oogenic B meiotic C benign D malignant

2. A cancer treatment that kills unwanted cells with drugs is ______. A surgery B chemotherapy C radiation treatment D metastasis

3. The female gamete is a(n) ______. A ovary B uterus C follicle D egg

4. The ovaries and testes are examples of ______. A spermatogonia B homologous chromosomes C centromeres D gonads

5. Humans care for their offspring through ______, a time of rapid growth and

development in the teen years.


A adolescence B conception C gestation D metastasis

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. During most of its life, a cell grows and matures in a stage called

_______________________________.
7. Near the end of interphase, a cell makes copies of its chromosomes.

The copies are called _______________________________.


8. The structure that holds sister chromatids together is the _______________________________. 9. A zygote develops into a ball of cells known as a(n) _______________________________. 10. The release of an egg from the ovary is _______________________________.

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. binary fission ______ 12. mitosis ______ 13. meiosis ______ 14. cancer ______ 15. tumor
A type of cell division that produces gametes B ball of cells caused by extra cancer cell divisions C method of reproduction in prokaryotes D condition in which cells divide too much E type of cell division for growth and repair

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What happens in meiosis during the event called crossing over?

17. What is the difference in a haploid and a diploid cell?

18. What is the end result of meiosis I?

19. What is the end result of meiosis II?

20. How are the male and female reproductive systems similar?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What is the role of mitosis in the development of a fertilized egg? (2 points)

22. How are male gametes formed? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Compare and contrast the functions of meiosis and mitosis. (3 points)

24. List and briefly describe the stages of mitosis, beginning with interphase. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Mastery Test B


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. gonads ______ 2. chemotherapy ______ 3. adolescence ______ 4. malignant ______ 5. sperm
A period of rapid growth and development in humans B male gamete C organs that produce gametes D a cancer treatment that kills cells with drugs E a tumor that spreads from its original location

Part B Write the answer to each question on the line.


6. What occurs in a cell during interphase?

7. List the stages of mitosis, beginning with interphase.

8. What happens during metaphase?

9. Are the cells produced by mitosis haploid or diploid? _________________________________

Why? _______________________________________________________________________
10. Explain what happens when homologous chromosomes cross over.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Circle the correct answer to each question.
11. Prokaryotes reproduce by a process called ______. A meiosis B binary fission C cytokinesis D metastasis

12. The type of cell division that produces new cells for growth and repair is ______. A cytokinesis B meiosis C mitosis D binary fission

13. A condition in which cells divide too much is known as ______. A hyperpigmentation B diabetes C heart attack D cancer

14. The female gamete is a(n) ______. A ovary B uterus C egg D follicle

15. A(n) ______ is a ball of cells that results from extra cancer cell divisions. A placenta B embryo C fetus D tumor

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. During _____________________________, the cytoplasm of a cell pinches in two. 17. The release of an egg from the ovary is called _____________________________. 18. Two sets of homologous chromosomes form a(n) _____________________________. 19. The process in which unfertilized egg, blood, and tissue pass out of

a females body is called _____________________________.


20. During cell division, chromosomes are moved around the cell by the

_____________________________.

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What is the purpose of mitosis? Give an example of a cell that can undergo mitosis. (2 points)

22. What is the purpose of meiosis? Give an example of a cell that can undergo meiosis. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe what occurs in the life of a sperm from its production until it fertilizes an egg. (3 points)

24. Summarize the events that occur from fertilization until a child is born. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Mastery Test A


Part A Write the answer to each question on the line. A cross between two pea plants is described in the following Punnett square: T Tt Tt t tt tt

t t

1. One of the parents has a genotype of Tt. What is the genotype

of the other parent?


2. T stand for tallness and t represents shortness. If these traits are

__________________

controlled by complete dominance, 50% of the offspring are short. What are the other 50%?
3. Are the short organisms homozygous or heterozygous? 4. If these traits are controlled by incomplete dominance, 50% of the

__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

offspring are short. What are the other 50%?


5. What is the homozygous genotype for tallness?

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. linked genes ______ 7. autosomes ______ 8. genetics ______ 9. XX ______ 10. XY
A study of heredity B male sex chromosomes C chromosomes that do not carry sex traits D close together on a chromosome and

inherited together
E female sex chromosomes

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. The first generation of offspring from the cross of two parents is called the

_______________________________.
12. The _______________________________ says that an organisms gets

two genes for each trait. One gene comes from each parent.
13. A _______________________________ will always hide a recessive trait. 14. The sex of offspring is determined by the _______________________________

chromosome.
15. Hemophilia is considered to be sex-linked because it is carried on the

_______________________________ chromosome. Part D Circle the correct answer to each question.


16. The offspring of two true-breeding plants is ______. A a true-breeder B a hybrid C codominant D a testcross

17. The ______ is the second generation of offspring from a cross of two organisms. A P generation B F1 generation C F2 generation D G1 generation

18. The ______ of an organism describes how it looks. A genotype B phenotype C allele D linkage map

19. A(n) ______ carries a gene, but does not show the effects of it. A diabetic B transformer C carrier D allele

20. Traits controlled by two or more genes are ______. A linked B environmental C sex-linked D polygenic

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene? (2 points)

22. Why is hemophilia considered to be sex linked? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How did the work of Mendel help explain inheritance of traits? (3 points)

24. Explain the role of chromosomes in inheritance. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Mastery Test B


Part A Write the answer to each question on the line.
1. Which sex chromosome determines the sex of an offspring? Explain why.

