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Contamination Concerns at the Former General Electric (GE) Hudson Falls Capacitor Plant

Widespread polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) were documented at the former GE Hudson Falls Capacitor Plant by a report entitled: Recommendations for a Comprehensive Site_Wide Remedy and Feasibility Study for Bedrock Groundwater (OU-2C and OU-2D) Hudson Falls Plant Site, GeoTrans, Inc., March 2, 2001. PCB-containing dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was identified over a large area. The report notes: "GE, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), and the U. S. EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] have recognized that the Site [Hudson Falls] has been the principal upstream source of PCBs to the Hudson River." According to the report:

* "Site investigations completed between 1975 and December 2000 have characterized the contamination at the Site. These studies have shown that the groundwater in the overburden soils and the bedrock beneath the Site is contaminated with PCBs, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and that the primary direction of contaminant migration is west and south away from the plant Site toward the Hudson River, although some easterly migration has also occurred. The overburden soils are also contaminated with PCBs, VOCs, and SVOCs. The RIs [Remedial Investigations] have determined that the source of the Site contamination is from historical chemical releases, including releases of DNAPL, in the vicinity of the former manufacturing buildings at the Site where those substances were used, stored, or received in capacitor manufacturing operations." * "The DNAPLs migrated into the bedrock beneath the Site. Once in the bedrock, DNAPL migration has been controlled by the fractures in the underlying bedrock. These include the three steeply dipping fracture sets, as well as the bedding parallel fractures associated with the two fault planes in the Snake Hill Shale. The steeply dipping fractures would have allowed downward DNAPL migration, and the bedding parallel fractures and fault planes would have allowed lateral DNAPL migration." * "The number, the areal and the vertical extent, the volume, and the interconnectedness of the DNAPL reservoirs in the bedrock beneath the Site and surrounding areas are not known. In addition to the localized regions of recoverable DNAPL accumulations within the bedrock, the migrating DNAPL left trails of residual DNAPL accumulations in the form of disconnected immobile droplets, blobs, and ganglia in pore spaces of the overburden soil and fractures within the bedrock." * "The spatial distribution of dissolved contamination is similar to the distribution of DNAPL
contamination, but more areally extensive. For the purpose of this report, the term dissolved-phase contamination refers to contamination which is transported with the groundwater and includes emulsions and colloids as well as contaminants actually dissolved in the groundwater." The report proposed an unprecedented Bedrock Drain Collection System to capture the Site's contamination in order to safeguard the Hudson River. That system has been built, but has not yet been operated.

Former General Electric Hudson Falls Capacitor Plant
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Hudson Falls / Fort Edward Regional Groundwater Flow

GE Hudson Falls Plant

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GE Fort Edward Plant

Approximate Location of Groundwater Divide Generalized Groundwater Flow Streets - Washington County N GE Hudson Falls Plant GE Fort Edward Plant Hudson River W Towns
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Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Contamination, Recovery Wells and Bedrock Tunnel Collection System at GE Hudson Falls
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8 Snake Hill Shale Recovery Well Location Approximate Extent of DNAPL

Model-Calculated Capture Zone Tunnel W Structures - GE Hudson Falls Streets - Washington County Hudson River Towns Copyright 2009 Toxics Targeting, Inc.

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Dissolved Product Contamination in Groundwater at GE Hudson Falls

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Extent of Dissolved-Phase Contamination in Groundwater N Structures - GE Hudson Falls Streets - Washington County W Hudson River Towns S
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Contamination Concerns and Bedrock Tunnel Collection System at GE Hudson Falls
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DNAPL Recovery Snake Hill Shale Recovery Well Location Approximate Extent of DNAPL Model-Calculated Capture Zone Tunnel Extent of Dissolved-Phase Contamination in Groundwater

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Regional Overview of GE Hudson Falls Contamination Concerns and Bedrock Collection System

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Approximate Extent of DNAPL Approximate Location of Groundwater Divide Generalized Groundwater Flow Model-Calculated Capture Zone Tunnel Extent of Dissolved-Phase Contamination in Groundwater Structures - GE Hudson Falls Streets - Washington County W Hudson River Towns
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