Limit of Function
8
Limits to the left, to the right
Left-Hand Limit (LHL) :
Right-Hand Limit (RHL) :
9
( )
1
L x f Lim
a x
=
( )
2
L x f Lim
a x
=
+
0 > >
+
a x a x a x
0 < <
a x a x a x
Theorem
10
if and only if:
and
( ) L x f
a x
=
lim
( ) L x f
a x
=
lim
( ) L x f
a x
=
+
lim
- This theorem is used to verify whether a limit
exists or not.
Computing limits
To evaluate limit of a function, we substitute the
value of (a) in the function.
When the value of (a) does not in the domain of a
function, then we must calculate the LHL and RHL.
Sometimes we get an indeterminate form. So we
must use one of three techniques: factoring or a
property of limit or the conjugated form.
11
12
Computing limits by substitution
Example1: Find the limit of the function at x = 0,
At x = 1, x = -2, and x = -3.
Solution:
( ) 1 3 2
2
+ = x x x f
( ) ( ) 1 1 0 3 0 2 1 3 2 lim
2
2
0
= + = +
x x
x
( ) ( ) 4 1 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 lim
2
2
1
= + = +
x x
x
( ) ( ) 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 3 2 lim
2
2
2
= + = +
x x
x
( ) ( ) 8 1 3 3 3 2 1 3 2 lim
2
2
3
= + = +
x x
x
13
Example2:
Find the Left-hand Limit and the Right-hand Limit
of the function at x=0.
What we can conclude ?
Solution
left-hand limit is different to right-hand limit then
the limit at x = 0, does not exist.
( )
> +
s
=
0 1
0
x if x
x if x
x f
( ) 0
0 0
= =
x Lim x f Lim
x x
( ) 1 1
0 0
= + =
+ +
x Lim x f Lim
x x
let
Limits to the right, to the left
Computing limits by substitution
14
Properties of limits
P1:If c is any real number, ,
Then,
( ) L x f
a x
=
lim ( ) M x g
a x
=
lim
( )
a) lim ( ) ( )
x a
f x g x L M
+ = +
( )
b) lim ( ) ( )
x a
f x g x L M
=
( )
c) lim ( ) ( )
x a
f x g x L M
=
( )
( )
d) lim , ( 0)
( )
x a
f x
L
M
g x M
= =
( )
e) lim ( )
x a
c f x c L
=
( )
f) lim ( )
n
n
x a
f x L
=
g) lim
x a
c c
=
h) lim
x a
x a
=
i) lim
n n
x a
x a
=
j) lim ( ) , ( 0)
x a
f x L L
= >
15
P2:If
Then
P3:If
then
0 , ) (
0 1
1
1
= + + + + =
n
n
n
n
n
a a x a x a x a x f
n
n
x x
x a x f
= lim ) ( lim
0 , 0 , ) (
0 1
1
1
0 1
1
1
= =
+ + + +
+ + + +
=
n m
n
n
n
n
m
m
m
m
b a
b x b x b x b
a x a x a x a
x f
n
n
m
m
x x
x b
x a
x f
= lim ) ( lim
Properties of limits
Properties of limits
P4:If then and
P5:If then and
16
x
e x f = ) (
0 ) ( lim =
x f
x
+ =
+
) ( lim x f
x
( ) x x f ln ) ( =
=
+
) ( lim
0
x f
x
+ =
+
) ( lim x f
x
x
e
( ) x ln
Computing limits by using the highest
degree term
Example2: Find the limit of the function when x
gets close to (+/-) infinity.
Solution:
17
( ) 1 3 2
2
+ = x x x f
( ) + = = = +
2
2 2
2 2 lim 1 3 2 lim x x x
x x
( ) + = + = = +
+ +
2
2 2
2 2 lim 1 3 2 lim x x x
x x
Computing limits by using the highest
degree term
Example3: Find the limit of the function when x
gets close to (-)infinity.
Solution:
18
( )
2 2
1 3 2
3
2
+
+
=
x
x x
x f
0
1
lim
2
2
lim
2 2
1 3 2
lim
3
2
3
2
= = =
+
+
x
x
x
x
x x
x x x
Computing limits by using the highest
degree term
Example4: Find the limit of the function when x
gets close to (+)infinity.
Solution:
19
( )
4 5 4
1 3 3
2
2
+
+
=
x x
x x
x f
4
3
4
3
lim
4 5 4
1 3 3
lim
2
2
2
2
= =
+
+
+ +
x
x
x x
x x
x x
Computing limits of Indeterminate
forms
The usual Indeterminate forms come in the
following types:
We can add the three other indeterminate forms :
So we must use one of three techniques: factoring
or highest degree term or the conjugated form.