2. Why did Mendel study pea plants?

3. Explain the difference between simple dominance and codominance.

4. Summarize the law of segregation.

5. Why is hemophilia considered to be a sex-linked disease?

Part B Write the answer to each question on the line. A cross between two mice is described in the following Punnett square. B stands for black fur and b represents white fur. B Bb Bb b bb bb

b b

6. Assume that the traits in this Punnett square are controlled by complete dominance.

The color of a Bb animal is __________________.


7. One parent in this cross has a genotype of Bb. The other parents genotype is __________________. 8. The phenotype of the bb animal is __________________. 9. In this cross, 50% of the offspring are white. The other 50% are __________________ in color. 10. Imagine the traits in this cross are controlled by incomplete dominance. Then 50% of

the offspring are white and the other 50% are __________________ in color.
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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Circle the correct answer to each question.
11. The study of heredity is ______. A hemophilia B the law of segregation C hybridization D genetics

12. The sex chromosomes of males are ______. A XX B XY C YY D XZ

13. The sex chromosomes of females are ______. A XX B XY C YY D XZ

14. Chromosomes that do not carry sex traits are ______. A XX B autosomes C genes D linked

15. Two genes that are usually inherited together are probably ______. A linked on a chromosome B carriers C influenced by environment D polygenic

Part D Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 16. phenotype ______ 17. F2 ______ 18. genotype ______ 19. polygenic ______ 20. hybrid
A traits controlled by two or more genes B describes how an organism looks C offspring of two true-breeders D second generation of offspring from a cross of

two organisms
E an organisms combination of genes for a trait

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Why do very few females show sex-linked traits? (2 points)

22. Explain how blood type is inherited. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe Mendels work with pea plants. (3 points)

24. Why is an organisms phenotype dependent on its genotype? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Mastery Test A


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line.
______ 1. complementary base pairing ______ 2. nitrogenous base ______ 3. virus ______ 4. codon ______ 5. transformation A the process of adding foreign DNA to a

bacterial cell
B a nonliving germ that can infect a cell C a section of a nucleotide D adenine bonds to thymine and cytosine to guanine E three bases on a strand of DNA

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. A(n) _______________________________ is a virus that infects a bacterium. 7. White blood cells that make antibodies are _______________________________. 8. A foreign molecule that activates the immune system is a(n)

_______________________________.
9. Protein-making instructions travel from the nucleus on a strand of

_______________________________.
10. A(n) _______________________________ uses the plasmids in bacteria

to make new products.

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Circle the correct answer to each question.
11. During replication, ______ connects the short, new strands of DNA. A lactase B DNA polymerase C DNA ligase D RNA polymerase

12. The immune systems first line of defense is ______. A specific B nonspecific C production of antibodies D a memory cell

13. ______ are activated by a second infection of a germ. A T cells B Complement proteins C Memory cells D Polymerases

14. The nonspecific immune system releases ______ to break up infected cells. A pathogens B complement proteins C memory cells D antibodies

15. In DNA replication, an existing strand acts as a ______ for a new strand. A marker B fork C bubble D template

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What is the function of transfer RNA ?

17. What is the job of DNA polymerase in DNA replication?

18. What are the parts of a virus?

19. What happens if chromosome 21 does not separate in meiosis?

20. What is a mutation?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain what happens during transcription. (2 points)

22. Describe the structure of DNA. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. A boy is infected by a pathogen. Explain how the boys immune system responds

to that pathogen. (3 points)

24. What happens during the lytic and lysogenic cycles of a viral infection? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. A nucleotide is made up of sugar, phosphate, and a(n) ______. A DNA ligase B RNA polymerase C uracil D nitrogenous base

2. During ______, DNA is added to a cell. A translation B transcription C transformation D replication

3. A(n) ______ is a nonliving germ that can infect a cell. A bacteriophage B virus C exon D mutagen

4. Three bases on a strand of DNA make a(n) ______. A anticodon B codon C gene D mutation

5. ______ explains why thymine bonds with adenine and cytosine with guanine. A Genetic engineering B Complementary base pairing C The law of segregation D Biotechnology

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each question.


