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The Heat Exposure Assessment Related to Health Risk at an Indoor Workplace.

Introduction: Nowadays, many workplaces were designed with operating system which some of them will producing heat such as iron and steel foundries, nonferrous foundries, brick-firing and ceramic plants, glass products facilities, rubber products factories, electrical utilities (particularly boiler rooms), bakeries, confectioneries, commercial kitchens (restaurant kitchen), laundries, food canneries, chemical plants, mining sites, smelters, and steam tunnels. Most of them still need to be handled manually by the workers and this will give chances for the workers to expose to the risk of getting or might possibly considered as suffering heat stroke or heat strain in hot indoor environment (once it is rise as extremes temperatures) especially in the summer days when the temperature and humidity are high. [Reference: 2008 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, Ohio: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2008. p. 217.] Perspiration is the mechanism by which the body cools itself. As perspiration evaporates from the skin, the cooling effects lower body temperature. Blood vessels in the outer surface of the skin dilate, allowing more blood flow to the skin surface where heat can be dissipated. Air movement from wind or fans as well as boy movement help enhance the evaporation process. The body can also reduce its internal temperature throught respiration, when cooler air is brought into the body (lungs) where it comes into contact with blood. Understanding the dynamics of body temperature regulation and the role it must play requires distinguishing between the concept of heat stress and that of heat strain. They are related, but they are not the same. Heat

stress is described in terms of external demands and limits placed on a person. Heat strain reflects the extent to which the individual has to assemble defenses to keep total body heat content and deep body temperature in a workable and livable range.
a) Heat Stress.

Heat stress is the cumulative of environmental and physical work factors that constitute the total heat load imposed on the body. The environmental of heat stress include air temperature, relative humidity, air flow velocity, radiant heat exchange, air movement, and water vapor pressure. While the physical work will contributes to the total heat stress of the job by producing metabolic heat in the body in proportion to the intensity of the work. Clothing requirements also will affect the heat stress. All these factors defining potential heat stress, which are assessed with varying degrees of precision and accuracy. Such measures provide valuable and useful information about the thermal load to which humans must adjust. These measurements, however, provide no information about the safety of the exposure or the extent to which humans are compromised in their abilities to adjust to it. Measurements of thermal stress, no matter how accurately they are assessed, only quantify the internal and external thermal demands that challenge thermoregulation. They are unreliable predictors of how safe someone will be when working in that environment. Accurate measurements of heat stress provide the basis for an assessment of how hot an environment is. Usually, the more factors are evaluated, the more reliable the net information. Measuring just air temperature, for instance, seldom provides much useful insight. Additional data about ambient humidity, air velocity,

infrared radiant intensities, and emissivity of clothing and nearby objects provide a much more complete picture for the level of heat stress. A mild or moderate heat stress may cause discomfort and may adversely affect performance and safety, but it is not harmful to health. As the heat stress approaches human tolerance limits, the risk of heat-related disorders increases. b) Heat Strain. Heat strain is the series of physiological response resulting from heat stress. These responses reflect the degree of heat stress. When the strain is excessive for the exposed individual, a feeling of discomfort or distress may result, and will finally a disorder may ensue. The severity of strain will depend not only on the magnitude of the existing stress, but also the age, physical fitness, degree of acclimatization and dehydration of the worker. Heat strain reflects the extent to which the individual has to organize defenses to keep total body heat content and deep body temperature in a workable and livable range. It is a characteristic that is unique to each person and will, in fact, change even for the same person from time to time. Heat strain is the cost of adjusting to heat stress. It is not a measure of how successfully the adjustment is made. Unpleasant measures of heat strain include body core temperature, heart rate, and sweat loss. Other important responses are allocations of the fluid volumes in the body, electrolyte concentrations in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces, levels of hormones, and blood pressure. Heat strain is not reliably predicted from heat stress. This means that environmental measurements cannot safely or accurately predict heat strain, the amount of discomfort, or the degree of danger being faced by an individual at any time. The predictive gap is largely explained by personal risk factors. These are each person’s unique strengths and weaknesses for