20
, 0 , ,
0
0
0 0
, 0 , 1
21
Computing limits of Indeterminate forms
Example 1: (factoring)
( )
0
0
2 2
4 2
2
4
lim
2 2
2
=
x
x
x
( )( )
( )
( ) 4 2 lim
2
2 2
lim
2
4
lim
2 2
2
2
= + =
+
=
x
x
x x
x
x
x x x
( ) ( )
0
0
18 3 3 3
3 3
18 3
3
lim
2 2
3
=
+
=
+
x x
x
x
( )
( )( ) ( ) 9
1
6
1
lim
6 3
3
lim
18 3
3
lim
3 3
2
3
=
+
+
=
+
x x x
x
x x
x
x x x
22
Example 2: (highest degree term)
?
3 4
1 3
lim
2
2
=
+
+
x
x
x
? 1 4 3 lim
2
+ = +
+
x x
x
+ = = +
+ +
2 2
3 lim 1 4 3 lim x x x
x x
4
3
4
3
lim
3 4
1 3
lim
2
2
2
2
= =
+
+
x
x
x
x
x x
Computing limits of Indeterminate forms
23
Example 3: (conjugated form)
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
1
1
lim
1 1
1
lim
1 1
1 1
lim
1
1
lim
?
0
0
1
1
lim
1
1 1 1
1
=
+
=
+
=
+
+
=
x
x x
x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x x x
x
( )( ) b a b a b a + =
2 2
! ! !
Computing limits of Indeterminate forms
24
Find the domain and limits of the function
defined as
Solution:
( )
1
1
2
2
+
=
x
x
x f
Computing limits
Example 4:
25
Example 4: (continued)
Time to Review !
26
1. Remember well that the search for endings or limits
is to know the behavior of the function when x gets
close to a certain point or to infinity.
2. Before calculating limits, we search the domain of
the function.
3. Computing limits can be achieved by substitution, by
factoring, by using the highest degree term, by using
conjugate forms.
4. The limit exist if and only if LHL = RHL.
Continuity of Function
27
A function f is continuous if you can draw it in one
motion without picking up your pencil.
Example:
A function f is continuous at a point if the limit is
the same as the value of the function.
Definition1:
Definition2:
A function f is continuous at the point x=a if the
following are true:
1.
2.
3.
EX. The function is continuous at x=0.
1.
2.
3.
( ) defined is a f
( )exist x f
a x
lim
( ) ( ) a f x f
a x
=
lim
( ) 2 2 3
2
+ = x x x f
( ) 2 0 = f
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 0 2 0 3 lim
2
0
= + =
x f
x
( ) ( ) 2 0 lim
0
= =
f x f
x
Definition3:
Continuity of Function
28
Essential Discontinuities
f(a)=LHL
RHL
LHL=RHL
f(a)
f(a)=RHL
LHL
f(a) is not defined
a
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Example 2:
This function has discontinuities at x=1 and x=2.
It is continuous at x=3, because the two-sided
limits match the value of the function.
It is continuous at right of x=0 and left of x=4,
because the one-sided limits match the value of the
function.
Continuity of Function
30
Find discontinuities of the function
Solution:
1/ the domain of the function is the real line.
2/ and
LHL = RHL=0 then f is continuous at x = 0.
3/ and
LHL is different from RHL, then f is not
continuous at x = 2.
( )
>
< s
<
=
2 8
2 0
0
2
x if x
x if x
x if x
x f
( ) 0 lim lim
0 0
= =
x x f
x x
( ) 0 lim lim
2
0 0
= =
+ +
x x f
x x
( ) 4 lim lim
2
2 2
= =
x x f
x x
( ) 6 8 lim lim
2 2
= =
+ +
x x f
x x
Example 3:
Continuity of Function
31
Properties of continuous
functions:
P1: If f and g are continuous functions at x = a
then: , , and ( with ) are
continuous functions at x = a.
P2: A polynomial function is continuous at every
point.
P3: A rational function is continuous at every point
in its domain.
32
g f
g f
g
f
( ) 0 = a g
0 , ) (
0 1
1
1
= + + + + =
n
n
n
n
n
a a x a x a x a x f
0 , 0 , ) (
0 1
1
1
0 1
1
1
= =
+ + + +
+ + + +
=
n m
n
n
n
n
m
m
m
m
b a
b x b x b x b
a x a x a x a
x f
Examples:
1/ is a polynomial function,
then it is continuous at every point in R.
2/ is a rational function, then
it is continuous at every point in R\{2}
3/ is a continuous function in its
domain
33
( ) 10 5 2 3
3 4
+ + = x x x x f
( )
2
10 5 2
3
+
=
x
x x
x f
( ) 1 2 + = x x f
(
+
= ;
2
1
f
D
Continuity of Function
1. A function is continuous if you can draw it in one
motion without picking up your pencil.
2. A function is continuous at a point if the limit
is the same as the value of the function.
3. All constant functions are continuous.
4. The following types of functions are continuous
at every member in their domain: polynomial,
rational, power, root, trigonometric, exponential,
and logarithmic.
Time to Review !
34
We will see in the next unit
35
1. Derivative of function
2. How to compute derivative?
3. Some rules of differentiation
4. Second and higher derivatives
5. Interpretation of the derivative
6. Critical points
7. Inflection point
35