6. During a second infection, the immune system activates _____________________________.

These cells were created during the first exposure.


7. In replication, an old strand of DNA acts as a(n) _____________________________

for making a new strand.


8. T and B lymphocytes are part of the bodys _____________________________ to infection. 9. The enzyme _____________________________ connects short, new strands of DNA. 10. Early in infection, the body releases _____________________________

to break up infected cells.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. bacteriophage ______ 12. B lymphocytes ______ 13. antigen ______ 14. mRNA ______ 15. biotechnologist
A a foreign molecule that activates the immune system B uses genetics and bacterial plasmids to make products C a virus that infects a bacterium D white blood cells that make antibodies E protein-making instructions that travel from nucleus

to ribosome Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. What is a mutation?

17. Describe the parts of a virus.

18. How do amino acids get to a ribosome during translation?

19. What causes Downs syndrome?

20. What is the job of DNA polymerase in replication?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What is the function of DNA in a cell? (2 points)

22. How can a mutation in DNA result in a health problem? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain how transcription and translation result in the production of a protein. (3 points)

24. How does the bodys nonspecific defense system protect it from infection? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Mastery Test A


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. alveolus ______ 2. capillaries ______ 3. plasma ______ 4. fibrinogen ______ 5. urine
A a protein that helps blood clot B liquid waste produced by kidneys C a tiny air sac in the lung D small blood vessels that surround alveoli E liquid part of the blood

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. The skin produces a salty waste product called ______. A feces B carbon dioxide C perspiration D urine

7. The presence of ______ causes the kidneys to absorb more water. A estrogen B antidiuretic hormone C neurotransmitter D enzyme

8. The outermost layer of skin is the ______. A epidermis B dermis C fatty layer D epithelium

9. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and ______. A brainstem B peripheral nerves C spinal cord D motor nerves

10. Partially digested, liquid food in the stomach and intestine is ______. A pepsin B saliva C chyme D feces

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each question.
11. A(n) _______________________________ is an extension of a neuron that

carries information to other cells.


12. The _______________________________ in the brain produces secretions that

control body functions.


13. The _______________________________ carries impulses from the retina to the brain. 14. A thin membrane stretching across the ear canal is the _______________________________. 15. During stress, the body releases the hormone _______________________________.

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. How does the feedback loop stop the production of a hormone?

17. What is the difference in a voluntary and an involuntary muscle?

18. What are cardiovascular diseases?

19. Where do red blood cells come from?

20. What is the job of the brain stem?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain how an impulse travels from one neuron to the next. (2 points)

22. What are the roles of the liver in digestion and energy storage? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Trace the path of a bite of food from the time it enters the mouth until its nutrients

enter the blood. (3 points)

24. Name the eight body systems and briefly describe their functions. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Mastery Test B


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. The ______ signals a gland to stop making hormone. A spinal cord B respiratory system C feedback loop D pituitary gland

2. ______ muscles, like those in the legs, can be controlled. A Cardiac B Voluntary C Involuntary D Smooth

3. The ______ controls automatic functions like breathing and heart rate. A frontal lobe B parietal lobe C spinal cord D brain stem

4. Red blood cells are produced in ______. A the spleen B the kidneys C red bone marrow D the heart

5. ______ diseases involve the heart and blood vessels. A Cardiovascular B Immune system C Genetic D Respiratory

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. axon ______ 7. optic nerve ______ 8. pituitary gland ______ 9. adrenaline ______ 10. eardrum
A carries electrical impulses from the retina to the brain B a thin membrane stretched across the ear canal C extension of a neuron that sends information to cells D produces secretions that control body functions E a hormone produced during times of stress

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Write the answer to each question on the line.
11. What is the role of the nose in the respiratory system?

12. How does oxygen move from the alveolus into the blood stream?

13. What is urine?

14. Explain the function of fibrinogen.

15. What is plasma?

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each question.


16. The skin produces a salty waste product called _____________________________. 17. The outermost layer of skin is the _____________________________. 18. In the digestive system, food is changed into a semi-liquid called

_____________________________.
19. The central nervous system is made of the brain and _____________________________. 20. The presence of _____________________________ signals the kidneys

to take up more water.

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What is the path of blood through the heart? (2 points)

22. Explain why the reproductive system could not function without the other body systems. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How do the nutrients in food reach cells? (3 points)

24. Explain how the nervous and endocrine systems control the body. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Mastery Test A


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. acquired trait ______ 2. biogeography ______ 3. crust ______ 4. fossil ______ 5. magma
A remains or impressions of organisms that

lived in the past


B hot, liquid rock inside the earth C trait due to the behavior of an organism D study of the distribution of living things

and fossils
E outer layer of the earth

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. Changes in a population over time are due to ______. A biological evolution B the fossil record C comparative anatomy D morphology

7. According to the theory of ________, todays organisms evolved from past organisms. A plate tectonics B continental drift C common descent D recombination

8. A disease that causes fever and chills is ________. A sickle cell anemia B hyperpigmentation C diabetes D malaria

9. Squirrels live in trees and on forest floors. These places are their ________. A habitats B homologous structures C niches D gene pools

10. A(n) ________ breaks apart to form new elements. A biochemical B radioisotope C ion D homologous structure

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Write the answer to each question on the line.
11. Define microevolution.