distributing heat in the body and for dissipating it to the surrounding environment. c) Heat Disorders. Heat disorders generally are caused by the body’s inability to shed excess heat. The body is cooled by losing heat through the skin and by perspiration. When heat gain exceeds the amount the body can remove, the body’s inner temperature begins to rise, and heat-related illness may develop. Heat disorders share one common feature which is once the individual has been overexposed to heat, or over-exercised for his age and physical condition on a hot day, the severity of heat disorders tends to increase with age for example it can be a heat cramps in a 17-year-old but may become as a heat exhaustion in someone 40 and heat stroke in a person over 60 years old. Sunburn can significantly retard the skin’s ability to shed excess heat. Elderly people, young children, people on certain medications or drugs, and people with weight and alcohol problems are particularly susceptible to heat reactions. d) Heat-related Illness Heat-related illness can occur during work in hot weather, in hot ambient conditions, or when workers are wearing layers of protective gear that interfere with perspiration( the mechanism by which the body cools itself). Below are the following descriptions of the forms of heat-related illness.

i.

Heat rash.

Heat rash can be called as prickly heat which appears as little red bumps on the skin, which is in fact inflamed sweat gland. It usually appears

on areas of the body that become and stay damp, as under sweat soaked shirt, pants and gloves. Heat rash is not usually serious, although it can become infected. Treatment includes allowing the skin to dry and keeping affected areas as dry as possible. Infections can be treated with a topical antibiotic ointment. ii. Heat cramps.

It is typically caused by heavy perspiration with resultant loss of body fluid, causing an imbalance in the salts and minerals of the muscles, which in turn can causes cramping. Heat cramps can be very painful but do not usually last very long and do not cause permanent disability. Treatment for heat cramps include removing the individual from the hot environment and providing plenty of water to drink. iii. Heat syncope.

This is a fainting or near-fainting condition that occurs among people who have been standing in one position for a period of time, usually in the sun, but it can occur in any warm environment. Standing still causes of the blood to pool in the lower region of the body, which leads to fainting after some time. In summer, this is not uncommon at outdoor receptions or weddings. It may also occur at construction sites, affecting the worker who stands on the streets in the hot sun directing traffic. Individuals with heat syncope should lie down in a shady spot and drink water. Flexing leg muscles and moving around periodically during the work shift along with regular intake of water all help prevent the condition. iv. Heat exhaustion.

Typically, it will develop among individuals who have experienced loss of body fluids due to heavy perspiration. Symptoms of heat exhaustion include nausea, dizziness, headaches, tiredness, and possibly fainting. An individual suffering from heat exhaustion is usually sweating profusely and

may be confused or disoriented. Treatment includes removing the individual from the hot environment and providing cool water (7–10 ˚C) to drink. The individual should be monitored by someone with first aid training and medical attention should be sought immediately if the condition deteriorates.

v.

Heat stroke.

This is the most serious form of heat-related illness. The individuals who are suffering from heat stroke may or may not be perspiring and will have an elevated body temperature at or above 40˚C. Symptoms of heat stroke include a red, hot face and skin, lack of or reduced perspiration, erratic behavior, confusion or dizziness, and collapse or unconsciousness. This condition is extremely dangerous medical emergency, which the person should be moved to cool area and aggressively cooled, using wet blankets and fanning. Victims should be transported by a medical team to the nearest hospital immediately or the outcomes include possible coma and death. They are several factors that can affect the potential for workers to develop heat-induced conditions.
i) Acclimatization: the workers experience and acclimatization period during

the first ten days to two weeks of work in hot environment. During this time, their body gradually adjusts to operating in very warm conditions. After the body has acclimated, workers are less likely to experience heat-related problems. While individuals need 10-14 days to become heat-acclimated, they may lose this acclimation after only a few days away from hot environment. For this reason, workers returning from long weekends or vacations should monitor themselves closely to detect early signs of heat stress.
ii) Physical fitness: it is known that workers who are in good physical condition

