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Chapter 1

Understanding and usage of Operating System
Structure :
1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.2 What is an Operating System? 1.3 History of Operating System 1.4 Operating System Concepts

1.0 Introduction
Without software, a computer is basically a useless lump of metal. With its software, a computer can store, process and retrieve information and engage in many other valuable activities to earn its keep. Computer software can be divided roughly into two kinds: System program, which manage the operation of the computer itself, and application programs, which perform the actual work the user wants. The most fundamental system program is Operating System, which controls all the computer resources and provides the base upon which the application program can be written. A modern computer system consists of one or more processors, some main memory, disk, printers, network interfaces and other input/output devices. It is all in all, a complex system. Writing programs correctly, is an extremely difficult job. If every programmer had to be concerned with how disk drives work, and with all things that could go wrong when reading a disk, it is unlikely that many programs could be written at all. Some way had to be found to shield programmers from the complexity of the hardware. The way that has evolved gradually is to put a layer of software on top of bare hardware to manage all parts of the system. This layer of software is the Operating System.

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The situation is shown in the following figure. At the bottom hardware, which composes two or more layers. Lowest layer contains physical devices, consisting of Integrated circuits chips, wires, power supplies, CRT and similar physical devices.
Banking System Compilers Airline Reservation Editors Operating System Machine Language Micro Programming Physical Devices Web Browser Command Interpreter

Application Programs System Software

Hardware

Next comes primitive software that directly controls these devices. This software is called Microprogram usually located in Read Only Memory. The set of instructions that the microprogram interprets defines the Machine Language. In this layer Input / Output devices are controlled by loading values into special device registers. Next layer is operating system. The major function of the operating system is to hide all this complexity and give the programmer a more convenient set of instructions to work with. On top of the operating system is the rest of the system software. Here we find, Command Interpreter (Shell), Window system, Compilers, Editors and similar application independent programs. Finally above the system programs come the application programs. These programs are purchased or written by the users to solve their particular problems for Ex: Word processing, Spreadsheets, Engineering Calculations, Games etc.

1.1 Objectives:
At the end of this unit you should be able to • • • • define Operating System Trace the history of Operating System Identify the functions of Operating System Identify the services provided by the Operating System

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1.2 What is an Operating System
An Operating system is a program that controls the execution of application programs and acts as an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware. An Operating system mainly performs three functions • Convenience : It makes computer more convenient to use

• Efficiency : It allows the computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner • Ability to solve: It should be constructed in such a way as to permit the effective development, testing and introduction of new system functions without at the same time interfacing with service. The Operating system typically provides services in the following areas : • Program Creation: Operating system services editors and debuggers, to assist programmer in creating programs. These services are in the form of utility programs that are accessible through the Operating System. • Program Execution: Program execution needs instructions and data to be loaded in to main menu, Input / Output devices and files to be initialized and other resources to be prepared. The operating system handles all these tasks for the user. • Access to Input / Output devices: Each Input / Output device requires its own peculiar set of instructions of control signals for operation. Operating system takes care of details so, the programmes can think in terms of simple read and writes. • Controlled access to files: Operating system provides protection mechanisms to controlled access to files • System Access: Operating System controls access to the system as a whole and to specific system resources. • Error detection and response: Variety of errors can occur which a computer system is running, i.e., internal and external hardware errors, such as memory error, device failure error, various software errors,

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inability of Operating System to grant request of an application errors and so on. In each case, Operating System must make the response that clears the error condition. The response may range from ending the program that caused the error, to retrying the operation to simply reporting the error to the application. • Accounting : A good Operating System collects usage statistics for various resources and monitors performance parameters such as response time, which can be used for billing purposes on a multi-user system. Operating System as Resource Manager: A computer is a set of resources, the operating system is responsible for managing these resources. Operating System controls the movement, storage and processing of data. Operating system functions in the same way as ordinary computer software. i.e., it is a program executed by the processor. This frequently relinquishes control and must depend on processor to allow it to regain control. Operating System is nothing more than the computer program. This provides instructions to processor like other programs do. Main difference between Operating System and other programs is, Operating System directs the processor in the use of the other system resources and in the timing of its execution of other programs.

1.3 History of Operating System:
• First three digital computers were designed by English Mathematician Charles Babbage in 1792-1871. It was purely mechanical design. • After Babbage’s efforts little progress was made in constructing digital computers. In (1945-1955) First Generation Computers with Vacuum tubes and plug boards were evolved. In these days a single group of people designed, built, programmed, operated and maintained each machine. Programming was done in Machine Language. • Second Generation (1955-65) Transistors and Batch System. Here for the first time between the programmers and maintenance persons, Transistors were introduced. To run a job, a programmer would first

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write the program on paper, then punch it on cards, bring the card deck down to Input / Output room batch system was to collect a tray full of jobs in the Input / Output room and then read them onto a magnetic tape just to reduce the wasted time. • Third Generation (1965-1980) Integrated Chips and Multiprogramming In this generation, Integrated circuits were used, providing a major price/performance advantage over second generation machines, which were built up from individual transistors. Concept of Multiprogramming was introduced. When the current job was to wait for a tape or other Input / Output operation to complete the Central Processing Unit simply sat idle until the Input / Output finished. As the Central Processing Unit time is very precious this wasted time is not significant. The solution was to partition menu into several pieces, with a different job in each partition as shown in the figure below:

Job3 Job2 Job1 Operating System

While one job was waiting for Input/Output to complete, another job could be using the Central Processing Unit. Therefore, if enough jobs could be held in main menu at once, Central Processing Menu could be kept busy nearly 100% of time. This concept is called as Multiprogramming. Another major feature in Third Generation System was the concept of time sharing, in which each user has an On-line terminal. As multiprogramming allows the processor to handle multiply and batch jobs at a time, the processor time is Shared among multiple users in time sharing systems. The basic idea for time sharing system is to have multiple users Simultaneously using the system with the Operating System inter leaving the execution of each user program in a short burst of computation. Thus if there are n users actively requesting service at one time, each user will see on average only 1/n of

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effective computer speed. The following figure shows Multiprogramming with two programs: Program A Run Wait Run Wait

Program B

Wait

Run

Wait

Run

Combined

Run A

Run B

Wait

Run A

Run B

Wait

• Fourth Generation (1980-present): Personal Computers: With the development of LSI (Large Scale Integration) circuits, chips containing thousands of transistors in a square centimeter of silicon, the age of personal computers dawned. Personal Computers are not that different from mini computers. The most powerful Personal Computers used by business, universities and government installations are usually called Work Stations (Large Personal Computers). Usually they are connected together by hardware. An interesting development that began during middle 1980’s is the growth of hardware of Personal Computers running hardware Operating System and distributed Operating System. In hardware Operating System, the users are aware of the existence of multiple computers and can log in to remote machines and copy files from one machine to another.

1.5 Operating System Concepts:
Operating Systems are among the most complex pieces of software. Five major achievements in the development of Operating System are • • • • • Process Memory Management Scheduling and Resource Management Information protection and security System Structure

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• Processes : It is somewhat more general term than job. Process is a program that is in execution. Three major lines of computer system development created problems in timing and synchronization that contributed to the development of the concept of the process. Multiprogramming batch processing, time sharing and real time transaction. The design of system software to co-ordinate the various activities turned out to be difficult. With many jobs in progress at any one time, each of which involved numerous steps to be performed in sequence, it became impossible to analyze all the possible combination of sequences of events. So many errors were detected which were difficult to diagnose because they needed to be distinguished from application software errors and hardware errors. To tackle these problems, it is required to monitor and control the various programs executing on the processor in a systematic way. The concept of process provides the foundation process consists of the following three components. • • • An executable program The associated data needed by the program Execution context of program

Execution context includes the information that the Operating System needs to manage the process and that the processor needs to properly execute the process. If two processes A and B exist in a portion of the main memory, each process is recorded in process list, which is maintained by Operating System. Process index register contain the index in to the process list of the process currently controlling the processor, Program counter points to the next instruction in that process to be executed. Base and limit register defines the region in memory occupied by the process. Thus process is realized as a data structure. A process can either be executing or awaiting execution. The entire state of process is contained in its context. • Memory Management : Users need a computing environment that supports the flexible use of data, efficient and orderly control of storage

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allocation. An Operating System, to satisfy these requirements has five principal storage management responsibilities as follows: • Process Isolation : Operating System must prevent independent process from interfacing with data and memory of each other. • Automatic Allocation and Management : Programs should be dynamically allocated memory across the memory is required. Operating System can achieve efficiency by assigning memory to jobs only as needed. • Support of Modular Programming : Programmers should be able to define program modules and to create, destroy and alter the size of modules dynamically. • Protection and Access Control : Sharing of memory at any level of memory hierarchy. Operating System must allow portions of memory to be accessible in various ways by various users. • Long term storage : Many users and application require means for storing information for extended periods. Operating Systems meet these requirements with the concept of Virtual Memory and file system facilities. Virtual Memory is a facility that allows program to address memory from a logical point of view without regard to the amount of main memory physically available. That is, when a program is executing only a portion of program and data may actually be maintained in main memory. Other portions of program and data are kept in blocks in disk itself and will be brought to main memory whenever its execution is required. • Information protection and security : Operating System must support a variety of protection and security mechanism to computer system and the information stored in them. Some overall protection policies are: • No sharing : In this case, processes are completely isolated from each other and each process has exclusive control over resources statically or dynamically assigned to it. • No sharing originals of program or data files

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• Controlled information dissemination : In some systems, security classes are defined to enforce a particular dissemination policy. Users and applications are given security clearances of a certain level, whereas data and other resources (e.g., I/O devices) are given security classifications. The security policy enforces restrictions concerning which users have access to which classifications • Access Control : Is concerned with regulating user access to the total system, sub systems, and data, and regulating process access to various resources and objects within the system • Information flow control : Regulates the flow of data within the system and its delivery to users • Scheduling and Resource Management : A key task of the Operating system is manage the various resources available to it (main memory space, I/O devices, processors) and to schedule their use by the various active processes. Any resource allocation and scheduling policy must consider the following three factors : • Fairness : Typically, we would like all processes that are competing for the use of a particular resource to be given approximately equal and fair access to that resource. This is especially so for jobs of the same class, that is, jobs of similar demands, which are charged the same rate. • Differential responsiveness : On the other hand, the operating system may need to discriminate between different classes of jobs with different service requirements. The operating system should attempt to make allocation and scheduling decisions to meet the total set of requirements. The operating system should also view these decisions dynamically. For example, if a process is waiting for the use of an I/O device, the operating system may wish to schedule that process for execution as soon as possible to free up the device for later demands from other processes. • Efficiency : Within the constraints of fairness and efficiency, the operating system should attempt to maximize throughput, minimize response time, and in the case of time sharing, accommodate as many users as possible

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The operating system maintains a number of queues, each of which is simply a list of processes waiting for some resource. The short-term queue consists of processes that are in main memory (or at least an essential minimum portion is in main memory) and are ready to run. Any one of these processes could use the processor next. It is up to the short-term scheduler, or dispatcher, to pick one. A common strategy is to give each process in the queue some time in turn; this is referred to as a round-robin technique. Priority levels may also be used. The long-term queue is a list of new jobs waiting to use the system. The operating system adds jobs to the system by transferring a process from the long-term queue to the short-term queue. At that time, a portion of main memory must be allocated to the incoming process. Thus, the operating system must be sure that it does not over-commit memory or processing time by admitting too many processes to the system. There is an I/O queue for each I/O device. More than one process may request the use of the same I/O device. All processes waiting to use each device are lined up in the device queues. Again, the operating system must determine which process to assign to an available I/O device. The operating system receives control, of the processor at the interrupt handler if an interrupt occurs. A process may specifically invoke some operating system service, such as an I/O device handler, by means of a service call. In this case, a service-call handler is the entry point in to the operating system. In any case, once the interrupt or service call is handled, the short-term scheduler is invoked to pick a process for execution.

System Structure
As more and more features have been added to operating systems and as the underlying hardware has become more complex and versatile, the size and complexity of operating systems has grown. The size of a full-featured operating system and the difficulty of the task it addresses have led to three unfortunate but all too common problems. First, operating systems are chronically late in being delivered. This goes for new operating systems and for upgrades of older systems. Second, the systems have latent bugs that show up in the field and must be fixed and reworked. And finally, performance is often not what was expected. To manage the complexity of operating systems and to overcome these problems, much attention has been given over the years to the software structure of the operating system. Certain points seem obvious. The software must be modular. This helps to organize the software development process and limits the task of diagnosing and fixing errors. The modules must have well-defined interfaces to each other, and the interfaces must be as simple as possible. Again, this eases the

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programming task. It also makes the task of system evolution easier. With clean, minimal interfaces between modules, one module can be changed with minimal impact on other modules.