12. What is the fossil record?

13. State the theory of descent with modification.

14. Define evolutionary biology.

15. What is a gene pool?

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. All of the time that has passed since the earth was formed is ________________________. 17. Organisms like humans and fish that have backbones are ________________________. 18. The death of all members of a species is ________________________. 19. The creation of new groupings of alleles is ________________________. 20. Breeding organisms to create desired traits is ________________________.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How do new species form? (2 points)

22. What kinds of evidence support evolution? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How does Darwins theory of natural selection explain evolution? (3 points)

24. How did the work of Gregor Mendel support the work of Charles Darwin? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Mastery Test B


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
1. According to the theory of __________________, current species are changed descents

of past species.
2. A(n) __________________ breaks apart to form new elements. 3. The small changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next represent

__________________.
4. The death of all members of a species is called __________________. 5. The remains or impressions of organisms from the past are __________________.

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. biological evolution ______ 7. crust ______ 8. gene pool ______ 9. geologic time ______ 10. habitat
A outer layer of the earth B the place where an organism lives C all of the time that has passed since Earth formed D changes to a population over time E all of the genes of a population

Part C Circle the correct answer to each question


11. Changes in a population over time are due to ________. A biological evolution B the fossil record C comparative anatomy D morphology

12. Zebras are similar to horses in many ways. Differences in the groups occurred through ________. A homologous structures B fossils C natural selection D artificial selection

13. The DNA of a cat and dog are similar. A cats DNA is very different from the DNA

of a mushroom or a cactus. ________ are more closely related than cats and mushrooms.
A Cats and dogs B Cats and zebras C Cats and cacti D Dogs and mushrooms

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Mastery Test B, continued


14. Wings of birds, flippers of whales, and front legs of monkeys are examples of ________. A genetic engineering B invertebrates C artificial selection D homologous structures

15. Insects and worms do not have backbones. They are examples of ________. A mammals B invertebrates C vertebrates D amphibians

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line


16. What is an acquired trait?

17. What causes the development of a new species?

18. State the theory of natural selection.

19. What is recombination?

20. Explain the theory of common descent.

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How do homologous structures support evolution? (2 points)

22. What are the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain how changes in gene pools occur through mutation and genetic drift. (3 points)

24. How do scientists use fossils to study evolution? (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. A scientific name is made up of the ______ names. A kingdom and phylum B family and class C genus and species D family and genus

2. In the three-domain system, humans are in the domain _______. A bacteria B Eukarya C Archaea D vertebrate

3. The chemistry of processes in living things is _______. A anatomy B morphology C biochemistry D biogeography

4. The broadest level of the Linnaeus classification system is _______. A kingdom B genus C phylum D Eukarya

5. Reproduction involving only one parent is _______. A sexual B gene pooling C reproductive isolation D asexual

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. classify ______ 7. fertile ______ 8. interbreed ______ 9. niche ______ 10. stasis
A able to breed together B the way of life of an organism C capable of producing offspring D to group E showing little change

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Write the answer to each question on the line.
11. A frog and salamander are in the same class. Does this mean that they are also in

the same phylum? Explain your answer.

12. What is the most common cause of extinction today?

13. List the seven levels of the Linnaeus classification system.

14. What is reproductive isolation?

15. What is speciation?

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. The study of differences in body forms is ________________________. 17. A(n) ________________________ is a group of similar species. 18. A group of different populations can form a(n) ________________________. 19. Mammals feed their offspring with milk from their ________________________. 20. The theory of ________________________ says that species stay the same for a long time.

New species evolve after major changes in the environment.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. What is punctuated equilibrium? Give an example. (2 points)

22. What kind of event might lead to a mass extinction? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain the differences between allopatric and sympatric speciation. (3 points)

24. How does small population size affect the genetic health of a population? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Mastery Test B


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. asexual ______ 2. biochemistry ______ 3. classify ______ 4. community ______ 5. morphology
A the study of chemical processes in living things B the study of different body forms C reproduction involving only one parent D to group E a group of different populations in an area

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. A rabbit hides in tall grass. It feeds on young grass shoots. These activities are

the rabbits ________.