are less likely to experience heat-related illnesses. In fact, obesity also may

contribute to a worker’s inability to handle heat stress due to the added insulation that prevents the body from cooling efficiently.
iii) Age: the older workers may have some more difficulty working in hot

environment and may take longer period to become acclimatized.
iv) Alcohol and drug usage: alcohol consumption may contribute to the

dehydration and makes workers much more likely to experience heat-related illness. Some prescription and over-the-counter drugs may also increase a worker’s susceptibility to heat stress.
v) Atmospheric conditions: high humidity, direct sunlight, and radiant heat

greatly increase heat stress conditions, which are likely with personal protective equipment (PPE) usage at temperatures of 21˚C or greater.
vi) Workload: workers performing strenuous work are more likely to suffer from

heat-induced illness since they are generally losing more body fluids through perspiration. In addition, the heat produced by the body’s metabolism adds to the overall heat load of the body. Heat transfer deal with how quickly heat energy can be passed from one object to another. It can be transferred through several mechanisms which are conduction, convection and radiation.
i) Conduction.

Conduction is the transfer of heat between materials that contact each other. Heat passes from the warmer material to the cooler material. For example, a worker's skin can transfer heat to a contacting surface if that surface is cooler, and vice versa. ii) Convection. Convection is the transfer of heat in a moving fluid. Air flowing past the body can cool the body if the air temperature is cool. On the other hand, air that exceeds 35°C (95°F) can increase the heat load on the body.

iii) Radiation. Radiation is the transfer of heat energy through space. A worker whose body temperature is greater than the temperature of the surrounding surfaces radiates heat to these surfaces. Hot surfaces and infrared light sources radiate heat that can increase the body's heat load.

General Objective: To conduct a heat stress assessment among workers at Nando’s Kitchen, Pavilion Shopping Complex, Kuala Lumpur at 10th of September 2009. Specific Objective: i.
ii.

To determine the temperature at working area in Nando’s Kitchen. To determine the workload category of all the workers based on their work task whether as worker at administrative or production part.

iii.

To determine whether the workers are having any heat stress or not based on their workload category and WBGT reading (heat exposure).

iv.

To determine the degree of comfort at working area by using Humidex Table.

Problem Statement: When the air temperature or humidity rises above the optimal ranges for comfort, problems can arise. Exposure to more heat stress can cause physical problems which impair workers' efficiency and may cause adverse health effects.

Some of the problems and their symptoms experienced in the temperature range between a comfortable zone (20˚C-27°C) and the highest tolerable limits (for most people) are summarized in Table 1.

The risk of heat-related illness varies from person to person. A person’s general health also influences how well the person adapts to heat (and cold). Those with extra weight often have trouble in hot situations as the body has difficulty maintaining a good heat balance. Age (particularly for people about 45 years and older), poor general health, and a low level of fitness will make people more susceptible to feeling the extremes of heat. Medical conditions can also increase how susceptible

the body is. People with heart disease, high blood pressure, respiratory disease and uncontrolled diabetes may need to take special precautions. In addition, people with skin diseases and rashes may be more susceptible to heat. Substances (both prescription or otherwise) known can also have an impact on how people react to heat. Heat exposure causes the following illnesses such as heat edema, heat rashes, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, and also heat stroke and hyperpyrexia (elevated body temperature). Certain kidney, liver, heart, digestive system, central nervous system and skin illnesses are thought by some researchers to be linked to long-term heat exposure. However, the evidence supporting these associations is not conclusive. Chronic heat exhaustion, sleep disturbances and susceptibility to minor injuries and sicknesses have all been attributed to the possible effects of prolonged exposure to heat. (Reference: Occupational exposure to hot environments. Revised Criteria. Cincinnati, Ohio: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1986). Methodology:
i) Monitoring location.

