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• Turkey is situated in Anatolia and the
Balkans, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. • The 1st Geography Congress, held in Ankara between 6-21 June 1941, divided Turkey into seven regions:



• The Republic of Turkey is the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, created after the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican Parliament in 1922. • Multi-party period, 1946–present

War of Independence, 1919–1923
• Turkish nationalists established modern Turkey as an outcome of the Turkish War of Independence, mostly on what was to become Turkish territory, as of the Treaty of Lausanne. The war resulted in the defeat of Greece in western Turkey, the East Armenian state on the east; (2 November 1920 Treaty of Gümrü), Britain, France, and Georgia. • • The Treaty of Lausanne, signed on July 24, 1923

Single-party period, 1923–1946
• For about the next 10 years, the country saw a steady process of secular Westernization through Atatürk's Reforms, which included the unification of education; the discontinuation of religious and other titles; the closure of Islamic courts and the replacement of Islamic canon law with a secular civil code modeled after Switzerland's and a penal code modeled after the Italian Penal Code;

Single-party period, 1923–1946
• recognition of the equality between the sexes and the granting of full political rights to women on 5 December 1934; the language reform initiated by the newly founded Turkish Language Association; replacement of the Ottoman Turkish alphabet with the new Turkish alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet; the dress law (the wearing of a fez, a traditional Muslim hat, is outlawed); the law on family names; and many others.

Multi-party period, 1946–present
• On May 27, 1960, General Cemal Gürsel led a military coup d'état removing President Celal Bayar and Prime Minister Menderes, the second of whom was executed. • A military coup d'état, headed by General Kenan Evren, took place in 1980. Within two years, the military returned the government to civilian hands. • 1990s, political instability returned

• The culture of Turkey combines a largely diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that are derived from the Ottoman, European and Middle Eastern traditions.
• • Interior of the Sultanahmet Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey >>

Culture: Cuisine
• Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines.
• Döner kebab sandwich served in a thick pita. This type is rare in Turkey and is mostly found in western European countries.