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Chapter 1 - EXERCISE
True or False 1. Operating System is a System Software 2. First Generation Computers were purely mechanical 3. Secondary Memory is called Virtual Memory Fill in the blanks 1. Process is a program that is in ______________ 2. Major features of Third Generation System was the concept of ____________ 3. The most fundamental system program is ________________ 4. Operating System allows _______________________ to be used in efficient manner

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Chapter 2

INTRODUCTION TO DOS
Disk Operating System manages your computer’s resources. The part of Disk Operating System that controls the hardware such as the video screen, keyboard, mouse, disks and printer is the Kernel. A second part of Disk Operating System that interprets your commands and causes the kernel to do what you want is called the Command Interpreter. However, I will use the term command prompt to refer to it since the prompt is its visible part that you use to communicate with the kernel. More precisely, the command interpreter converts commands you enter at the command prompt to their required form and gives them to the kernel. The Disk Operating System shell is actually an interface between you and the command interpreter that provides an easy way to enter commands. Each time Disk Operating System is started, the command prompt is automatically displayed on your screen. Nevertheless, you can set up your system to have the Disk Operating System shell automatically displayed instead. Since the Disk Operating System shell is easier to use than the command prompt. First let’s see which interface is waiting for your command. If you are working at the command prompt, the last line on the screen looks like this : C:\> This line may be the only one on the screen. When the Disk Operating System shell is first set up and is waiting for your command, the Start Programs screen appears. Disk Drives and Directories : A disk drive is a device which runs the disk (floppy or hard) and in the process either storing data or reading from it. A PC has floppy drives only and the first floppy drive is conventionally called drive A: whereas the second floppy drive is designated as drive B: Booting is synonymous with starting a computer. When you switch on the computer first thing in the morning, the computer with instructions from BIOS, which are programs fused in to ROM, the read only memory of the computer or the firmware, checks the memory and peripheral routines. Drive A: of a microcomputer is the primary drive, which a computer looks for first of all on switching on. It reads the disk in drive A: for

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any boot record or system files. If drive A: does not have these it goes to the drive C:, skipping drive B: as per specific BIOS instructions, to read the same. On finding these the computer starts the process of loading DOS in to the RAM of the computer. Once the DOS is loaded it is said that the DOS has been booted and the computer is ready to accept your order. The following prompt stares at you and awaits your orders: A>_ or C>_ will be displayed along with a flashing cursor depending upon whether the system has been booted from A: or C: drive. When you boot from A: drive DOS diskette must be in drive A: snugly inserted with drive door properly closed otherwise disk in drive A: will not be read. When you boot from C: drive DOS must be previously installed in the hard disk so that the system files are duly loaded in to RAM. MS-DOS is a command-driven operating system. This means that there are a set of commands which you give to the operating system for the tasks you wish it to perform. These commands are entered in front of the System Prompt (A, or B, or C..) at the place you see the blinking “hyphen” which is the cursor. After you enter the command you press the {Return} key to record your command. Until you press {Return} you can correct any typographical mistakes that you may have made while entering your command. The line at which you enter your command is called the Ms-DOS Command Line. A> tells you the current default drive. Unless overridden by the command, DOS will search this drive for all files. To change the default drive, simply enter the drive desired as follows: drive: (for example B: or C: or A: and Press {Return} The DOS FORMAT command performs several functions. Firstly, the FORMAT command converts an off-the-shelf disk to a disk that DOS can use. Secondly, FORMAT can make a disk bootable by DOS if you use the /S qualifier in the FORMAT command. Thirdly, FORMAT places a list of damaged disk locations on the disk so that DOS will not try to use those locations to store data. Lastly, FORMAT allows you to specify a volume label. Give the following command to format diskette in drive B: A>format B:_ <Return> DOS files names are of the form Filename.txt

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The file name must contain one to eight characters. The extension is optional and, if present, must contain from one to three characters. A period separates the file name from the extension. The following are valid DOS file names: CHAPTER.TXT SCIENCE.RPT Letter.Jan NOTES.DAT DO_TODAY Personal MATH.HW EXPENSES.$$ Off_Jan.10

DATA….DAT is illegal because of the two periods. The file name and extension are separated by a period, which makes the period an illegal character in DOS file names. NEW.DATA is illegal because of extension DATA is more than three characters in length. The extension on DOS file names is optional and if present, must contain from one to three characters DOSFILENAME.DAT is illegal because the file name portion of a DOS file name can not exceed eight characters. CON.DAT is illegal because CON is a DOS device name. DOS reserves several names for the devices that are attached to your computer. The following are illegal DOS file names on account of these being reserved desired names: AUX CON LPT3 CLOCKS LPT1 LPT2 NUL COM1 COM2 The .234 is illegal because it lacks a file name. Only the three-character extension in DOS file names is optional. By directory is meant the list of files and/or sub-directories that are present in a floppy disk or hard disk. The DOS directory command DIR lists the files on a disk. A> DIR {Return} DIR/p <Return> It displays the directory page wise, P represents pause so a screenful with 80 columns by 23 lines is displayed. If the entries are more than 223 lines the computer will prompt you “Strike a key when ready ………..”. On pressing any key the next portion of 23 lines will be displayed. The display will show the primary file name, the extension, the space used, the date and the time of creation of the file. At the end of the directory listing it will also show the total number of files and the number of free bytes of space available.

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DIR/W <Return> The above displays the files and directory entries across the screen with W standing for “wide view”. This way you can get more file names on the screen at one time. However, the display will consist of only primary name and extension, if any. It will not <Dir> entry nor it will give the space used and the date and time of creation of individual files. The command is used to quickly browse through the list of all files present in a disk or directory. A>DIR *.EXE You will see all the files having extension .EXE will be displayed. A>DIR S*.EXE You will see all the files having primary name which starts with S and with extension .EXE will be displayed. C:\>DIR A: <Return> is the command from drive C to see directory of disk in drive A. C:\>DIR C: <Return> is the command to see the directory of C:. C:\>DIR *. <Return> is the command to see the names of just the sub directories present in the root directory of the hard disk C. C:\> DIR FILENAME.* <Return> is the command to display the files having the same primary name (say FILENAME) but different extension. C>DIR ???A.?B? The above command will search for all files that have a primary name of 4 characters with the fourth character as A and an extension of 3 characters with the middle character as B.? is a character which represents any single character in a file name. This technique is used to search those files whose full names are not known or are temporarily forgotten. ? is called a wild card character. C:\>DIR *.* Represents all the characters of the primary file name if it is written prior to the extension dot. If entered after the extension dot it represents all the characters given to the extension. Thus the above command will show all the files located in C drive. The difference between ? and * is only that where as ? represents single character, * represents all characters. * is also called a wild card character. A:\>COPY COMMAND.COM B: {Return} is the command to make a copy of the file COMMAND.COM from drive A to B.

BASIC DOS COMMANDS
1. ANSI -- Allows color to be added to the video display Format DEVICE=C:\DOS\ANSI.SYS

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2. ASSIGN -- Changes the name of a disk drive Format ASSIGN A = C ASSIGN A=C;B=C Assign 3. ATTRIB – Displays and changes read-only and archive attributes of a disk file Format ATTRIB +R ambig ATTRIB –R ambig ATTRIB +A ambig ATTRIB –A ambig ATTRIB +A + R ambig /S ATTRIB 4. BACKUP – Makes a floppy-disk backup of your hard disk Format BACKUP C:\*.* A:/S BACKUP C:\ambig A:/S/M 5. BREAK – Allows program termination if you type ^ Break Format BREAK ON BREAK = ON BREAK 6. CD (OR CHDIR) – Changes the current directory at the command prompt Format CD\ CD\EDIT CD SPELL CD .. CD 7. CHKDSK – Analyzes and summarizes the state of a disk Format CHKDSK C: CHKDSK C:/F CHKDSK C:/V CHKDSK PNAME.EXT 8. COMP – Compares two disk files Format COMP ambig1 ambig2 COMP A: B: COMP 9. CONFIG – Configures DOS on startup Format (Executes automatically on startup) 10. DATE – Displays and sets Date

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Format DATE DATE 6-9-89 11. DEL (OR ERASE) – Deletes disk files Format DEL PNAME.EXT DEL ambig 12. DISKCOMP – Compares two floppy disks Format DISKCOMP A: B: DISKCOMP A: A: 13. DISKCOPY – Duplicates a complete floppy disk Format DISKCOPY A: B: DISKCOPY A: A: 14. EDLIN – Creates and alters a text file Format EDLIN EDLIN PNAME.EXT EDLIN PNAME.EXT D 15. ERASE – (See DEL) 16. EXIT – Returns you to the DOS shell from the second command prompt Format EXIT 17. FASTOPEN – Starts programs quicker Format FASTOPEN C: FATOPEN C:=50 FASTOPEN C:/X 18. FDISK – Prepares a new hard disk Format FDISK 19. FIND – Searches for a pattern of letters in text Format FIND “string” PNAME.EXT 20. INSTALL – Installs resident programs on startup Format INSTALL = C:\DOS\FASTOPEN.EXE C: INSTALL = C:\UTIL\MOUSE.COM 21. LABEL – Changes the name of a disk Format LABEL B:RECEIPTS LABEL B: 22. MD (OR MKDIR) – Creates a subdirectory Format MD\EDIT

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23. MEM – Displays amount of total and available memory Format MEM MEM /PROGRAM 24. MODE – Configures the video screen and serial ports Format MODE COM1:2400,N,8,1,P MODE LPT1:=COM1 MODE LPT1 MODE N 25. MORE – Stops scrolling when the screen is filled Format |MORE MORE <PNAME.EXT> 26. PATH – Establishes a search path for program execution Format PATH C:\DOS PATH D:\;C:\DOS PATH PATH; 27. PRINT – Prints a disk file Format PRINT /D:PRN PRINT /D:COM1 PRINT PRINT/T PRINT PNAME.EXT/C 28. PROMPT – Changes the command prompt Format PROMPT $P$G PROMPT $P,$D$G PROMPT PROMPT $E[0;30;46m $P$G$E[1;37;44m 29. RD (OR RMDIR) – Deletes a subdirectory Format RD\SUBDIR RD SUBIDR 30. REN (OR RENAME) – Renames a disk file Format REN OLDNAME.EXT NEWNAME.EXT RUN ambig1 ambig2 31. REPLACE – Selectively copies files Format REPLACE A:*.* C:/A REPLACE A:*.* C:/U 32. RESTORE – Restores the hard disk from floppy disk backups

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Format RESTORE A: C:\*.* /S RESTORE A: C:\*.* /S/N RESTORE A: C:\LOTUS\*.* /S RESTORE A: C:\*.* /S/A:2-4-89 RESTORE A: C:\*.* /S/B:2-4-89 33. SET – Changes and displays the current state of DOS features Format SET COMSPEC=C:\COMMAND.COM SET SET SPOOLER = 48K 34. SORT – Sorts lines of a text file Format SORT <FILE1> FILE2 DIR|SORT /R+10|MORE 35. SUBST – Establishes a subdirectory as a separate disk Format SUBST D: C:\EDIT SUBST D:/D 36. SYS – Writes DOS system to disk Format SYS SYS C: 37. TIME – Displays and allows alteration of time Format TIME TIME 13:7 38. TREE – Displays subdirectory paths at the command prompt Format TREE 39. TYPE – Displays a text file on the video screen Format TYPE PNAME.EXT TYPE PNAME.EXT>PRN TYPE PNAME.EXT|MORE 40. VDISK – Establishes a RAM disk Format DEVICE=VDISK.SYS 256 DEVICE=VDISK.SYS 512/E DEVICE=VDISK.SYS 512/X 41. VER – Displays DOS Version Format VER 42. VERIFY – Verifies that a disk file is correctly written Format VERIFY ON

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VERIFY = ON VERIFY 43. VOL – Displays the disk name and serial number Format VOL VOL A: 44. XCOPY – Makes backup copies of files Format XCOPY C:\DOS\*.* /M XCOPY C:\DOS\*.* /A XCOPY C:\DOS\*.* /D:8-9-89 XCOPY C:\DOS\*.* /P XCOPY C:\DOS\*.* /W XCOPY A:*.* /S

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Chapter 3

WINDOWS NT AND WINDOWS’98
Structure :
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction Objectives What is Windows NT ? Windows NT features and Architecture 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.4 3.5 Organizing programs and documents in Windows NT Setting Object Properties Printing In Control Panel

What is new in Windows’98 ? Navigating Windows’98 ? 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 Working with Windows and using Menus Working with Files, Folders and Disks Customizing and maintaining Windows’98 Working with Windows applications

3.6 3.7

Summary Model Answers

3.0 Introduction : What is a Windows?
A window is a boxed area in which you view programs, files, folders, drives, icons representing programs, files or folders and other elements. Most windows can be opened, closed, sized, reduced, enlarged, moved or positioned on the desktop. Some common elements of Windows are: • Title Bar : Contain windows name, control menu and Minimum, Maximum of restore and close button.