The heat exposure monitoring was done at Nando’s Kitchen, Pavilion Shoping Complex, Kuala Lumpur at 10th of September 2009. The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the heat level at the kitchen which there is a stoves as a source of heat exposure to the workers which work inside the kitchen as a cooker. ii) Research sampling.

The selection of the respondent were done randomly among workers which including the managers (administrative part) and workers inside the kitchen (production part). iii) Data collection method. There are two types of data collection methods that we were used which are the heat temperature monitoring equipment and also the questionnaires. The heat monitoring was done around 20 minutes from 8.57 p.m untill 9.20 p.m on that particular day. The heat monitoring was done by using the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) meter model QUESTemp˚ 34 Thermal Environment Monitor.

Questionaires was done through the selection of research respondents. The selection of the respondents were done randomly and the questions asked in the questionaires were based on their personal information, medical history, job information, and also to know the symptoms of heat stress if they ever had any. Instrument: A number of approaches that can be used for monitoring the work environment. The most common method is one published in the ACGIH TLV booklet. The ACGIH TLVs for heat stress are based on an index called the

Wet Blub Globe Temperature (WBGT) that provides the information on the heat load of the environment. It measures temperatures with a dry bulb thermometer, a wet bulb thermometer and a large, matte, black globe. The dry bulb thermometer measures the ambient temperature. This thermometer is exposed to the air just as any thermometer is used to measure air temperature. A dry bulb thermometer consist of a hollow glass tube with a bottom reservoir of mercury. The range of the thermometer should be -5 to +50oC and accurate to ±0.5oC. temperature beyond the range of a dry bulb thermometer may break the thermometer. When the measurements are taken, the dry bulb thermometer must be shielded from radiant heat sources so that only the temperature of the ambient air will be detected. Thermoelectric thermometers or thermocouples are also commonly used to measure the ambient air temperature. Wet-bulb temperature is measured using a standard mercury-inglass thermometer, with the thermometer bulb wrapped in wick, which is kept wet in distilled water. The wick is made of highly absorbent woven cotton. As the wick evaporates water, a certain amount of heat energy is dissipated through evaporative cooling. The bulb is then cooled by the heat absorbed by water during evaporation of the water, and equilibrium is reached between the evaporation rate and the water vapor pressure in air. The temperature is indicated on the thermometer. At full saturation, the wet bulb thermometer temperature will equal the dry bulb temperature since no evaporative cooling will be experienced. The evaporation of water from the thermometer has a cooling effect, so the temperature indicated by the wet bulb thermometer is less than the temperature indicated by a dry-bulb (normal, unmodified) thermometer. The rate of evaporation from the wetbulb thermometer depends on the humidity of the air - evaporation is slower when the air is already full of water vapor. For this reason, the difference in

the temperatures indicated by the two thermometers gives a measure of atmospheric humidity. The black globe thermometer, or Vermon globe, is the standard method for measuring radiant heat. A black globe thermometer consist of a 6-in. diameter hollow copper sphere that is painted matte black. a thermometer is inserted so that its bulb is centered inside the globe. The range of the thermometer should be -5 to +100oC and accurate to ±0.5oC. the black globe absorbs radiant heat increasing the temperature of air within the globe proportional to the amount of heat energy absorbed. The thermometer inside the globe is allowed to reach equilibrium. The temperature calculated from globe temperature is termed the mean radiant temperature, which is indicative of the average temperature of surrounding environment. Wet Bulb Thermomete r Globe Thermomete r Dry Bulb Thermomet er