A domain B genus C niche D kingdom

7. Organisms that can produce offspring are ________. A fertile B extinct C asexual D mammals

8. Mammals feed their offspring with milk from ________. A co-adaptations B eukarya C mammary glands D homologous structures

9. Organisms in ________ show little change over time. A stasis B subspecies 10. A ________ is made up of similar species. A phylum B kingdom C class D genus C reproductive isolation D gene pools

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. The broadest level of the Linnaeus classification system is ________________________. 12. Organisms of the same species can ________________________, or breed with one another. 13. Organisms that once interbred, but can no longer do so, are ________________________. 14. The creation of a new species from an existing species is ________________________. 15. An organisms scientific name is made of its genus and ________________________ names.

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. Explain the idea of coordinated stasis.

17. What is punctuated equilibrium?

18. What is the three-domain system?

19. What is the most common cause of extinction today?

20. What is the biological species concept?

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How does speciation occur? (2 points)

22. How did Linnaeus classify living things? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How does instantaneous speciation occur? (3 points)

24. Explain how a mass extinction could occur. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Mastery Test A


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. heterotroph ______ 2. metamorphosis ______ 3. molting ______ 4. mycelium ______ 5. taxonomy
A the science of classifying organisms based on

structure
B a thick network of hyphae in a mold C an organism that cannot make its own food D shedding an exoskeleton E major changes in the development of an animal

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. The language and customs of a group of people make up their ______. A taxonomy B phylogeny C genes D culture

7. ______ are vascular plants that reproduce with spores. A Mosses B Ferns C Grasses D Lichens

8. Hydra, jellyfish, and corals have tentacles and stinging cells. They are examples of ______. A flatworms B myxini C cnidarians D crustaceans

9. In plants, tube-shaped ______ carries food and water. A vascular tissue B chlorophyll C nervous tissue D bark

10. Spiders and ticks are classified as ______. A mollusks B crustaceans C arachnids D amphibians

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Write the answer to complete each question on the line.
11. What are the characteristics of a chordate?

12. What are fungi? How do they get their food?

13. Name the three domains. Briefly state the kinds of organisms in each.

14. Describe the characteristics of a gymnosperm.

15. What is the function of a fishs swim bladder?

Part D On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


16. The kingdom Protista includes three kinds of protozoans. They are amoebae,

ciliates, and _________________________.


17. The phylum Bryophyta includes _________________________. They are small plants

that do not have seeds or vascular tissue.


18. During _________________________, pollen moves from the stamen to the pistil. 19. Animals that have backbones, like humans, are _________________________. 20. A(n) _________________________ is a protist. It can live as a single cell or as a colony of cells.
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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook. (2 points)
21. What is complete metamorphosis? (2 points)

22. How do the body temperatures of cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals differ? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Animals show body symmetry. Explain the difference between radial symmetry and bilateral

symmetry. Give an example of each. (3 points)

24. Compare the characteristics of a vascular plant with a nonvascular plant. Give an

example of each. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Mastery Test B


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
1. Any organism that cannot make its own food is known as a(n) ________________________. 2. In fungi, a thick network of hyphae forms _______________________. 3. The science of classifying organisms based on structure is called _______________________. 4. Shedding an exoskeleton is known as _______________________. 5. _______________________ refers to the major changes in form that occur as

some animals develop. Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. flagellates ______ 7. mosses ______ 8. pollination ______ 9. slime molds ______ 10. vertebrates
A protists that can live as single cells or as colonies B protozoans that have whip-like tails C small plants that lack seeds and vascular tissue D animals that have backbones E the movement of pollen from the stamen to the pistil

Part C Write the answer to complete each question on the line.


11. How does complete metamorphosis differ from incomplete metamorphosis?

12. Name a warm-blooded animal. How does it maintain body temperature?

13. Give two ways in which humans differ from other animals.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Mastery Test B, continued


14. How do taxonomists classify organisms?

15. Name four major groups of organisms that are in the domain eukarya.

Part D Circle the correct answer to each question.


16. ______ are a group of animals that have radial symmetry. A Cnidarians B Sponges C Worms D Fish

17. Prokaryotes that are not bacteria are classified as ______. A archaea B eukarya C mammals D protists

18. Heterotrophs that break down their food with enzymes, then absorb it, are ______. A plants B animals C fungi D eukarya

19. In the embryo stage, a(n) ______ has pharyngeal slits, a nerve cord, a notochord,

and a tail that goes past the anus.


A mammal B chordate C amphibian D larva

20. The ______ of a fish helps it move up and down in the water. A gills B scales C operculus D swim bladder

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How are vascular and nonvascular plants different? (2 points)

22. What is the highest level of classification? Describe the three divisions of this level. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe the types of vascular tissue found in a plant and the job of each type. (3 points)

24. Describe the sexual reproductive structures in plants and explain how fertilization occurs.

(3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. The way an organism acts is its ______. A cognition B behavior C mimicry D signal

2. Hunger is an example of a(n) ______. A internal stimulus B fixed action pattern C communication D external stimulus

3. Animals gain ______ from their experiences. A pheromones B warning coloration C learned behavior D innate behavior

4. An animal that can recognize the features of an area shows ______. A spatial learning B courtship behavior C cooperation D competition

5. Scientists who study animal behavior are ______. A ecologists B geneticist C immunologists D ethologists

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each question.