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• Menu Bar : Contains menus with related commands and options that help you control the window and its contents. • Control Menu Button :- Contains menu commands that help you to control window itself which can be used to Minimum, Maximum, Restore and close the window itself. • Tool Bar :- Displays graphic tool buttons that represent short cuts to various menu commands • • Minimum Button :- Reduces the Window Maximum Button :- Enlarge the Window

• Close Button :- Closes the window and if a program is running in the window, exits the program • Folders :- Icons within windows that represent directories. Folders can hold other folders and files • Files :- Icons representing documents, spreadsheets program files and other files stored in folders on a drive • Windows Border :- A rim around a window, that is., used to resize the window • Status Bar :- A bar across the bottom of window the describes the contents of window. Such as free space, number of objects or files in window and so on. • Scroll Bar :- A vertical and horizontal bar that enables you to move the internal viewing area of a window.

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WindowsNT
3.1 Objectives
At the end of this unit, you should be able to • • • • • • • Define a window, windows NT and Windows’98 Use the menus of Windows NT and 98 Organize your files and folders Set properties Manage Printing Make use of Control Panel Select, Copy and cut in windows applications

3.2 What is Windows NT?
Windows NT is a foundation upon which Microsoft networking rests. Windows NT is a 32-bit preemptive, Multitasking operating system that belongs to Microsoft Windows family of operating system. It comes in two versions. • Windows NT Work Station :- Designed to work as member of Windows NT work group. It is aimed towards users who need a reliable operating system with a high level security. • Windows NT Server :- Same as Windows NT work station but with added features that enable it to work as a network operating system. Windows NT is a secure operating system with a graphical interface. It is not a revision of any other Windows Operating System. This is a complete true operating system is itself, not relying on Disk Operating System for lower level functions. When Windows NT starts up in a computer. It starts up immediately in Windows NT. Windows

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NT is easily portable to variety of platforms because of the modular nature of Windows NT architecture.

3.3 Windows NT features and Architecture
1. Portability : Unlike most operating system, Windows NT can be seen on a variety of plat forms. This flexibility can be a great advantage when implementing a computer strategy for an organization, because it can free you from being lied to a narrow selection of hardware plat forms. 2. Multitasking Operations : Multitasking means, different types of applications run simultaneously. While the user is working on one application, another application can be running in background. An Operating System achieves this effect by rapidly switching tasks, by scheduling the Microprocessor to work on more than one task at the same time. The Microprocessor alternates so quickly from task to task that the user might think the machine is processing several jobs at the same time. Windows NT actually supports two kinds of multitasking: • • Preemptive, and Cooperative:

Preemptive multitasking allows the operating system to manage the processing of application in separate sessions, with out surrendering control of the processor. Cooperative multitasking : Here sharing of session time is not managed by operating system. Instead each 16-bit window application must cooperate by releasing control of the processor, so that the other application can use it. A poorly written application may be able to hang the other 16-bit application running in the same 16-bit session. But it will not be able to affect the operation of Windows NT. 3. Multithreading Operations : While running on a Pentium, Windows NT can actually execute multiple pieces of code of threads from a single application simultaneously. This capability is called multithreading. It helps to speed up applications and allow them to be executed, move smoothly. A thread is most basic unit of code that can be scheduled for execution. A process is composed of one or more threads. 4. File Systems : Windows NT supports a variety of file systems like: • File Allocation Table (FAT) used with Disk Operating System 25

• NT

New Technology File System (NTFS) introduced by Windows

• Virtual File Allocation Table (VFAT) introduced by Windows 95 5. Security : Windows NT’s security features are mandatory logou procedure, memory protection, auditing and limited network access. 6. Support for many clients : Following clients can serve as Work Station on a Windows NT hardware. • • • • • • • Windows 3.x Windows for work groups MS-DOS Windows 95/98 Macintosh Operating System/2 Windows NT Work Station

7. Multiprocessor Support : Windows NT has an ability to run on computers with multiple multiprocessors, thereby enabling multiprocessing applications to run on more than one processor. When running on multiple processors, Windows NT Operating System manages the Microprocessor as well as the memory, which they share. Two main multiprocessing techniques are: • Asymmetrical Multiprocessing (ASMP) where one processor is typically reserved for the Operating System and Input/Output devices, while the other processor(s) can run application Threads and other tasks. • Symmetrical Multiprocessing (SMP) where the available processors share all task, including Operating System tasks, user process and application threads. This is more efficient way to Do multiplying Windows NT was designed to support this type of multi programming. 8. Compatibility with Applications : Windows NT can run following applications

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• • • • •

Disk Operating System 16-bit application Windows 3.x application POSIX Complaint application Operating System/2 1.x character based programs New 32-bit application

9. Storage Space :- Windows NT supports virtually limitless amount of memory and hard disk space. Specific numbers are as follows: • • Random Access Memory 4 GigaBytes (4GB) Hard Disk Space 16 exabytes

10. Networking Connectivity : Windows NT supports following network protocols • • • • • • • • • • TCP/IP DLC NetBEUI Apple talk Netware Link Novell Netware IBM LAN Server IBM SNA Network Microsoft LAN Manager Microsoft Windows 95/98 peer to peer network

Windows NT Architecture : Windows NT Architecture is divided in to two modes. User and Kernel mode. • User Mode is the Operating System Mode in which user applications and environment subsystems are executed. Several important sub systems run in user mode. Two of them are:

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o Environment Sub systems like Windows 32, POSIX, Operating System/2 o Security Sub system which handles logon process. It works directly with the security reference monitor in kernel mode to verify password. A user enters the user name and password, the security sub system builds and sends an authentication package in to the kernel mode, then to security reference monitor where it is checked against security account data base. If entered password is correct, security reference sends an access token back to security sub system. • Kernel Mode : This is also called as processor mode. It is a inner core of operating system unlike user mode, this mode has executing priority over all user mode processes and can not be swapped out to disk by virtual manager. User application can not access machine resources directly. To access system hardware and data, user mode application makes request to kernel then executes request and returns the resulting data. This method prevents a badly written program from destroying system resources or leaving the computer in an unstable state. Kernel schedules all system activities for optimum performance. The kernel queues data channels it to the microprocessor and the processed data directs it in to the appropriate route. Kernel enforces and manages execution according to thread priority. Memory Architecture : Following features are the most important aspects of Windows NT memory model • • • Virtual Memory Demand Paging 32-bit, flat, linear address space

The concept of Virtual Memory is already discussed in previous section. It is just a practice of using a hard drive to fool the operating system and application in to behaving as if there were move Random Access Memory than actually exists. Whereas Demand Paging is a process of demanding for the required page. Each application running under a Windows NT is given a unique virtual address space composed of equal blocks called Pages. Demand Paging refers to the process of moving

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data in to paging files and then paging it back in to physical memory when the applications need it. 3.3.1 Organizing programs and Documents in Windows NT using the Start Menu : Clicking the start button brings up the start menu. From the start menu, you can find any thing you need or you have on your system. Just by clicking the contents on the start menu, you can select the item and move to the required location. You will always have instant access to the “Controls” for your computer. If you have a Windows 95/98/NT Keyboard, you can quickly access the start menu by pressing the special windows key. Otherwise, press Ctrl+Esc. • Adding programs to start menu : If you copy any file, program or system object to the start menu, NT work station automatically creates a short cut to that item, and because you are on the start menu, you can access that short cut any time. To create a short cut on start menu, drag the file you want, on to the start button, next click the start button, the short cut to that file will appear on top of start menu. • Arranging open Windows with task Bar : Start menu and Task Bar provide right click menus that enable you to set options for controlling their behaviour and appearance. You can change the size and position of all open application by making choices from the n Task Bar’s right Click menu. Simply right click anywhere on Task Bar to bring up the menu with the following choices. • Cascade Windows : Places each of your open application one on top of another, which look somewhat like a deck of cards across a dealer’s table. • Tile windows horizontally and vertically : Arranges current application in equal sized windows so that you can see some contents of every windows at once. • Minimize all Windows : Minimizes all your open applications to the Task Bar, just to clear the desktop.

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• Undo Tile and Undo minimize all : Undoes whatever task bar operation you last performed • Properties :- Brings up task bar properties sheet with various pages of options that not only let you arrange items on the start menu and the task bar, but also permit you to specify opening and closing behaviour of those items. Properties sheet has two tables. o o Task Bar Options Start Menu Programs

Task Bar Options : tab lets you set a few basic options for start menu and task bar as follows: • • Always on top keep task bar visible all times Auto hide makes task bar disappear

• Show small icons in start menu :- shrinks the size of icons on start menu and removes with NT • • Work station label that appears on left side of start menu Show Clock :- removes the clock that is displayed by default

Start Menu programs tab provides options to remove the programs from start menu. This tab permits changes to Properties like • • • • Icon that appears next to an item on the start menu Order of the item on start menu Size of item window after it is opened Other options, depending on your system configuration

Removing programs from Start Menu : • • • menu Right click task bar and select properties Click the start menu programs tab Click remove button. A mini explorer shows items on start

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• Click the item you want to remove if you had to go to a fly out menu when you used the start menu to access the item, then item will be in sub folder in mini explorer window now. • • save) • Click Remove Button Dialog box ask if you are save to delete a program (Click OK if

Click close button to finish process

Using Explorer : Explorer is almost like desk top, because any thing you expect want to do to a file or program and any configuration changes can be done from explorer.

Opening Vs Exploring : Main difference between opening a desk top object and exploring a desk top object is opening simply opens a window that shows only the contents of object. Whenever, when you explore the same program it displays the tool bar full of useful buttons and right pane for displaying the contents of whatever you select in

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left pane. Explorer is best when you want to explore what file on application you want to use. Branches : Explorer shows a file system with may levels or branches. Top level lets you look at fundamental pieces of your System. When you first open explorer, there is no highlight to show you what is selected in left pane. This changes as soon as you click something in left pane to change the view in right pane. There is a line at the top of right pane that displays the name of the selected folder. Views : The ways how the objects appear in explorer are called views. The view that you choose affects only the right explorer pane. The left pane always looks the same. That is, an expandable list of folders and files on your computer.

There are four views you can choose from to display icons in explorer and five ways to arrange the icons. • Large Icon View :- The one you are familiar with. In this view, the icons are large, so easily recognizable. • The small icon view shrinks the size of icons on the right explorer pane. That is., to see all the Files in a folder • List view takes same icons of small icon view and lists them up and down instead of across the Explorer pane.

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• Details View move all the icons to the left most column and user the other column for file/object Information related to the icons. This information includes the file type, size of file, and date of the File was last modified or saved. Sorting of files in right pane can be done by name, size, date or file type. This makes it easier for you to find the file you are looking for. To do this, go to right pane view menu and click arrange icons, select the required sorting options. Type of file refer to three character extension like .doc file and size refers to size of file in bytes, kilo bytes or mega bytes as appropriate. Tool Bar :- Tool Bar take all the most commonly used tasks from a specific application and put them in easy reach. Below Figure shows the explorer tool bar. • Previous folder takes you to the folder above the one you are in. Clicking this button takes you up to next level that is, my computer, from there it takes to desk top is end. • Map network drive Creates a information connection to a shared folder on a server and assigns it a drive letter • Disconnect network drive Disconnects you from the network drive you specify • Cut : Cuts or detects a selected file or folder from your hard drive. You can also use Ctrl X on Key board or choose cut from edit menu • Copy : Copies a selected file or folder from your hard drive. Alternative is Ctrl + C or cut of edit Menu • Paste : Adds a selected file or folder from your hard drive. Alternative is Ctrl + V or paste from Edit menu • Undo : Reverses the last activity you performed. Alternative is Ctrl + Z or undo from Edit Menu • Delete : Moves any files or folders selected to the recycle bin. This is same as cut, but after you have deleted you can not paste it as you do in cut operation

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• Properties : Opens the properties sheet for the item you have selected. Alternative is Ctrl + Enter or Properties from file menu • Large Icons, Small Icons, List View and details :- Sets different views for explorer right pane Using Explorer main menu and right click menus File Menu This contains commands for following operations • Open Opens your selected file using its associated application. If the file selected does not have an associated application it prompts you for the application to open the file. • New Creates a new folder or short cut in your current directory

• Send To Sends your selected file to any of location you have placed in your send to folder • Create Short Cut : Creates short cut to the selected file in current folder. • Delete Sends selected files and files and folders to recycle bin