Quality Control: The range of the dry and natural wet bulb thermometer should be 5oC to ±50oC. The dry bulb thermometer must be shielded from the sun and the other radiant surfaces of the environment without restricting the airflow around the bulb. The wick of the natural wet bulb thermometer should be kept wet with distilled water for at least one-half hour before the temperature reading is made. It is not enough to immerse the other end of the wick into the reservoir of distill water and wait until the whole wick becomes wet by capillarity. The wick must be wetted by direct application of

water from a syringe one-half hour before each reading. The wick must cover the bulb of the thermometer and an equal length of additional wick must cover the stem above the bulb. The wick should always be clean, and new wicks should be washed before using. A globe thermometer consisting of a 15cm (6-inch) in diameter hollow copper sphere painted on the outside with a matte black finish, or equivalent, must be used. The bulb or sensor of the thermometer (range -5oC to +100oC with an accuracy of ±0.5oC) must be fixed in the center of the sphere. The globe thermometer should be exposed at least 25 minutes into the environment atmosphere before it is used. A stand should be used to suspend the three thermometers so that they do not restrict free air flow around the bulbs and the wet bulb and globe thermometer are not shaded. The QUESTemp˚ 34 should be placed at a height of 0.1m (feet), 1.1m (abdomen) and 1.7m (head) for standing individuals or 0.1m (feet), 0.6m (abdomen) and 1.1m (head) above the floor for seated individuals. Tripod mounting is recommended to get the unit away from anything that might block radiant heat or airflow. A 1/4"x20 threaded bushing on the bottom of the instrument allows mounting to a standard photographic tripod. Do not stand close to the unit during sampling. The thermometers must be placed so that the readings are representative of the employee’s work or rest areas, as appropriate.

Result and Discussion:

WBGT Reading: Measurement WBGT In WBGT Out Wet Bulb Dry Bulb Globe Heat Index Relative Humidity By using the WBGT indoor (with no exposure to light) calculation: WBGT = 0.7WB + 0.3GT Sensor Sensor 1: Sensor 2: Sensor 3: Calculation WBGT = 0.7 (23.6) + 0.3 (33.5) = 26.57 ˚C WBGT = 0.7 (24.4) + 0.3 (38.1) = 28.51 ˚C WBGT = 0.7 (22.2) + 0.3 (30.6) = 24.72 ˚C Then, the assessment of heat exposure was calculated by using the WBGT (TWA) calculation: (2) WBGT1+ (1) WBGT2 + (1) WBGT3 4 or 0.5 WBGT1 + 0.25 WBGT2 + 0.25 WBGT3 Sensor (abdomen) ˚C 26.5 26.3 23.6 31.5 33.5 32 47 % 1 Sensor 2 (head) ˚C 28.5 28.1 24.4 34.7 38.1 36 40 % Sensor 3 (feet) ˚C 24.7 24.6 22.2 29.5 30.6 30 49 %

Average WBGT =

(2) (26.57) + (1) (28.52) + (1) = (24.72) 4

= 26.59 ˚C The correction calculation factor for heat stress exposure was calculated by using the following method: TABLE III: 4-3. WBGT CORRECTION FACTORS IN °C Clothing type Summer lightweight working clothing Cotton coveralls Winter work clothing Water barrier, permeable Clo* value 0.6 1.0 1.4 1.2 WBGT correction 0 -2 -4 -6

*Clo: Insulation value of clothing. One clo = 5.55 kcal/m2/hr of heat exchange by radiation and convection for each

degree °C difference in temperature between the skin and the adjusted dry bulb temperature. Note: Deleted from the previous version are trade names and "fully encapsulating suit, gloves, boots and hood" including its clo value of 1.2 and WBGT correction of -10.

Since all the workers at Nando’s Kitchen Restaurant were wearing summer lightweight working clothing, thus the correction factor is 0. WBGT = 26.59 ˚C – 0 ˚C = 26.59 ˚C However, in order to determine whether the workers are having any heat stress or not, the work load should be known first then compared with the standard given.