6. An animal behavior that always happens the same way is a(n) ______________________. 7. Some types of caterpillars are poisonous. In _______________________, nonpoisonous

species look like the poisonous ones.


8. In _______________________, animals are aggressive and compete against each other. 9. An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism is _______________________. 10. In _______________________, an animal gives a signal that changes the meaning

of other signals.

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. cognition ______ 12. competitor ______ 13. cooperation ______ 14. predator ______ 15. sociobiologist
A working together for the good of the group B an animal that tries to get the same resources

as another animal
C a scientists who studies how living things

interact and communicate


D knowledge E an organism that eats another organism

Part D Write the answer to complete each question on the line.


16. What is warning coloration?

17. Give an example of matched submission.

18. What kinds of behaviors are involved in bird song?

19. What is the purpose of pheromones?

20. What kind of behavior helps an animal defend an area?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain the difference in innate and learned behavior. (2 points)

22. What kind of behavior would you see if chicken eggs were hatched by a turkey?

Describe this behavior. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe two examples of innate animal behavior. (3 points)

24. What is communication? Explain two ways in which animals communicate. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Mastery Test B


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each question.
1. Some animals may have knowledge or ________________________ of

communication signals.
2. In ________________________, animals work together for the good of the group. 3. A(n) ________________________ is an animal that tries to get the same resources

as another animal.
4. A(n) ________________________ studies how animals interact and communicate. 5. An organism that kills and eats another organism is a(n) ________________________.

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. In ______, an animal gives signals that change the meaning of other signals. A agonistic interaction B metacommunication C mimicry D cognition

7. Some types of worms are poisonous. In ______, nonpoisonous species look like

the poisonous ones.


A mimicry B imprinting C cognition D simulating

8. An animal behavior that always happens the same way is a(n)______. A communication B learned behavior C fixed action pattern D competition

9. An organism that is killed and eaten by another organism is ______. A predator B submissive C cooperative D prey

10. During ______, animals are aggressive and compete with one another. A agonistic interaction B observational learning C matched submission D cooperation

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Write the answer to complete each question on the line.
11. What is an internal stimulus?

12. Give an example of spatial learning.

13. What is behavior?

14. How does warning coloration protect an animal?

15. What is the job of an ethologist?

Part D Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 16. matched submission ______ 17. pheromones ______ 18. social behavior ______ 19. song-learning in birds ______ 20. territorial behavior
A animal interactions with one another B behavior that helps an animal defend an area C a threatened animal yields to a dominant one D scents used for communication in some animals E a combination of innate and learned behaviors

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Explain imprinting and give an example. (2 points)

22. What is social behavior in animals? Give an example. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. How do animals communicate? How are signals involved in communication? (3 points)

24. Compare and contrast courtship behavior and territorial behavior. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mastery Test A


Part A On the line, write the answer to complete each question.
1. Colors or patterns in animals that help them hide are _______________________. 2. Animals that ______________________ act on or influence other animals. 3. Areas that share the same weather and types of ecosystems are _______________________. 4. During a(n) _______________________, populations increase and

decrease dramatically.
5. All parts of the earth that support living things make up the _______________________.

Part B Write the answer to complete each question on the line.


6. What is the trophic structure of a community?

7. What is the difference between emigration and immigration?

8. Define parasitism.

9. What is competition?

10. What is the carrying capacity of an environment?

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Circle the correct answer to each question.
11. Organisms that rely on each other are ______. A hosts B immigrants C interdependent D parasites

12. Animals that consume other species for food are ______. A prey B predators C mimics D competitors

13. Squirrels live in small groups in the forest. This is an example of ______

population distribution.
A random B uniform C clumped D stable

14. A poisonous substance is ______. A toxic B uniform C density-dependent D symbiotic

15. The plant life in an area makes up the ______. A biome B vegetation C canopy D succession

Part D Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 16. canopy ______ 17. parasite ______ 18. population density ______ 19. stability ______ 20. prey
A the number of individuals living in an area B an organism that serves as food for another

organism
C the ability to resist change D an organism that lives on a host E the tops of trees in a forest

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Describe and give examples of density-dependent and density-independent factors. (2 points)

22. Define disturbance. Give an example of a disturbance in a community. (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession. (3 points)

24. Define symbiosis and describe three examples. (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mastery Test B


Part A Write the answer to complete each question on the line.
1. What is camouflage? Give an example.

2. A tick lives on the blood of a deer. Why is this an example of symbiosis?

3. A lichen is made up of a fungus and algae. What kind of relationship do these

organisms have? Explain your answer.