• Rename : High lights the name of the selected file or folder. Type your new name for the file or folder and press enter to accept it. • • Properties : Displays the properties sheet for file or folder Close Closes the active explorer window

Edit Menu : This includes • Undo Reverses last action

• Cut Removes files and folders from the current location . You can paste them in to a new folder or use cut as a means of deleting them • Paste Pastes or inserts files and folders you have cut and copies from other folders in to currently open folder • Paste Short Cut takes a file you have copied and paste a short cut to the file in the active folder

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• drive

Select all Selects all the highlighted contents of a folder or

• Invent Select Reverses the number of items selected. That is, if we have selected two items reverse select will select all but the two items you originally selected Tools Menu :- Tools Menu commands are • Map network drive :- Assigns a drive letter to a network drive. If you check a reconnect at logon box any drive you have mapped is automatically assigned the same drive letter each time you restart the NT Work Station. • Disconnect network drive :- Removes a drive letter assigned from network drive that is, previously mapped • GOTO Automatically takes you to the drive or folder you indicate. In the text filed, enter the path of drive or folder you want to go and click OK or press Enter. As a power, Go to keeps a test of folders you have gone previously. To access one of those, click the drop down list and choose the path. You can also access go to by using Ctrl + G is explorer. • Help Menu Opens explorers help file. This menu provides access to overall Windows NT help too. Right Click Menus : Commands available on the right click menu changes depending on such factors as your current folder’s location. Current file or folder type, user privileges and existence of other programs on your computer. Most common Commands on right click menu are: • • • • • • New to create a new file or folder Cut, Copy and Paste Map Network Drive Send To Rename Delete

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• •

Create Short Cut Properties

Equivalent to commands on file or edit menu

Organizing your files and folders :Creating new folders: We can create new folders as follows: • Choose where you want to create a new folder. You can create new folder on desktop, at the root of hard drive or floppy drive or inside another folder. • If you are in explorer, choose new folder from the file menu or from the right click menu. Similarly if you are creating a folder on desktop, choose new and then folder from right click menu. • The folder is created with the default name new folder. To give a new name to the folder, type the Name. You can always rename a folder by choosing rename from file menu or right click menu and typing new name • Moving Items Files or folders can be moved any where on your computer or over the network you are attached to. To move, do the following: 1. Select the file or folder you want to move. To select move than one object, use the mouse to highlight all the objects you want to move or copy. 2. To move you can follow two methods. One is to choose cut and paste, other is to drag the items from one Place to other there are various drag destinations. • • • Drag from right explorer pane to left Drag from either explorer pane to another explorer or explorer type window Drag from either explorer pane to the start button. This don’t move the item but it creates a Short cut on start menu

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• •

Drag from either explorer pane to the desktop. Drag from desk top to explorer folder

• Copying Items : Files and folders can also be copied any where on your computer or the network attached to. To copy a file or folder, do as follows: 1. Select the file or folder Press Ctrl + Click to select multiple objects. One at a time or shift + Click the first and last objects 2. To Copy, you can follow two methods. One is to choose copy and paste from edit menu. Other is to Drag the items from one place to another. To ensure that the objects you are dragging are copied and not moved, you should hold down the Ctrl Key while you are dragging. Saving files and folders on to desk top To save files on the desktop do one of the following • Drag a file from explorer to the desk top

• If you are saving the file from within an applications, scroll to desk top in the applications save as dialog box and then save your file Dragging with right mouse button When you drag files with the right mouse button and then release the button, a menu pops up offering a special set of options to help you decide how to move the file or folder. Use the following steps to move a file or folder. • • desk top Select the file or folder you want to move to desk top Click with the right mouse button and drag the objects to the

• When you drag the object to the desk top and release the right mouse button, a menu appears, giving you these options: o o Move here Moves file to new location Copy here Copies file to new location

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o Create Short Cut here creates a short cut to the file at new location o Cancel Cancels the operation

Deleting files and folders : If you do not want a file or folder any more, you can easily delete it. By default if you default a File, the file is not actually deleted. Instead it is compressed and sent to a folder called recycle bin that is, it is not removed from your hard drive. Recycle Bin is a good intermediate place to keep files you are pretty sure you want to delete. If you want to get it back, you can always open the recycle bin and use its restore option to get the object. Sending items to recycle bin : There are several ways to send a file to the recycle bin: • • • • Press the delete key on your key board Choose delete from file menu Choose delete from right click menu Drag and drop the item on to recycle bin

Emptying Recycle Bin : After sending a file to recycle bin we can delete it from the recycle bin. After deleting it from Recycle Bin, the file is removed from your hard drive and is gone forever. To empty the recycle bin, do one of the following: • Right click the recycle bin icon on your desk top and choose empty recycle bin • Open the recycle bin in explorer and choose empty recycle bin from the file menu. Restoring items from the recycle bin :- For this you can do one of these things • Open recycle bin and drag the file you want to restore to folder

• Open recyle bin, select file you want to restore, Choose restore from file menu or right click menu • Right click the location you deleted the file from and select undo delete from the context menu 38

Windows NT Folder :- This Windows NT folder contains several sub folders that perform specific function for the Operating System. Windows NT folder is divided in to following folders. • Configuration Contains NT registry. This provides information on all the hardware devices connected to your machine, directly or indirectly • Cursors Stores NT animated mouse cursors. This folder may be empty if you did not choose to install all the cursors during set up • Fonts Contains all your installed fonts

• Forms Stores forms if you are using forms with Microsoft exchange. By default, only basic form Templates are stored here • Help Contains NT’s help files

• Media Stores system sound files. When you assign system sounds to different operating system events, you call files from this folder. You can store any .WAV file in this folder and make it available to NT • Profiles Holds a hierarchy of personal folders for each user who uses your system • Repair Contains back up copies of some essential system files, so that you can restore them in case of a system crash • System Stores 16-bit system files if you can install NT Work Station over Windows 3.1. It also provides some backward compatibility for 16-bit windows applications that really want to see a system folder. 3.3.2 Setting Object Properties Right Clicking objects throughout the NT interface brings up a short cut menu with options pertaining to the Objects at hand. The same options are available from main menu also, but are more conveniently reachable with right Click. A good example of right click item is task bar. Right click start button you will see the following menu:

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Other right click menus often have cut, copy, paste, open, print and rename choices. Just as most objects have right click menus, may also have properties sheets. Properties provide you with a simple and direct means for setting everything from how the screen looks to whether a file is hidden or what a shared Printer is named. Every object in NT work station, whether a printer, modem, short cut, hard disk, folder, hard ware computer, or hard ware driver has a properties sheet containing its settings. These settings affect how the object works and some times how it looks. Properties sheets not only display the settings for the object, but also usually enable you to easily alter the settings. Many right click menus have properties choice at the bottom. This choice is often the quick path to an objects Properties sheet. Note that there are not other ways. Many dialog boxes have a properties button to object settings. The control panel also can be used for

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setting numerous properties. Still, as you become more comfortable with NT, you will find right click approach is most expedient. Trying out few properties sheet :- Properties option is last button on right click menu. Example: If you right click My Computer Icon Desktop you will see this menu

Just choose properties command, to set time, date and time zone for your computer. Other Example is, suppose you are browsing some folders using explorer and you come across an item word document, wondering what it is ?, when it was created ?, and who created it ? You right click and choose properties you find the following properties sheet

Notice that several tab pages are on the sheet. Because word stores its property information in several location. Other applications might pop out only single tabbed property sheets. Most document properties sheets are truly useful only if you want to examine the history of the file or set its attributes such as whether it should be read only or hidden from view etc. The point is you can view the status of document not alter it.

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Properties sheets for objects other than documents, however often let you make move changes to them. Short cut properties for example lets you adjust some goodies about how short cut works, file it points to. These properties sheet can affect any program or document. Short cut key lets you assign a key combination that will run the short cut from any where. Example : to jump to My Computer, With out having to first minimize all your other windows. • Get to the desk top. Then My Computer, choose create create short cut, this creates new short cut on desk top called short cut to My Computer • Right Click new short cut, choose properties

• In properties dialog box, click the short cut tab, then click short cut key filed • • Press Ctrl + Alt + C to assign short cut key of Ctrl + Alt + C Click OK to finish

Making properties settings from My Computer:- Most powerful properties sheets can be reached directly from My Computer, Clicking My Computer icon on desk top and choosing properties brings up system properties sheet as shown below:

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Examine 6 tabs here • General page tells you some useful information about version NT, How much memory your computer has, what type of Central Processing Unit chip is in your machine • Performance page lets you set to what degree the foreground application gets extra process priority, and also lets you adjust the system virtual menu settings. Unless you know what you are doing, it is best to keep the default settings. • Environment Page lets you adjust or add system environment variables as well as user-environments variables. One such environment variable accessible here is the system path, which • From time to time you might need to adjust or add to.

• Start up/Shutdown page select a different operating system to use on restart, (Assuming more than One is installed). As well as what to do with serious errors. For example you can have NT log the error messages to a file, send an alert and/or automatically restart the system.,

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• Hardware profile page provide a convenient way to create a “Snapshot” of your current driver configuration then add some other hardware and drivers and take a second snapshot. With two profiles, you can choose which configuration to use at system start up. This is useful when you want to add or remove hardware • User Profile page lets you save different configuration of your desk top appearance, including which items appear on your start menus and other interface settings, so that different desk top appearances can be associated with different users logging in to the system. You can also specify “Roaming” configuration which permits your desk top appearance to be available to every machine on your hardware. 3.3.3 Printing :Windows NT workstation gives you flexible and powerful printing support. NT supports many different types of printers from many different printer manufacturers. Some of printing features of NT include local and remote printing, print spooling with print job monitoring and forwarding, printer security and foreign client support for operating system such as Macintosh and UNIX Creating Pausing and Stopping Print Job :1. Log on as an administrator 2. Select Start -> Settings -> Printers 3. Double Click a printer installed in your computer 4. Select properties from print menu 5. Position the properties window so that you can see both the properties window and printer window 6. Click the print test page button in the properties window. As soon as the test page appears in printers Window, click once on the test page print job and then select document -> pause 7. Select document -> Cancel. The print job will disappear from the list.

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3.3.4 In the Control Panel : If you have fiddled around with the Control Panel at all, you can see that it acts as a sort of “Mission Central” for NT Workstation. Some of the settings behind the icons can be reached from other directions, but others can be reached only by way of the Control Panel. Accessibility Options : The Accessibility options are installed automatically when NT Workstation is installed. If they are not on your system, you can use Add/Remove Programs to add them. Double click the Accessibility Options icon, you will find options for adding sound to the usual visual cues, adding visual cues to the sound cues, and making the key board and mouse easier to use for those of us with dexterity problems. Not all these settings are obvious, so when you come across one that is unclear, right click the text and then click the what is this? button for more information. After you have made your settings, do not leave until you click the General tab to check the Automatic Reset section. Put a check mark next to Turn Off Accessibility Features After Idle to turn off the options if the computer is not used for the period specified in the Minutes box. Clear the check box if you want to make the selected options permanent. ADD/REMOVE Programs : NT Work station provides a good deal of aid and comfort when it comes to adding or Removing programs from your system, especially adding and removing parts of NT Workstation itself. Double Click the Add/Remove programs icon in the Control Panel. The Add/Remove function has two parts, one on each tab : • • Installing or uninstalling software applications Installing or removing portions of NT WorkStation.