Work Load Category Category kcal/hour

Light Work Medium Work Heavy Work

Up to 200 kcal/hour 200–350 kcal/hour 350–500 kcal/hour

The workload calculation was done by referring to the following table: TABLE III: 4-1. ASSESSMENT OF WORK Body position and movement Sitting Standing Walking Walking uphill Type of work Average kcal/min Hand work Light Heavy Work: One arm Light Heavy Work: Both arms Light Heavy kcal/min*

0.3 0.6 2.0-3.0 add 0.8 for every meter (yard) rise Range kcal/min

0.4 0.9

0.2-1.2

1.0 1.7

0.7-2.5

1.5 2.5

1.0-3.5

Work: Whole body Light 3.5 Moderat 5.0 e Heavy 7.0

2.5-15.0

Very heavy

9.0

* For a "standard" worker of 70 kg body weight (154 lbs) and 1.8m2 body surface (19.4 ft2). ** The workload calculation should be added with basal metabolism which is 1.0 kcal/min. Source: ACGIH 1992 (updated in 2001).

Respondent

Work load calculation 2.0 kcal/min (walking) + 3.5 kcal/min

Work load category

1 ive part)

(working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min Heavy = 6.5 kcal/min 6.5 kcal/min × 60 min = 390 kcal/hour 0.6 kcal/min (standing) + 1.5 kcal/min

(administrat (basal metabolism)

2 (production part) 3 (production part)

(working with both arm) + 3.5 kcal/min (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min (basal metabolism) = 6.6 kcal/min 6.6 kcal/min × 60 min = 396 kcal/hour 0.6 kcal/min (standing) + 1.5 kcal/min (working with both arm) + 3.5 kcal/min (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min (basal metabolism) = 6.6 kcal/min Heavy Heavy

6.6 kcal/min × 60 min = 396 kcal/hour 2.0 kcal/min (walking) + 1.5 kcal/min 4 (production part) (working with both arm) + 3.5 kcal/min (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min (basal metabolism)= 8.0 kcal/min 8.0 kcal/min × 60 min = 480 kcal/hour 2.0 kcal/min (walking) + 3.5 kcal/min 5 ive part) (working with whole body) + 1.0 kcal/min Heavy = 6.5 kcal/min 6.5 kcal/min × 60 min = 390 kcal/hour (administrat (basal metabolism) Heavy

All the workers including at the production part (working at the kitchen as cookers) and administrative part (working at counter as money reception or manager which sometimes helps at the kitchen) were performed a heavy workload task.

However, to indicate whether they are having or getting any heat stress or heat-related illness or not, we were using the following table as a reference.

Since the WBGT value for all of those workers are 26.59˚C and the suggested temperature is 27.5˚C (maximum), thus all the workers can be considered as not getting any heat stress or heat-related illness. The present temperature condition at working area can be considered as acceptable for all workers. However, to indicate whether the environmental condition (surrounding) at work area comfortable or not, the following step were used. Dry Bulb (˚C) Relative Humidity

Sensor

1 (abdome n) 2 (head) 3 (foot) Average 29.5 34.7 31.5 31.9 47 % 40 % 49 % 45.3%

Since the temperature is 31.9˚C (assumed as 32˚C) and the relative humidity is 45.3% (assumed as 45%), thus condition at the workplace can be considered as “some discomfort”.

However, based on the questionnaire given the workers were claimed that they are comfortable with the current working area condition. It may due to the installation of air-conditioner in whole building of Pavilion Shopping Complex (since this Nando’s Kitchen is placed inside the Pavilion Shopping Complex). Thus, it will be able to balancing the distribution of heat and making the environment not too hot when the workers are cooking at the kitchen. Conclusion: Based on the study and the monitoring of the heat stress above, we can conclude that all of the respondents who worked at Nando’s Kitchen, Pavilion Shopping Complex, Kuala Lumpur were not experiencing any heat stress or heat-related illness yet. This conclusion was made due to the WBGT reading and workload level of the respondents which have been monitored at 10th September 2009. The conclusion of the heat stress were done complying to the guidelines given by the American Conference Governmental of Industrial Health (ACGIH) 1992 which the monitoring was done by using the WBGT meters and questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed first to all six respondent to determine if they are having any heat-related symptoms like nausea, dizziness and so on. The WBGT was used after that to determine the temperature at the respondents working area (at the kitchen). Based on the heat index, all the respondent were considered as not having any heat stress since they work there. Standardization: The standard used in determining the heat stress, experiencing by the six respondent at Nando’s Kitchen, Pavilion Shopping Complex, Kuala Lumpur was done according to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (1992) which have states that all workers should not be

