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Department of Finance and Investment

Financial Mathematics Course

FIN 118 Unit course

5 Number Unit

Matrices Unit Subject

Dr. Lotfi Ben Jedidia

Dr. Imed Medhioub

we will see in this unit

Matrix / Matrices

Different types of matrices

Usual operations on matrices

2

Learning Outcomes

3

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

1. Define and use the matrix form.

2.Distinct between the different types of

matrices and its properties.

3. Make usual operations on matrices.

In Mathematics, matrices are used to store information.

This information is written in a rectangular arrangement of

rows and columns.

Each entry, or element, of a matrix has a precise position and

meaning.

Example1:

Matrix / Matrices

4

( )

(

(

(

=

7 1 1 5

1 2 0 4

0 3 1 2

4 , 3

A

4 Columns

3

R

o

w

s

Definition:

5

Example of Matrix

Food shopping online: people go online to shop four items

and have them delivered to their homes.

Cartons of eggs, bread, bags of rice, packets of chickens

were ordered online and the people left their address for

delivery.

A selection of orders may look like this:

Order

Address

Carton of

eggs

Bread Rice Chicken

Al Wuroud

2 1 3 0

Al Falah

4 0 2 1

Al Izdihar

5 1 1 7

6

Matrix notation

A matrix is defined by its order which is always

number of rows by number of columns.

A horizontal set of elements is called a row

A vertical set is called a column

First subscript refers to the row number

Second subscript refers to column number

( )

(

(

(

(

=

mn m m m

n

n

n m

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

A

...

. . . .

...

...

3 2 1

2 23 22 21

1 13 12 11

,

7

Matrix notation

It has the dimensions m by n (m x n)

( )

(

(

(

(

=

mn m m m

n

n

n m

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

A

...

. . . .

...

...

3 2 1

2 23 22 21

1 13 12 11

,

row 2

column 3

( )

(

(

(

=

7 1 1 5

1 2 0 4

0 3 1 2

4 , 3

A

7 , 1 , 1 , 5

1 , 2 , 0 , 4

0 , 3 , 1 , 2

34 33 32 31

24 23 22 21

14 13 12 11

= = = =

= = = =

= = = =

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

8

Types of matrices

1/ Row vector m=1 2/ Column vector n=1

3/ Square Matrix m=n

( )

| |

n n

r r r R .......

2 1 , 1

=

( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

m

m

c

c

c

C

.

.

2

1

1

( )

(

(

(

=

7

3

1

1 , 3

C

( )

| | 1 4 2 3

4 , 1

= R

( )

(

(

(

(

=

nn n n n

n

n

n n

a a a a

a a a a

a a a a

A

...

. . . .

...

...

3 2 1

2 23 22 21

1 13 12 11

,

( )

(

(

(

=

7 2 1

5 4 3

3 2 1

3 , 3

A

Some other Matrices

Zero Matrix

Transpose of a matrix

Symmetric matrix

Diagonal matrix

Identity matrix

Upper triangular matrix

Lower triangular matrix

9

Zero Matrix

Every element of a matrix is zero, it is called a

zero matrix, i.e.,

The symbol O is used to denote the zero matrix.

10

(

(

(

(

=

0 ... 0 0

. ... . .

0 ... . .

0 ... 0 0

O

11

Transpose of a matrix

The matrix obtained by interchanging the rows and

columns of a matrix A is called the transpose of A

(write A

T

or A).

e.g.

( )

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

mn m m

n

n

n m

a a a

a a a

a a a

A

. . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . .

. . .

2 1

2 22 21

1 12 11

,

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

= =

nm n n

m

m

T

a a a

a a a

a a a

A A

. . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . .

. . .

2 1

2 22 12

1 21 11

'

( ) (

=

7 2 4

3 0 1

3 , 2

A

( ) ( )

(

(

(

= =

7 3

2 0

4 1

'

2 , 3 2 , 3

A A

T

12

Symmetric matrix

A symmetric matrix is a square matrix which

satisfy the following property:

A symmetric matrix satisfy that : A = A

T

Example: the following matrix is symmetric

a

12

= a

21

,

a

13

= a

31

a

23

= a

32

. ' ' s j and s i all for a a

ji ij

=

(

(

(

=

9 4 3

4 6 2

3 2 5

A

A A

T

=

(

(

(

=

9 4 3

4 6 2

3 2 5

13

Diagonal matrix

A Diagonal matrix is a square matrix where all

elements off the main diagonal are zero.

Example:

j i with s j and s i all for a a

ji ij

= = = ' ' 0

(

(

(

(

=

1 0 0 0

0 4 0 0

0 0 3 0

0 0 0 2

D

( )

(

(

(

(

=

nn

n n

a

a

a

D

... 0 0 0

. . . .

0 ... 0 0

0 ... 0 0

22

11

,

14

Identity matrix

An identity matrix is a diagonal matrix where all

elements of the main diagonal are one.