If an item is checked, it is installed. Remove the check mark, Windows NT Setup :Click the windows NT setup tab to add or remove a component of NT Workstation. The various parts are organized by groups. For certain groups, you can highlight the group and click details to see the individual components. As you click each item in a group, a description of the item’s function is displayed at the bottom of the page. The rules are simple : • If an item is not checked, it is not currently installed on your system. Put a check mark next to it, and it will be installed

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• If the check box is gray, a part of the component is selected for installation. Click the details button to specify which parts you want. Click OK once or twice until the window closes. You will be prompted to put the NT Workstation CD in the CD Drive. Console :- When you want to run a DOS session from NT, you open a command prompt window (by choosing Start -> Programs -> MSDOS Prompt). The command prompt window in NT is not DOS, but rather a full 32-bit program that understands DOS commands. You can set options for the command prompt window through the console program. Double click the Console icon to set the display as window or full screen and adjust other settings, such as the font, colors, and the cursor size. Date/Time :- Unless you are logged in using an account with administrative privileges, this control panel option is unavailable to you, which makes sense since you do not have permission to change the system date and time. Devices :- If you double click the Devices icon in the Control Panel, you will see a mysterious looking list of items. What you have in front of you is actually an inventory of devices on your system, which includes basic things, such as your keyboards, ports and mouse, as also more complicated things, such as hardware and software drivers. My advice on this one is do not touch! You will probably never need to change any of the settings behind the Devices icon, and if you do, it is probably best to call your trusty system administrator, whose job it is to know more about such arcane matters than you do. Display :- Behind the Display icon are all the settings that affect your screen display, including colors, screen savers, the appearance of windows and dialog boxes, and resolutions. Fonts :- TrueType fonts are managed in NT work station in a clear and understandable way. To see the list of fonts on your Computer, double click the Fonts icon in the Control Panel. Selecting and Viewing Fonts :- The Fonts folder is a little different from the usual run of folders in that the menus show some new items. In the View menu, in addition to the choices for viewing icons and lists, you will find an option called List Fonts by similarity. If you select the List Fonts by Similarity option and then select a font in the drop down box at the top of the Fonts folder, the other fonts will line up in terms of their degree of similarity. Before you make a commitment, you can right click any of the font

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names and select Open (or just double click). A window will open with a complete view of the font in question. TrueType fonts that you may have located elsewhere can be moved in to this folder. Fonts do not have to be physically located in the WINNT/Fonts folder to be recognized by NT Workstation. You can make a shortcut to a font in another folder and put the shortcut in the Fonts folder. The shortcut is all you need for the font to be installed. Installing New Fonts :- Installing new fonts is a pretty easy project. Just double click the Fonts icon in the Control Panel and select Install New Font from the File Menu. In the Add Fonts dialog box, you can specify the drive and directory where the font(s) reside(s). If there is one or more TrueType or PostScript fonts at the location you specify, they will show up in the List of Fonts Box. Highlight the font or fonts you want to install and click the OK button.

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WINDOWS’98
3.4 What is new in Windows’98 ?
The first change that you will notice in Windows’98 is the new Active Desktop. This has a similar look but a very different feel from Windows’95. Point at a desk top icon and a hand appears. The icon is immediately selected and you have to click only once to activate the short cut. The Active desktop gives you the ease of use of a web browser. Internet explorer 4 steps with Windows’98 so that many windows have a web browser feel. You will find new navigation buttons and add bars, making it easy for you to browse files on browse web sites, with out having to change windows or programs. The start menu has new favorites choice, so you can quickly go to your favorite web site and customize the task bar by adding a windows tool bar. Other new features are : • Outlook Express uses open internet standards and allows you to read your e-mail and addition books created • Net meeting provides Internet collaboration in real time. Using data, audio and even video, you can share information, work together and exchange files during conferences. • Secure your Personal Computer with Zones. Zones allow you to assign security options to web sites • Multiple display support for personal computers machines If you have a personal computer machine and two personal computer display adapters and monitors, when you click a upper text line in your e-mail, the browser pops up on the adjacent monitor • A unified driver model for Windows’95 and Win NT means, all the old drivers for your hardware will continue to work even though you have upgraded your operating system • Increased performance and disk space utilization including improved system boot time and faster system shut down time

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• Incorporated full window dragging, font smoothing and other interface enhancement • Multimedia enhancements for improved gaming

• Software to broadcast enable your computer to blend TV with web pages and computer content. With broadcast reception hardware, you will be able to receive data broadcast of web pages, multimedia streams and data packets from TV stations and networks

3.5 Navigating Windows Desk top :
What is Windows’98? Windows’98 is an operating system. It controls the hardware of your computer and interprets the instructions from your software and operating system to hardware. Windows’98 includes the features like multitasking or the ability to run more than one program at a time. It uses a graphical user interface(GUI) which allows you to use the pictures and graphics, instead of having to type out long commands to operating system. 3.5.1 Working with Windows and Using Menus : • Starting with Windows’98 As your computer boots, windows loads the files it need to run. After operating system is loaded, you may see a password dialog box asking for your user name and password. • User name the name by which you are identified to your computer network • Password your personal match-word for logging in to the computer or network. Then press Enter or click OK to start windows Windows Desktop :- After Windows’98 starts, you will see various items on screen as in fig below: The items you see enable you to open application, manage files, send/receive mail, and perform many other tasks through out your work. The components of windows screen include:

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• Desktop This is the back ground on which all other elements appear. Just like a top of your office desk, as you can move papers around, hide certain items in drawers, add/remove things on your desk. • Icons are pictures that represent Programs folder’s files, printer information and so on. Most often you use, icon to open folders and files. • My Computer Icon represents the contents of your computer, including hard drive floppy, CD Drivers, applications, folders, files and so on. Double click an icon to open it and view its contents. • Network neighborhood This displays other computers connected to your computer or other type of network such as NT or netware. • Outlook Express Works with internet explorer and allows you to send mail, chat and work in news groups user internet • Recyle Bin Same as we discussed in Win NT

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• Online Services enables you to quickly and easily sign up for any of online services it contains including America online, AT & T world net and compu serve. ( You need modem connected ) • Setup The Microsoft network is a step by step guide to configuring your computer and connecting to Microsoft special internet network. (Modem required) • Task bar contains start button, window button and time. You can click taskbar button to open the window or application it represents. • Start Button This displays a menu from which you can choose to open an application, open document, customize windows, find file or folder, get help or shut down Win’98 program. • Folder Same as we discussed before in Windows NT

• Pointer is an on-screen icon, that represents your mouse, track ball, touch pad or other selecting devices. You use it to select items and choose commands. o steps o o follows Using Start Button To use start button follow these

Click start button Click the task or command you want to display as

o Windows update A short cut to the web site, down load updated files and seek technical support o Programs Displays a sub menu that includes windows Accessory programs, on line services, internet explorer and other programs can your computer. o Favorites Displays web sites or programs you add to favorites, folders, making access to those pages quick o Documents Displays up to 15 of the most recently opened documents. Click the document name and the application. The document opens and ready to work 51

o Settings Displays secondary menu includes control panel and printers folders, task bar command for customizing your windows setup. o Find enables you to search for specific file, folder or computer. You can also search your address books to locate a person using the people selection o Help Displays procedures in windows o help for performing tasks and

Log Off Allows you to log off or on to Windows’98

o Run Enables you to enter a command line to run program from hard, floppy or CD disks o Shut down Displays the shut down dialog box in which you prepare your computer before turning it off • Using Task Bar This contains quick launch tool bar in addition to start button as shown in figure below

Quick launch tool bar contains four items that act as a short cut on your desk top.

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• Four •

Launch internet explorer browser Launches internet explorer

Launch Outlook Express

• Show DeskTop Launch outlook express minimize all open programs and windows. Once clicked, the button remains depressed. Click the depressed button to restore all windows and programs • View Channels Launches internet Explorer four channels

The task bar also displays buttons representing open windows and applications. To move task bar click the Mouse anywhere on bar except on button and drag to required position on screen. To hide Task Bar • • Click the start button From start menu, click settings and then the task bar

• Choose the Auto hide check box by clicking that box, then press enter to close the dialog box When you need it back, move the mouse to where the task bar last appeared, you may have to slide the mouse off of the screen. The task bar reappears.

Using Menus :

What is Menu ? A menu is a list of related commands that you use to perform tasks in windows and in windows applications. Menu commands are organized in a logical groups. Different menu options and different menus will appear within the menu depending on the task you are currently performing. Items on menu bar, are organized to help you find the command you want. Example all commands that relate to editing functions such as cut, copy and paste are found in the edit menu. To choose the menu command,

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• Click the menu title in menu bar. The menu opens to display the available commands • • To choose a particular command, simply click it To make menu disappear, click anywhere outside the menu

Using Short cut keys instead of menus Short cut keys enable you to select commands with out using menus. These short cut keys generally combine, Alt, Ctrl or Shift keys, with a letter key. If a short key is available, it is tested on the pull down menu to right of the command. Example : Below figure shows Edit Menu from the hard drive window on My Computer. We can see short cut key Ctrl + X for cut and for others. Edit Undo Cut Copy Paste Paste Short Cut Select All Invert Selection Windows also provide variety of Short cut or Quick Menu that contain common commands you often use. You can display a short cut menu by right clicking an object such as the desk top, window, folder or file and so on. The commands that a short cut menu displays depend on the item and its location. These menus are often referred to as pop-up menus. Using Windows’98 Help Windows’98 offers several ways to get outline help. Windows’98 help offers four ways to seek Help • Web Help Ctrl+A Ctrl+Z Ctrl+X Ctrl+C Ctrl+V

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• • •

Online Contents Feature Index Search

To access Windows help in one of the following ways • • Click Start Button Press F1 Key

Windows help tool bar buttons Button Hide Description Displays or hides the left pane of the window. The right pane (or preview pane) is always visible. If you hid the left pane, the icon changes to read “show”. Click Show, and the left pane reappears Displays the previous page. Like a Web Browser, the Back button will only work as far back as the first page you viewed when you opened the Windows Help Program After you have clicked the Back button, the Forward button will move you ahead through pages you have viewed, in the order you have viewed them Displays a menu containing the following commands: Back, Forward, Stop, Refresh, Customize and Print If you are connected to the Internet, Web Help will display the Microsoft Web site containing information and help for Windows 98.

Back

Forward

Options Web Help

The contents feature in help Windows displays a text of collapsed categories. Documents that contain help information are represented by a document with a question mark. When you click on a document, its contents display in the preview pane on the left screen. The Index feature provides a test of help topics arranged alphabetically on the index tab of help topics Window. You can scroll through the list to find the topic.

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Search Feature :- To search for specific words and phrases within help topic use the search feature. Search feature is especially useful when you can not find a particular help topic in help contents or on the index tab list of topics. Dialog Box Windows application use dialog boxes to exchange information with you. A dialog box asks for related information the program needs in order to complete the operation. Dialog boxes vary depending on the program, procedure and number of options in actual box. Some simply ask you to confirm an operation before it is executed. Others ask you to choose a drive, folder, filename, type, network path or any of numerous options. Some components of dialog box are: • Text Box provides place to type an entry such as filename, path, font or measurement • List Box presents possible options from which you can choose. Scroll bars often accompany a list box so you can view the items on the list. • Drop down list box is a single line list box with a drop down arrow button to the right of it. When you click the arrow, the drop down test box opens to display a list of choices • Option Button present a group of related choices from which you can choose only one • Check Box enables you to turn an option on or off. A Check mark appears in box next to any option that is active • What is this ? Feature provides a handy way for you to get more information about dialog box options • Command Button carries out the command displayed on the button. If there is an ellipse on the button, choosing it will open another dialog box • Tabs represent multiple selection or pages of dialog box. One tab is displayed at a time and each tab contains related options. Components of dialog box table

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Text Box :-After activating a text box and typed text in to it, you can use several keys to edit the text. Editing keys for text boxes and other text Key Delete Back Space End Home Description Deletes the character to the right of the insertion point Deletes the character to the left of the insertion point Moves the insertion point to the end of the line Moves the insertion point to the beginning of the line

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Arrow Keys Shift+End Shift+Home Shift+Arrow Key Ctrl+C Ctrl+V

Moves the insertion point one character in the direction of the arrow Selects the text from the insertion point to the end of the line Selects the text from the insertion point to the beginning of the line Selects the next character in the direction of the arrow Copies the selected text to the clip board Pastes the selected text from the clip board

Property Sheets and Tabs: These are similar to dialog boxes in the components they contain check boxes, text boxes, Command buttons and so on as shown below.

3.5.2 Working with Files , Folders , and Disks : File Management in Windows’98 When you create a document, spread sheet, data base or any other type of file, you determine where it will reside on your hard drive when you save it. When you save a document, those documents will be saved in “My

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Documents” folder unless you instruct the program otherwise with or without these folder, you may want to create move folders for your files. Categorize your files by software You can create folders to store your files based on software used to create them. Example folder called “Documents” to store files created with your Word processor, “Spread Sheets” for files created with your spread sheet software and so forth. Categorize your files by date You can create folders for all four quarters of the year and place sub folders inside them, for each month in the quarter. Categorize your files by Client name If you sell to a few major customers, create a folder for each one and then slow any documents, spread sheets and other files for a particular client in that client’s folder. Creating Folders If you were creating a new folder for your paperwork in a file cabinet, you had write a name or phrase on the tab of a manila folder, and put the papers in it. You might write “1st Quarter” or “Letters” on the tab, and that would tell you what to put in it, and help you find your paperwork later. Cheating folders in Windows’98 is similar.

Use either My computer or Explorer to create a new folder:

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1. Be sure that you are in the folder that will contain your new folder. You can check the title bar, Address box , or the folder icon in the Folder pane to determine which folder is open. 2. From the File menu, choose new Folder. A folder icon appears in the window with a box around it and the text “New Folder” highlighted. 3. Type the name you want for your new folder. The text you type replaces the text 4. “New Folder.” Windows 98 allows you to use to 255 characters, including spaces, for your folder’s name. You may not use any of the following characters, which have special meaning to the operating system: \ / : * ? “ < > !. 5. Press Enter. Your new folder, with the name you assigned it, now appears in the window.