4. Give an example of a natural disturbance in a community. Give an example of

a man-made disturbance.

5. Define predator. Give an example.

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. canopy ______ 7. interact ______ 8. interdependent ______ 9. toxic substance ______ 10. trophic structure
A to influence or act on B the feeding relationships in a community C the tops of the trees in a forest D when organisms rely on each other E a material that is poisonous

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each question.
11. During ________________________, organisms move into a population. 12. Areas that have the same kind of weather and ecosystems are called ________________________. 13. The ________________________ is the most members of a population an ecosystem

can support.
14. The number of individuals that live in an area is the ________________________. 15. All the parts of the earth that support living things make up the ________________________.

Part D Circle the correct answer to each question.


16. Organisms that need the same resources are ______. A density-dependent B parasites C randomly distributed D in competition

17. During a(n) ______, populations dramatically increase and decrease. A forest fire B boom-bust cycle C competition D disturbance

18. Grasshoppers are evenly spread over a prairie. This is an example of

______ distribution.
A random B clumped C uniform D stable

19. One organism feeds on another organism in ______. A parasitism B mutualism C commensalism D symbiosis

20. The plant life in a region makes up the ______. A canopy B density-dependent factors C biome D vegetation

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Compare and contrast density-dependent and density-independent factors in

population growth. Give examples of each. (2 points)

22. How are parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism similar? How are they different? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. List the five levels of organization of the environment. Define the first four levels. (3 points)

24. Name, describe, and give examples of the two types of succession in ecosystems. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Mastery Test A


Part A Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 1. coniferous forest ______ 2. desert ______ 3. temperate forest ______ 4. tropical forest ______ 5. tundra
A biome where trees lose their leaves in the winter B rainy regions near the equator where large trees

grow
C the northernmost biome where soil is permafrost D northern regions of cone-bearing trees and large

animals
E regions of very low rainfall

Part B Circle the correct answer to each question.


6. The land and sea meet at the ______. A photic zone B intertidal zone C benthic zone D aphotic zone

7. Several food chains link to make a(n) ______. A population B trophic structure C energy pyramid D food web

8. ______ change nitrogen in the air to compounds that plants can use. A Nitrogen-fixing bacteria B Chemotrophs 9. A(n) ______ is a terrestrial ecosystem. A estuary B pond C open ocean D grassland C Autotrophs D Decomposers

10. A(n) ______ shows what animals in the ecosystem eat. It usually begins with plants. A ecosystem B boom-bust cycle C food chain D biome

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. __________________ ecosystems are found in salt water. 12. The earth is surrounded by a layer of air called the __________________. 13. The trophic structure shows how __________________ flows through an ecosystem. 14. A(n) __________________ can form where freshwater and saltwater mix. 15. Ecologists study the __________________ of an ecosystem. It is the rate at which

photosynthesis creates organic matter. Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.
16. Why is the sun considered the source of energy for everything in an ecosystem?

17. What are two types of aquatic biomes?

18. What are three nutrients that cycle through ecosystems?

19. State the role of plant-like plankton in the marine food web.

20. Why dont plants in the ocean live in the aphotic zone?

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Describe a terrestrial ecosystem. (2 points)

22. How do energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Name and describe the trophic levels in an ecosystem. (3 points)

24. How does water move through the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Mastery Test B


Part A Write the answer to each question on the line.
1. Define a terrestrial biome.

2. What is permafrost and where is it found?

3. What does the trophic structure of an ecosystem show?

4. In the marine ecosystem, plants are plentiful in the photic zone. There are no

plants in the aphotic zone. Explain why this is so.

5. What does the primary productivity of an ecosystem reveal?

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. The _______________________ biome is cold and supports cone-bearing trees. 7. In the _______________________ biome, trees lose their leaves in the winter. 8. The _______________________ biome is found near the equator. It supports large

trees and a wide variety of other living things.


9. Organisms that live in the _______________________ biome are adapted to

conserve water.
10. The _______________________ is the coldest biome. It is home to only a few types

of plants and animals.