Examples:

j i all for a and i a

ij ii

= = = 0 1

(

(

(

(

=

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

4

I

(

(

(

(

=

1 ... 0 0 0

. . . .

0 ... 0 1 0

0 ... 0 0 1

n

I

(

(

(

=

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

3

I

(

=

1 0

0 1

2

I

15

Upper triangular matrix

An upper triangular matrix is a square matrix

where all elements below the main diagonal are

zero.

Examples:

j i all for a

ij

> = 0

(

(

(

(

=

9 0 0 0

6 8 0 0

4 1 2 0

1 2 3 1

4

U

(

(

(

=

3 0 0

7 1 0

5 4 2

3

U

(

(

(

(

nn

n n

n

a

a

a

a a a

U

0 0

0

, 1

22

1 12 11

16

Lower triangular matrix

A Lower triangular matrix is a square matrix

where all elements above the main diagonal are

zero.

Examples:

0 j i all for a

ij

< =

(

(

(

(

=

9 6 4 1

0 8 1 2

0 0 2 3

0 0 0 1

4

L

(

(

(

=

3 7 5

0 1 4

0 0 2

3

L

(

(

(

(

(

=

nn n n n

a a a

a a

a

L

1 , 1

22 21

11

0

0 0

Addition and Subtraction of matrices

Matrices can be added or subtracted if they have

the same order. Corresponding entries are added

(or subtracted).

17

mn mn mn

C B A =

Examples

Consider

Find, if possible,

(1) A + B (2) A C (3) B - A

(4) A + D (5) D C (6) D - A

(7) C + D (8) C D (9) D - B

18

(

=

4 3

2 1

A

(

=

5 2

1 3

B

(

(

(

=

5 4

0 3

2 1

C

(

(

(

=

1 1

1 2

1 0

D

19

Scalar Multiplication of matrices:

Multiplication of a matrix A by a scalar is

obtained by multiplying every element of A by :

A = [ a

ij

].

Examples:

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

mn m m

n

n

a a a

a a a

a a a

A

. . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . . . . .

. . .

. . .

2 1

2 22 21

1 12 11

o o o

o o o

o o o

o

(

(

(

=

5 1

3 1

2 1

A

(

(

(

=

15 3

9 3

6 3

3A

(

(

(

=

25 5

15 5

10 5

5A

Usual operations on matrices

o

o

o

o

20

Usual operations on matrices

Multiplication of two matrices:

Multiplication of a matrix A by a matrix B is

possible if the number of columns of A is equal to

the number of rows of B.

Example:

A m x n B n x p = C m x p

( ) ( ) ( ) 4 , 2 4 , 3 3 , 2

C B A =

21

Examples

Consider

1/

2/

3/

(

=

4 3

2 1

A

(

=

5 2

1 3

B

(

(

(

=

5 4

0 3

2 1

C

(

(

+ +

+ +

=

(

=

5 4 1 3 2 4 3 3

5 2 1 1 2 2 3 1

5 2

1 3

4 3

2 1

B A

B A A B =

(

=

(

=

4 3

2 1

5 2

1 3

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

=

5 2

1 3

5 4

0 3

2 1

A C

Example of use

Lets show, by a real-life example, why matrix

multiplication is defined in such a way.

Ahmad, Muhammad and Nayef three students in

IMAM University invest their money in the same

stocks but with different quantities. Ahmads,

Muhammad's and Nayefs stock holding are given by

the matrix:

22

10 0 40

10 20 10

10 30 20

3 2 1

Nayef

Muhammad

Ahmad

Q Q Q

M =

Example of use (continued)

Now suppose that the prices of three types of

stocks are respectively 25 SAR, 22 SAR and 30

SAR.

Let the price matrix be

Then the amount that the first student will pay

is just the first entry of the product.

23

(

(

(

=

30

22

25

P

(

(

(

=

(

(

(

(

(

(

=

1300

990

1460

30

22

25

10 0 40

10 20 10

10 30 20

P M

Matrix Properties

Matrix addition is commutative : A + B = B + A

Matrix addition is associative: A + (B +C) = (A +

B) +C

Matrix addition is distributive : (A + B) = A +

B

where is a scalar.

Matrix multiplication is associative : (A.B).C =

A.(B.C)

Matrix multiplication is distributive : (A + B).C

= A.C + B.C

Multiplication is generally not commutative :

A.B B.A

24

Time to Review !

Matrices are used to store information.

This information is written in a

rectangular arrangement of rows and

columns.

Matrices can be added or subtracted if

they have the same order.

Multiplication of a matrix A by a matrix

B is possible if the number of columns of

A is equal to the number of rows of B.

25

we will see in the next unit

Determinant of matrices

Some Properties of Determinants

Some applications of determinant of

matrices

26

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