Using my computer
What is my computer? My Computer is a way to quickly see everything on your computer-files, folders and drives-and how files and folders are organized, To open My Computer, click its icon on the desktop. The icons that appear in the My computer window vary from computer to computer. Depending on what components are installed on your computer. There are several ways to open the drives or folders displayed in My Computer : • Click the drive or folder icon.

• Select the drive or folder icon by pointing to it or using the arrow keys to move around the window to highlight the ion you want. Press enter to open the highlighted drive or folder. • Select the drive or folder icon by pointing to it or using the arrow keys to move around the window to highlight the icon you want. Choose file, Open. • Point at the drive or folder icon and click the right mouse button. From the pop-up menu, select Open.

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When you click one of the drive icons in the My computers window, another window appears showing a listing of folders and files for that drive To switch between open windows: • To switch quickly to another window, click whatever portion of it you can see to make it the active window and bring it to the top. • Each open window is represented by an icon on the task bar. Click the icon for the window you want to see • Hold down the Alt Key and Press Tab to bring up the switching window. Each time you press Tab, it cycles to the next window. Release the Alt Key when the title of the window you want to see appears in the switching window. Browsing Folder Options In windows 98, folder views have Web-Style characteristics. To turn the Web “look” on or off for a folder in My Computer, Choose View, as Web Page from the menu or click the down arrow next to the Views button on the toolbar and select as Web Page. When you do this, the Web-style graphics disappear and the window looks as it would have in Windows 95. In order to change the function of the folder window, you need to set the folder options. • Choose View, Folder Options from the My Computer menu,

or choose Settings, Folder Options from the start menu. The Folder Options dialog box appears. • • Click the General tab, if it is not already displayed Select Web Style to make the folder and your desktop look and

work like a Web page (point to select icons, single click to open files and folders or run items). Click Classic Style if you want the folder and your desktop to work as they did in Windows 95 (single click selects icons, doubleclick opens files and folders or runs items). To individually specify the settings you want to use, choose Custom and then click Settings.

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(Optional) When you click Settings, the Custom Settings

dialog box appears. Make the selections you want to have your folders and desktop act and look the way that best suits you. Then click OK to return to the Folder Options dialog box. • Active Desktop If you want your desktop to look and act like a

Web page, click Enable all web-related content on my desktop. Click Customize to close the Folder Options dialog box and open the Display Properties box instead, where you can set options to customize the display. To have your desktop resemble the Windows 95 desktop, select Use Windows Classic Desktop. • Browse folders as follows Each time you open a folder in My

Computer, that folder will open as another separate window if you select Open each folder in its own window. If you do not want several windows opened each time you look through folders, select Open each folder in the same window. • View Web content in folders To display all folders as Web

Pages, so you can add information, change fonts, or set backgrounds, click For all folders with HTML content. If you want only those folders you specify to act like Web Pages, select Only for folders where I select “as Web Page” (View Menu). • Click items as follows To set the number of clicks required to

select or open items, select either Single click to open an item (point to select) or Double click to open an item (single click to select). If you opted to single click, you need to choose whether you want the icons always underlined or underlined only when you point at them.

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Click OK to save your settings and close the dialog box,

Cancel to close the dialog box without saving your settings, or Apply to save your settings without closing the dialog box. The My Computer Toolbars: To see the standard buttons toolbar, Choose View, Toolbars, Standard Buttons from the menu. Table gives a short description of each Button. The My Computer Toolbar buttons Click Back Forward Up Cut Copy Paste Undo Delete Properties Views To Return to the previously opened folder Go to the next folder on the recently opened folder list Go up one level in the folder hierarchy Remove a selected item from the folder and store it in the Windows Clipboard Store a duplicate of a selected item in the Windows Clipboard Place a duplicate of Clipboard contents in the folder Undo the last action you performed Remove a selected item from the folder and send it to the Recycle Bin Display the Properties dialog box for the selected item Cycle between the Large Icon, Small Icon, List and Detail Views (Click the down arrow next to views to select one of these views from a list or choose to view the folder as a Web Page

Changing the Appearance of the Folder Window Windows 98 lets you design your own look for your folders with the help of the Customize This Folder wizard. To start the wizard, do the following : • Choose View, Customize this Folder from the menu

• When the Customize this Folder dialog box appears, make one of three choices :

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o Create or edit an HTML document makes it possible to fully customize the appearance of your folder using an HTML document as the basis. o Choose a background picture lets you select a picture to appear in the background, behind the icons, of your folder o Remove customization restores the folder to its original appearance • Click Next to proceed with the next step of the wizard. When you have completed your task, click Finish Selecting a Background Picture Windows 98 lets you personalize your folder backgrounds by adding pictures or drawings. To add a background graphic to your folder view, follow steps1 and 2 of “Changing the Appearance of the Folder Window”. When you click Next, the wizard offers a set of graphic files that are found in the Windows directory. Most are wallpaper artwork. • Click on the name of a picture to see a preview on the left side of the Dialog box. To view other picture files found elsewhere on your computer system, click Browse. From the Look In drop down list, select the drive and folder where your picture files are stored. Then select the name of the file and click Open. • Select the colors for the text that appears beneath your icons from the Icon caption Colors section. Click the color box for Text, select a color swatch, and then click OK. If you want a background color behind the letters, check Background and then click the background swatch and choose a color. • • step) Click Next. The wizard confirms your choice of picture Click Finish (Click Back if you need to return to a previous

Selecting Files and Folders Before you can perform an operation on a file or folder, you must select (or highlight) the item so Windows knows which one you want to use. To select files or folders :

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• Single file or folder Point to the file or folder icon, or use the arrow keys to move the highlighting to the file or folder icon you want to select. • Multiple contiguous files or folders Point to the first file or folder icon, hold down the Shift key, and point to the last file or folder icon. This method selects all the Files between. You can also hold down the Shift key and use an arrow key to move down to the final icon in the group you want. • Multiple non-contiguous files or folders Point to the first file or folder icon, hold down the Ctrl key, and point to each of the additional file or folder icons you want. • All the file or folder icons in the Window Choose Edit, Select All from the menu or press Ctrl + A • All except the file or folder icons you have currently selected. Choose Edit, Invert Selection from the menu Moving Files and Folders Windows 98 lets you move files and folders to different Folders or different drives. You can do this by copying and pasting the files or Folders, or by using your mouse to drag and then drop the files or folders in a new location. To use the drag-and-drop method : • Open the drive or folder window where the file or folder is stored. This is the Source Window • Open the drive or folder window where you want to put the file or folder. This is the destination window • If the windows you have open are for folders on the same drive, you can just drag the file or folder icon from the source window to the destination window. To move files or folders using the cut and paste method : • stored • Open the drive or folder window where the file or folder is

Select the files or folders you want to move

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• Choose Edit, Cut from the menu or click the Cut button on the toolbar. This removes the icon(s) from the current window and stores them in the Windows Clipboard (a temporary holding place) • or folder • the toolbar Open the drive or folder window where you want to put the file

Choose Edit, Paste from the menu or click the Paste button on

Copying Files and Folders Copying files and folders to different folders or different drives is similar to moving files and folders. To copy files and folders using the drag-anddrop method : • Open the drive or folder window where the file or folder is stored. This is the source window • Open the drive or folder window where you want to put the file or folder. This is the destination window. • If the windows you have open are for folders on different drives, you can just drag the file or folder icon from the source window to the destination window Deleting Files and Folders When you delete files or folders from your hard disk or a Network drive, they are removed from their current window and placed in the Recycle Bin. However, if the file is on a floppy disk it does not go to the Recycle Bin, so be very sure you want to delete files from a floppy disk. To delete a file or folder : • Select the files or folders to be deleted

• Press the Delete key, click the Delete button on the toolbar, or choose File, Delete from the menu • A windows 98 alert box appears, asking if you are sure you want to send the selected files or folders to the Recycle Bin. If you are certain, select Yes, If not, select No and the operation will cease. Renaming Files and Folders To give a different name to a file or folder • Select the file or folder you want to rename 66

• Choose File, Rename from the menu, or click on the icon with the right mouse button and choose Rename from the pop-up menu. The name gets a box around it and the text is highlighted • • Enter the text for the new name Press Enter

Creating Shortcuts: Shortcuts provide you with easy access to files and programs. Once you place a shortcut icon on the desktop, you can click that icon to start up a program or open file or folder that you use frequently. To create a shortcut from My Computer : • • document Open My Computer Select the drive, folder, or file for which you want to create the

• Choose File, Create Shortcut, or right-click and choose Create Shortcut from the Shortcut menu • A copy of the icon appears in the window with the words “Shortcut To” in front of the name. Drag that icon from the folder on to the desktop Finding Files What do you do if you are not sure of a file name or the folder where it is stored. My Computer has a Find feature to help you search for the file. • • • box appears Open the My Computer Window Select the drive you want to search, such as C Choose File, Find from the menu. The Find : All Files dialog

• In the Named box, enter the name of the file you want to find. If you do not know the complete name, use an asterisk (*) to substitute for the beginning or end of the name (such as *97 to find all file names that end in 97); use a question mark (?) to substitute for a character you do not know. Choose Options, Case Sensitive from the menu if you want to find a file that is in uppercase but not find a file with the same name that is in lowercase 67

• you selected

The Look In box should already show the name of the drive

• To search through all the folders in the specified drive, check Include Sub folders • If you want to look in a specific folder, click Browse to open the Browse for Folder dialog box and select the folder you want to search. • Click Find Now

• When the search is complete, a list of files or folders matching your search criteria appears at the bottom of the dialog box. Click the file that you want to open • Click New Search to clear the search criteria so you can search for another file You can also search for files based on the created or last modified date : • Follow steps1 through 7 for finding a file, but do not enter a file name in the Named box • Click the Date tab of the Find dialog box

• Select Find all files. From the drop-down list select Created, Modified or Last Accessed • Choose one of three options. Select Between (and enter the starting and ending dates) to look for all files created, modified, or last accessed between those dates. Select during the previous x month(s) (where x is the number of months) to return a list of files created, modified, or last accessed in the specified number of previous months. Or select during the previous x day(s) (where x is the number of days) • Click Find Now

The Recycle Bin

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What is the Recycle Bin ? The Recycle Bin is a temporary storage area on your hard disk (drive C). When you delete a file or folder form your hard drive. Windows 98 moves it into the Recycle Bin. However, the file or folder still takes up space on the hard disk, since it is essentially just moved to the Recycle Bin. You must empty the Recycle Bin to remove the file or folder from the drive. (Same as in Windows NT) Windows Explorer The Explorer window is divided in to two panes. On the left is the list of drives and folders. The right pane displays the contents of the selected drive or folder. (same as in Windows NT) At the top of the window is the Title Bar, which tells you the name of the Window you have open. You move the window by dragging the title bar. Beneath the title bar is the menu bar, which contains commands that you may give to the program. Below the menu bar is the Tool bar. If your toolbar is not showing, Choose View, Toolbars, Standard Buttons from the menu. The address bar appears below the toolbar. To turn the display of the address bar on or off, choose View, Toolbars, Address Bar from the menu. The address bar shows your current location. Enter or select a new path and press Enter to go to that site, including a Web Page address. At the bottom of the screen is the Status Bar. The status bar displays the number of objects (files and folders) in the window and the number of bytes they take up in memory space. If you select one or more files, the status bar changes to display the number of selected files and how many bytes of memory they total. Choose one of the following to place in the left pane of the Explorer Window : • Search When the Search Explorer bar appears, type a phrase or word you want to look for on the Web, Usenet News, or both (choose which from the Search list box). To select an Internet search engine, click on your choice in the Select Provider list box. • Favorites When the Favorites Explorer bar appears, it displays

a list of folders or Web pages that you added to your Favorites folder. These locations are the ones you visit most frequently

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History A list of your most recently visited Web Pages appears

in the History Explorer bar, separated by the days on which you visited them. The number of days displayed is set in the Internet Options of Internet Explorer • Channels The Channels Explorer bar displays a list of channel

categories. When you click a category, the available channels in that category are listed. A Channel is a Web site to which you can subscribe to receive information • All Folders The All Folders Explorer bar is the default view. It

shows the hierarchy of drives and folders on your system • None Choose None to remove the Explorer bar from the