permitted to work when their deep body temperature exceeds the value of 38.0oC (100.4oF). By using the WBGT meter and questionaires as suggested by the AGCIH and the previous reserach, we can determined weather or not that each respondent have experiencing the heat stress during working hours. Beside that, from using the questionaires we were able to know the symptoms of the heat stress experienced by the respondents. Belows are related standards and guideline used in heat stress i. NIOSH (Minnesota, USA) Criteria Document for Heat Stress – One-hour TWA for continuous exposure or two-hour TWA for intermittent exposure 79oF WBGT
ii. International Standard ISO 7243: 1989-08-01

Hot environments – estimation of the heat stress on working man, based on the WBGT index. Recommendation:

Since all the workers are not experiencing any heat stress or heat-related illness, the following table was provided as the employer can taking any actions if any heat-related symptoms arise in the future.

There are other prevention actions which can be used to avoid the workers from having any heat stress or heat-related illness. The reduction of heat stress can be accomplished through the following controls which are:a) Train employees to recognize heat stress.

b) Allow time for employee acclimation to hot environments.
c) Encourage workers to drink adequate replacement fluids.

A person

Source: http://www.thezenith.com/employers/services/pi/indsaf/agr/rmb/Agriculture_PreventingHea tStress

should drink 1 1/2 gallons of water per day. Salt pills or sport drinks with added salt are unnecessary as the typical people has enough salt

in their diet.

If a person loses 1.5% of their total body weight in a

workday, they are not drinking enough fluids (for example, if a 200 pound employee loses more than 3 pounds in a day, they need to drink more fluid). d) Someone who develops symptoms of heat exhaustion or heat stroke should be removed to a cool area, provided fluids and be medically evaluated. e) Use the buddy system (never working alone in hot areas) to monitor co-worker for heat stress. f) Encourage employees to maintain physical fitness. Through our group’s observation, there are engineering controls at this workplace which are an installation of LEV system and air-conditioning system. While for the administrative control is by giving the entire worker the same type of clothes which are summer lightweight working clothes.

LEV system

Proper clothing

Air-conditioning in whole building

References:

1) OSHA Technical Manual: Heat Stress (online). Retrieved September 4,

2009 from United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Available at http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_iii/otm_iii_4.html#5

2) NIOSH Safety & Health Topic: Heat Stress (online). Retrieved September

4, 2009 from National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress/
3) Preventing Heat Stress (online). Retrieved October 26, 2009 from The

Zenith.Com, Zenith Insurance Company. Available at http://www.thezenith.com/employers/services/pi/indsaf/agr/rmb/Agricultur e_PreventingHeatStress_rm123.pdf

4) Risk Assessment Work Sheet: Heat Stress Risk Assessment Checklist

(online). Retrieved September 4, 2009 from Health and Safety Executive. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/temperature/information/heatstress/riskassessmen t.pdf

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http://www.worksafe.org/images/contentEdit/docs/ACGIH%20heat %20stress%207th%20edition.pdf

6) Hot Environment: Health Effects & Control Measures (online). Retrieved

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Specialist, North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. University of Florida; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences’ Disaster Handbook. . Available at http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster/factsheets/pdf/heatstress.pdf
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date: July 18, 2008) (online). Retrieved October 28, 2009 from University of Windsor Occupational Health & Safety. Available at http://web4.uwindsor.ca/

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