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. freshwater ______ 12. food web ______ 13. intertidal zone ______ 14. nitrogen-fixing bacteria ______ 15. terrestrial Part D Circle the correct answer to each question.
16. A(n) ______ forms where freshwater and saltwater meet. A aphotic zone B terrestrial ecosystem C estuary D intertidal zone A the area where land meets the sea B change nitrogen gas to useful compounds C relating to the land D several food chains linked together E aquatic ecosystems of lakes and ponds

17. The ______ is a layer of air that surrounds the earth. A atmosphere B aquatic biome C trophic structure D estuary

18. The water in a ______ ecosystem is salty. A terrestrial B marine C freshwater D estuary

19. The tiny organisms floating at the waters surface in an aquatic ecosystem are ______. A bacteria B decomposers C viruses D plankton

20. One of the nutrients cycled through ecosystems is ______. A soil B nitrogen C vitamin C D ATP

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How do producers, consumers, and decomposers get the energy they need to live? (2 points)

22. What information can be learned from a food chain? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Explain how nitrogen cycles between living and nonliving parts of the environment. (3 points)

24. Assume that the sun stops shining and the earth becomes dark. How would plants

and animals be affected? Explain your reasoning. (3 points)

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Mastery Test A, Page 1

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Mastery Test A


Part A Circle the correct answer to each question.
1. Anything harmful added to the environment is ______. A deforestation B technology C pollution D engineering

2. A(n) ______ creates products to solve problems. A patent B engineer C geologist D biogeologist

3. Carbon dioxide and other gases in the air can trap heat. This ______ keeps the

surface of the earth warm.


A ozone layer B land development C recovery plan D greenhouse effect

4. Scalpels used in surgery are examples of ______. Surgeons use them to help

improve human health.


A medical technology B biodiversity C patents D reserves

5. During ______, land may be changed to build industries, homes, or farms. A conservation biology B engineering C the greenhouse effect D land development

Part B On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.


6. A(n) ______________________ is an idea or plan. It can help prevent an

endangered species from becoming extinct.


7. The science of ______________________ protects species and saves habitats. 8. Liquid chemical waste forms ______________________. It is usually high

in nitrogen.
9. A form of oxygen that blocks harmful radiation is ______________________. 10. Areas where living things are not disturbed by humans are called ______________________.

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Mastery Test A, Page 2

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Mastery Test A, continued


Part C Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 11. deforestation ______ 12. introduced species ______ 13. landfill ______ 14. patent ______ 15. recycle
A an area where trash is stored B a government notice of ownership of technology C organisms that move out of their native habitats D use of wastes to create new products E removing trees from forests

Part D Write the answer to each question on the line.


16. How do scientists share their findings?

17. Define biodiversity.

18. What is the goal of ecological landscaping?

19. How does eutrophication damage the environment?

20. The human population does not have a carrying capacity. Explain why.

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Mastery Test A, Page 3

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Mastery Test A, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. How do science and technology work together? (2 points)

22. What is acid rain? How does it damage ecosystems? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Describe three ways humans damage the environment. (3 points)

24. Clams that are native to China are living in San Francisco Bay. How can these

clams damage the bay ecosystem? (3 points)

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Mastery Test B, Page 1

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Mastery Test B


Part A Write the answer to each question on the line.
1. Why is the human population growing rapidly?

2. What is the greenhouse effect?

3. How do science and technology work together?

4. How are humans damaging the ozone layer?

5. Describe the job of a landscape ecologist.

Part B Match each term with its meaning. Write the correct letter on the line. ______ 6. acid rain ______ 7. emission ______ 8. engineer ______ 9. geology ______ 10. scientific journal
A

a pollutant given off as a gas

B a magazine in which scientists share their findings C a person who develops new products to help people D the study of nonliving parts of the earth E produced when sulfur dioxide dissolves in

water vapor

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Mastery Test B, Page 2

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Mastery Test B, continued


Part C On the line, write the answer to complete each sentence.
11. A form of oxygen called _______________________ blocks harmful radiation. 12. Clearing trees from forests can lead to _______________________. 13. Human activity is not allowed in _______________________. In these areas,

ecosystems are protected.


14. Products of engineers that help human health are _______________________. 15. The earths _______________________ is due to the different living things

that live here. Part D Circle the correct answer to each question.
16. A(n) ______ creates products that make life easier and help people. A biogeologist B engineer C geologist D conservation biologist

17. Anything harmful added to the environment is ______. A biodiversity B pollution C recycling D land development

18. ______ is a form of oxygen. It blocks the suns harmful radiation. A Acid rain B Ozone C Carbon dioxide D Eutrophication

19. Trash is collected and stored in ______. A landfills B estuaries C patents D reserves

20. ______ are chemical wastes given off as gases. A Patents B Landfills C Vapors D Emissions

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Mastery Test B, Page 3

Chapter 19

Chapter 19 Mastery Test B, continued


Part E Write your answer to each question. Use complete sentences. Support each answer with facts and examples from the textbook.
21. Fast growing seaweed from Europe grows in the waters of Florida. Why can

this seaweed be dangerous to native Florida species? (2 points)

22. Carbon dioxide is a gas produced by living things. How can carbon dioxide

be a pollutant? (2 points)

Part F Write a paragraph for each topic. Include a topic sentence, body, and conclusion in the paragraph. Support your answers with facts and examples from the textbook.
23. Name and describe three human activities that help save ecosystems. (3 points)

24. How do human populations cause pollution? (3 points)

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Biology: Cycles of Life