Explorer Window Changing Displays In order to change the functionality of the folder window, you need to set the folder options. • Choose View, Folder Options from the Explorer menu, or choose Settings, Folder Options from the Start Menu. The Folder Options dialog box appears • • Click the General tab, if it is not already displayed Select Web style to make the folder and your desktop look and

work like a Web Page (point to select icons; single-click to open files and folders or run items). Click Classic style if you want the folder and your desktop to work as they did in Windows 95 (single-click selects icons; doubleclick opens files and folders or runs items). To individually specify the settings you want to use, Choose Custom and then click Settings • (Optional) When you click Settings, the Custom Settings

dialog box appears. Make the selections you want to have your folders and desktop act and look the way that best suits you. Then Click OK to return to the Folder Options dialog box. 70

o

Active Desktop If you want your desktop to look and

act like a Web Page, click Enable all web-related content on my desktop. Click Customize to close the Folder Options dialog box and open the Display Properties dialog box o Browse folders as follows Each time you open a folder

in My Computer, that folder will open as another separate window if you select Open each folder in its own window. If you do not want several windows opened each time you look through folders, select open each folder in the same window. o View Web Content in folders To display all folders as

Web Pages so that you can add information, change fonts, or set background, click For all folders with HTML content. o Click items as follows To set the number of clicks

required to select or open items, select either Single-click to open an item (point to select) or Double-Click to an open an item (singleclick to select) • Click OK to save your settings and close the dialog box,

Cancel to close the dialog box without saving your settings, or Apply to save your settings without closing the dialog box

Using the Explorer Toolbar: To see the toolbar choose View, Toolbars, Standard Buttons from the menu or right-click a toolbar and then select Standard Buttons from the shortcut menu. Table lists the buttons and what they do

A text label at the bottom of the button identifies each button on the toolbar. To make these labels visible or invisible, Choose View, Toolbars, Text Labels

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The Explorer Toolbar Buttons Click Back Forward Up Cut Copy Paste Undo Delete Properties Views To Return to the previously opened folder Go to the next folder on the recently opened folder list Go up one level in the folder hierarchy Remove a selected item from the folder and store it in the Windows Clipboard Store a duplicate of a selected item in the Windows Clipboard Place a duplicate of Clipboard contents in the folder Undo the last action you performed Remove a selected item from the folder and send it to the Recycle Bin Display the Properties dialog box for the selected item Cycle between the Large Icon, Small Icon, List and Detail views (Click the down arrow next to Views to select one of these views from a list or choose to view the folder as a Web Page)

Searching for a File Use the Explorer to search a drive, to find a file or folder, or to Search for a computer by name if you have a network. To find a file : • • Open the Explorer Select the drive you want to search

• Choose Tools, Find, Files or Folders from the menu. The Find dialog box appears. • In the Named box, enter the name of the file you want to find. If you do not know the complete name, use an asterisk (*) to substitute for the beginning or end of the name (such as *97 to find all file names that end in 97); use a question mark (?) to substitute for a character you do not know. Choose Options, Case Sensitive from the menu if you want to find a file that is in uppercase but not find a file with the same name that is in lowercase

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• If you want to search for a file that contains specific text, enter some of that text in the Containing text box • you selected The Look in box should already show the name of the drive

• To search through all the folders in the specified drive, check Include Subfolders • If you want to look in a specific folder, click Browse to open the Browse for Folder dialog box and select the folder you want to search • Click Find Now

• When the search is complete, a list of files or folders matching your search criteria appears at the bottom of the dialog box. Click the file that you want to open. • Click New Search to clear the search criteria so you can search for another file Selecting Files and Folders Before you can perform an operation on a file or folder, you must select (or highlight) the item so Windows knows which one you want to use. To select files or folders : • Single file or folder Point to the file or folder icon, or use the arrow keys to move the highlighting to the file or folder icon you want to select • Several files or folders that are together Point to the first file or folder icon, hold down the Shift key, and point to the last file or folder icon. This method also selects all the files between. You can also hold down the Shift key and use an arrow key to move down to the final icon in the group you want. • Several files or folders that are not together Point to the first file or folder icon, hold down the Ctrl Key, and point to each additional file or folder icon you want selected • All the file or folder icons in the window Choose Edit, Select All from the menu or press Ctrl + A 73

• All except the file or folder icons you have currently selected. Choose Edit, Invert Selection from the menu Moving Files and Folders There are two ways to move files and folders to different Folders or different drives. One method is called drag and drop. • From the All Folders pane, open the drive or folder where the file or folder you want to move is stored by clicking on the drive or folder icon • Drag the file or folder icon from the Contents pane to the drive or folder icon in the All Folders pane where you want to put it. Do not release the mouse button until the destination drive or folder is highlighted The second method is to use cut and paste : • From the All Folders pane, open the drive or folder where the file or folder you want to move is stored • to move From the Contents pane, select the file file or folder you want

• Choose Edit, Cut from the menu or click the Cut button on the toolbar. This removes the icon(s) from the current folder or drive and stores the item(s) in the Windows Clipboard (a temporary storage area). Be careful not to copy or cut another item before you paste the icons, or you will lose them • In the All Folders pane, open the drive or folder where you want to put the file or Folder • Choose Edit, Paste from the menu or click the Paste button on the toolbar. The contents of the Clipboard appear in the folder or drive Copying Files and Folders Copying files and folders to different folders or different drives is similar to moving. To do this using the drag and drop method : • In the All Folders pane, open the drive or folder where the file or folder you want to copy is stored. Just click the drive or folder icon to open it

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• Hold down the Ctrl key and drag the file or folder icon you want to copy from the Contents pane to the drive or folder icon in the All Folders pane, where you want to put it • Release the mouse button when the destination drive or folder is highlighted To copy files or folders using the cut and paste method : Deleting Files and Folders: When you delete files or folders from your hard disk or a network drive, they are removed from their current folder and placed in the Recycle Bin. If necessary, you can recover them from the Recycle Bin To delete a file or folder : • Select the files or folders to be deleted

• Press the Delete key, click the Delete button on the toolbar, or choose File, Delete from the menu • A Windows 98 alert box appears, asking if you are sure you want to send the selected files or folders to the Recycle Bin. If you are, select Yes. If not, select No and the operation will cease. Renaming Files and Folders To give different name to a file or folder : • Select the file or folder you want to rename

• Choose File, Rename from the menu, or click the icon with the right mouse button and choose Rename from the pop-up menu. The name gets a box around it and the text is highlighted • • Enter the text for the new name Press Enter

Creating Shortcuts Shortcuts provide you with easy access to files and programs. Once you place a shortcut on the desktop, you can double-click that shortcut icon to start a program or open a file or folder To create a shortcut : • Open the Explorer

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• shortcut. •

Select the drive, folder or file for which you want to create the

Choose File, Create Shortcut

• A copy of the icon appears in the window with the words “Shortcut to” in front of the name. Drag that icon on to the desktop

File Properties
File Names Files needed to run programs are generally installed on your hard disk when you install the programs. You create new files in your application programs when you save documents, spreadsheets, databases, pictures and so forth. When you save a file in an application, you assign a name to the file. Files stored in the same folder must have unique file names. Any file name longer than eight characters is considered a long file name, although a name that includes a space or a is also considered a long file name File Creation Date and Time When you first save a file, Windows automatically records the date and time that you saved it.When you open the file again and make changes, the date and time you save it are again recorded as the modified date. You can see the modified date in the details view of My Computer. File Attributes: There are four attributes that can be assigned to files : • Read-Only You can open a read-only file and read it or print it, but you can not change it or delete it. This protects the original file from being changed. • Archive Some programs use this option to determine which files are to be backed up. In most cases, if the file is not read-only, it has an Archive attribute. • Hidden Some files are not visible in file listings, and you can not use them unless you know the name of the file. Program files may be hidden to keep you from moving or deleting them accidentally. • System Certain files are necessary to the operation of your system; these are System files.

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Viewing Properties To see the properties of a file – whether you are in My Computer, Windows Explorer, or Network Neighborhood – you must first select the file and then do one of the following : • Choose File, Properties

• Click the right mouse button and choose Properties from the pop-up menu • Click the Properties button on the toolbar

• Click the Attributes link on the left side of the Windows Explorer Contents pane or the My Computer window. The Properties dialog box for the selected file opens The Properties dialog box provides you with information about the file : • • • • • • • • • File name Type (of file) Location (what drive and folder it is in) Size (in kilobytes and actual number of bytes) MS-DOS name (includes extension) Created (date and time the file was created) Modified (date and time the file was last modified) Accessed (date the file was last opened) Attributes (Read-only, Archive, Hidden, System)

Editing an Existing File Type To edit an existing file type : • Choose View, Folder Options from the My Computer or Windows Explorer menu, or choose Settings, Folder Options from the Start menu. The Options dialog box appears • • Select the File Types tab Under Registered file types, select the type you want to edit

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• •

Click Edit. The Edit File Type dialog box appears Make any modifications you want. Use the New, Edit or

Remove buttons to add, change or delete actions • • Click OK to return to the Folder Options dialog box Click OK to close the Folder Options dialog box

Removing a File Type To remove a file type : • Choose View, Folder Options from the My Computer or Windows Explorer menu, or choose Settings, Folder Options from the Start menu. The Options dialog box appears • • remove • • Click Remove Windows requests a confirmation that you want to remove the Select the File Types tab Under Registered file types, select the file type you want to

file type. Click Yes • Click Close

Changing the Icon for a File Type Every file type has an icon associated with it. To change the icon for an existing file type : • Choose View, Folder Options from the My Computer or

Windows Explorer menu, or choose Settings, Folder Options from the Start menu. The Options dialog box appears • • • Select the File Types tab Under Registered file types, select the type you want to edit Click Edit. The Edit File Type dialog box appears 78

• •

Click Change Icon. The Change Icon dialog box appears Select one of the icons in the Current icon box or click

Browse to search for another icon file • Click OK to close the Change Icon dialog box and then OK to

close the Edit File Type dialog box • Click OK to exit the Folder Options dialog box

Restoring Files The worst day of your life inevitably arrives, and your hard disk crashes or the temp filling in during your vacation accidentally deletes all your correspondence files. Once you have your hard disk repaired or you discover your loss of vital files, it is time to restore your backup files to your hard disk. To restore your files : • Choose Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Backup from the Start menu • When the Microsoft Backup dialog box appears, click Restore

backed up files and then click OK • The Restore Wizard opens. In the Restore from box, select the

type of backup you made then indicate the location of the backup in the box below (such as another network computer). Click the button on the right side of the box to browse your system for the file location. Click Next • The Restore Wizard locates all backup files at the indicated

location. To select a set of backup files to restore, check the box in front of the backup set name. Then click OK • After a short logging process, the What to restore screen

appears. This screen displays the list of drives, folders and files you backed up in the specified set. Select the ones you want to restore by clicking the check box in front of the drive or folder to place a check mark there. Click Next.

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In the Where to restore box, indicate Original Location or

Alternate Location as the place where you want to put the restored files. If you chose Alternate Location, specify that location in the box below. Click Next • You must decide how you want to replace existing files during

the restore process. You have three options : Replace a file only if the file on the computer is older than the backup version, automatically replace all the files even if the file on the computer is newer than the backup file, or do not replace any of the files. Choose one of the first two options and then click Start • The Restore Wizard lists the required media (file, disk or tape)

needed for the backup. If you used a tape or floppy disks for backups, be sure to select the correct one before inserting it into your tape or floppy drive. If you used a network drive, be sure that drive is available. Then click OK • Click OK • The Restore Progress dialog box appears showing the status of When the operation is complete, Microsoft Backup alerts you.

the restore and the number of files and bytes restored. Click OK • The Microsoft Backup window appears. To close the window,

choose Job, Exit or click the Close button

2.5.3 Customizing and Maintaining Windows 98 : The Control Panel

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What is the Control Panel ? Access the Control Panel to change the appearance of your desktop, choose a screensaver, change your default font, the time and date, and so forth. From the Control Panel you can configure your Windows environment to work the way you want it to. Access the Control Panel one of these ways : • From the taskbar, click the Start button and then choose Settings, Control Panel. The Control Panel window appears • From the desktop, click My Computer and then click the Control Panel folder icon. The Control Panel window appears • From Windows Explorer, click the Control Panel folder found in the left pane of the window. The contents of the Control Panel appear in the right panel. These are the same icons that are displayed in the Control Panel window.

What can you Accomplish in the Control Panel ?

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The Control Panel contains a set of icons indicating the different areas that you can modify to customize your computer configuration. In this book we only discuss the most commonly used features of the Control Panel. They include : • Set Accessibility Options Some disabilities can make computer operation difficult. Accessibility options provide ways to adjust computer hardware to make computing easier for impaired operators. • Add New Hardware Windows 98 detects most new hardware automatically. This capability is referred to as the plug and play feature of Windows 98. When Windows to detect your new hardware, use the Add New Hardware feature to start a wizard. • Add or Remove Programs Install or uninstall software with the help of a Wizard • Set the System Date and Time Althrough the internal clock of your computer maintains the current date and time, you may occasionally have to adjust it for a new time zone or to turn off Daylight Savings settings when you are in a particular area.

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• Change Desktop Colors and Backgrounds Add colors or patterns to the background of your desktop and change the look of the windows and pick new window themes. • Add or Switch Screen Savers Screen Savers preserve your monitor quality, and you can select the one you want to use. • Add or Remove Fonts Add new fonts, remove old fonts, and view fonts with this option • Change Settings on your Keyboard You can change the character repeat speed of your keyboard. This is the speed at which a character repeats when you hold down the key on your keyboard. • Configure Your Modem Adjust the settings on your modem

• Adjust the Settings for Your Mouse Set the speed of the mouse pointer and the double-click, as well as swap buttons for left-handed users. • Change Settings for Multimedia Devices If you are using audio or video devices with your computer, you adjust the settings for those devices through the Control Panel. • Set or Change Password Protect your computer from unauthorized people by assigning passwords. • Change Regional Settings If you are working outside the United States, you can change the standard settings for how currency, numbers, dates and times appear. • Modify Internet Settings Specify where your temporary Internet files are stored, set parameters for the History folder, select the page to use as your home page, select security options, specify connection types, and set preferred programs. • Adjust System and Program Sounds Certain sounds signify different events, and you can choose which sounds you want to hear. • Set up Mail and Fax Set up the messaging profiles to send and receive e-mail and faxes.

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• Configure Your System for Networking Make the settings that help you connect your system to a network • Set Up for Dialing Out Enter the settings needed to establish the dialing properties for your system • Manage the Use of Your Power Resources Set alarms and establish standby schemes for your laptop battery. Selecting a Screen Saver A screen saver is a moving picture or pattern than appears on your screen when you have left the computer idle for a specified number of minutes. Screen savers can be interesting and fun to watch, but did you know that screen savers are designed to prevent monitor burn-in? When the same image stays on the screen for periods of time without changing, it can leave a ghost image that you can see even when the monitor is turned off. To prevent burn-in, turn off your monitor when you walk away from it, or use a screen saver. Screen savers display constantly moving images to prevent burn in. Windows 98 comes with several screen savers. To select a screen saver : • Choose Settings, Control Panel from the Start menu and

then click the Display icon, or right-click the desktop and choose Properties from the pop-up menu • When the Display Properties dialog box appears, select the

Screen Saver tab • From the Screen Saver drop-down list, select a screen saver. A

sample appears in the monitor on the dialog box. Click Preview to see a fullscreen version. • Many screen savers can be customized. With screen savers

such as 3D Text and Scrolling Marquis, you need to enter the text that will move across your screen. Other screen savers let you set the speed, the colors, the number of elements, and the shape of the elements. To customize your screen saver, click Settings. After you set your options, Click OK to return to the Display Properties dialog box.

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In the Wait box, enter the number of minutes that represents

the amount of time the system is idle before the screen saver activates. • If you want to set a password for your screen saver, click

Password protected. Click Change and enter your password in the New Password box. As you will only see asterisks, so be careful not to misspell your password. Then type the password again in Confirm New Password and click OK. After you create a screen saver password, you won’t be able to turn off the screen saver without entering your password. • For computers with energy-saving features, you adjust the

standby and power settings by clicking Settings and entering your options in the Power Management Properties Box. • Click OK to accept your settings and close the dialog box.

Click Apply to accept your settings without closing the dialog box. Click Cancel to close the dialog box without saving your settings.

Active Desktop
Arranging Icons When shortcuts are added to the Desktop, they are not arranged neatly. You can control, or arrange the appearance of icons on the Desktop. To arrange your desktop icons : • button. • Click an open area of your desktop with the right mouse

From the pop-up menu, choose Arrange Icons

• Select By Name to have the desktop icons arranged in alphabetical order, By Type to have the icons arranged by type of file, By Size to order them by size of file, or By Date to have them appear in the order they were created. Choosing Colors and Backgrounds For better viewing or just for variety, you can change the background color of your screen or choose a pattern or wallpaper for your desktop background. 85

Colors The desktop color is applied to the area behind the icons and Windows. To change the color of the desktop : • Choose Settings, Control Panel from the Start menu

• From the Control Panel window, click the Display icon. The Display Properties dialog box appears • • • Click the Appearance tab Select Desktop from the Item drop-down list Click the down arrow on the Color list box to see a selection of

background colors. • • • Click the color you want Click Apply to see how the desktop will look in that color Click OK to accept your choice and close the dialog box

Wallpaper Wallpaper makes your desktop interesting and fun. To select a wallpaper for your desktop background : • • • Open the Display Properties dialog box Select the Background tab From the list under Select an HTML Document or a picture,

select a picture to place on your desktop. It will appear in the monitor picture so you can see how it will look on your screen. • To determine how the wallpaper fills your screen, choose one

of the following from the Display drop-down list (if the choice is unavailable, the picture automatically fills the entire screen) :

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o picture. o

Center The wallpaper picture appears in the middle of

your desktop. The background color will still show around the outside of the

Tile The picture repeats across the screen until it fills

the desktop background. o Stretch The picture fills the entire screen. If your

picture is not the same shape as the screen, stretching it may distort the

picture. • Click Apply to see how the desktop will look with the pattern

or wallpaper you selected • Click OK to accept your choice and close the dialog box

Changing Fonts To change the size, color, and font of the screen text : • Choose Settings, Control Panel from the Start menu and then click Display, or right-click the desktop and choose Properties from the pop-up menu.

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Select the Appearance tab

• From the Item drop-down list, select the item for which you want to adjust the text, such as Active Title Bar, Icon, Inactive Title Bar, Menu, Message Box, Palette Title, Selected Items, or Tool Tip. Unless you pick one of these items, the font choices will not be available • Select the font you want to use from the Font drop-down list, the point size from the Size drop-down list, and the color of the text from the Color list (color is not available for all items). Click the B button for boldface and the I button for italic. • • Click Apply to see how the desktop will look Click OK to accept your choice and close the dialog box

Adding and Removing Programs The Start menu may not list every program you use. Some of your programs may be old, some may be located on a network drive or on a CD, or some of them may have been copied to your hard disk but not properly installed. To add a program to the Start menu : • Open the Taskbar Properties and select the Start Menu Programs tab • Under Customize Start Menu, click Add. The Create Shortcut dialog box appears • In the Command line text box, enter the path and file name of the program’s executable file (the file that starts the program). If you do not know the name, click Browse, select the file, and click OK. • Click Next

• The Select Program Folder dialog box appears. From the listing in Select folder to place shortcut in, select a folder where the new program logically belongs (such as Games for a checkers game). The groupings on the Start menu follow the organization of these folders. Select Programs if you do not want your program to appear on a submenu.

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• To add a new entry to the Start menu, click New Folder, and enter a name for the folder. The folder name becomes the entry on the Start menu, and the program appears as a submenu of that entry. • Click Next. In the Select a name for the shortcut text box, enter the name for the program as you want it to appear on the Start menu. • Click Finish. If the program does not have its own icon, a prompt appears, asking you to choose one from a set of available Windows icons. To remove a program from the Start Menu : • Open the Taskbar Properties dialog box and select the Start Menu Programs tab • Under Customize Start menu, click Remove

• The Remove Shortcuts/Folders dialog box appears. Select the folder or program shortcut and click Remove • A dialog box asks you to confirm that you want to remove the item. Click Yes. • Click Close

Why Use a Password ?
If you are worried that an unauthorized person might attempt to use your computer in your absence, use a password. The password is the key to your system. Unless you enter the correct password, you can not begin working in Windows. When Windows boots up, a dialog box appears, requesting your password. Enter your user name (if it is not automatically entered) and then your password. When you type the password, Windows enters asterisks in the text box. Click OK. Windows may ask you to confirm the password by entering it again. If so, type it and click OK. Then your desktop appears. Setting Up a Password To set up a Windows password : • Choose Settings, Control Panel from the Start menu

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• When the Control Panel opens, click the Passwords icon. The Passwords Properties box appears • Click Change Windows Password. The change Windows Password dialog box appears • Enter your password (up to 25 characters) in the New Password box. Passwords are case-sensitive, so be sure to remember which words you capitalize, because “LETMEIN” is a different password than “LetMeIn”. Be careful to spell the password correctly, because you will only be able to see asterisks as you type. • In the Confirm new password box, enter the password again, exactly as you did the first time • Click OK

• A confirmation dialog box appears, saying that your password has been successfully changed. Click OK. • Click Close to exit the Passwords Properties dialog box

Changing Your Password You must be careful to protect your password so other people do not learn it. It helps to change your password periodically, just in case someone has been looking over your shoulder or might have guessed your password. To change the password : • Choose Settings, Control Panel from the Start menu

• When the Control Panel opens, click the Passwords icon. The Passwords Properties box appears • Click Change Windows Password. The Change Windows Password dialog box appears • Enter your previous password in the Old Password box (this proves you are authorized to make the password change) • In the New password box, enter your new password

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• In the confirm new password box, enter the new password again, exactly as you did the first time • Click OK

• A confirmation dialog box appears, saying that your password has been successfully changed. Click OK. • Click Close to exit the Passwords Properties dialog box.

3.5.4 Working with Windows Applications : What is WordPad ? WordPad is Window’s word processing program. With WordPad, you can create documents such as letters, memos, reports, lists and so on. Although WordPad is a word processor, it is very basic. For example, you can not check your spelling or grammer in WordPad, and there are a limited number of toolbars and icons to help speed your work. However, you can create, edit and format many simple documents with WordPad. Basically, it is fine to use if you do not have another word processor, such as Microsoft Word, Lotus Word Pro or Corel Word Perfect. To access WordPad, follow these steps : • From the Desktop, choose the Start button, select Programs and then Accessories • Click the WordPad option at the bottom of the Accessories menu. The program appears with a new, untitled document in the window for you to use. A blinking vertical bar, called the insertion point, appears in the upper-left corner of the document area The WordPad screen contains the following elements : • The application name (WordPad) and the document name (the generic name is • “Document” until you assign a name by saving the document) in the title bar • The menu bar containing WordPad menus

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• Two Toolbars containing shortcuts for saving and formatting your documents • • you enter • Program What is Paint ? Paint is a Windows graphic program that allows you to create drawings you can use, either alone or in other Windows application such as Microsoft Word, Lotus Word Pro, or Corel WordPerfect. To open the Paint program and begin a drawing, follow these steps : • From the Desktop, choose the Start button and then Programs, Accessories • Click Paint from the Accessories menu. The Paint Window opens, ready for you to draw A ruler that enables you to set tabs and measure margins The text insertion point, which marks the location of the text A status bar that offers helpful tips and information about the

Drawing in Paint
Drawing with a mouse can be difficult at first, but practice always makes a difference. You use your mouse to draw lines, curves, and shapes, as well as to enter text in Paint. The following list describes different ways to draw : • • To select the fill color, right-click any color in the palette To select the line color, click any color in the palette

• To select the size of the drawing, choose Image, Attributes and enter the width and height in the Attributes dialog box. Click OK. The new size is defined by eight small black handles or boxes, outlining the

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specified area to choose the type of object you are going to draw, click a drawing tool in the toolbox at the left of the screen.

3.6 Summary:
In this handbook we have tried to show the concepts of Operating System. How the Operating System works. User is made familiar with some commonly used Operating Systems like Windows NT and Windows 98.

EXERCISE
True or False
1. Windows is physical device in computer system 2. Windows NT is portable 3. Multitasking is available in Windows’98 not in Windows NT 4. Virtual Memory is physically available in Windows NT 5. Any configuration to file changes can be done from explorer 6. Icons can not be dragged from one place to other 7. Deleted file is stored in Recycle Bin 8. Icons represent pictures available in your system 9. Short Cut Keys enable you to select commands with out using menus 10. You can not change the appearance of folder window

Fill in the blanks
1. ________________ is composed of one or more threads 2. Windows NT is a ______________________ multitasking operating system 3. Windows NT belongs to ____________________ Windows Family of Operating System

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4. Windows NT architecture has __________________ Mode 5. ____________________ makes task bar disappear 6. Paste adds a selected file from ___________________ 7. _________________ reverses the last action 8. _______________ is personal match word used to login to computer network 9. _______________ feature search for specific words and phrases within help topic 10. We can change appearance of desktop through ____________________

Answers for Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Questions

Answers for Chapter 1
True or False 1. True 2. True 3. False Fill in the blanks 1. 2. 3. 4. Executing Microprogramming and Time Sharing Operating System Resources

Answers for Chapter 2
True or False 1. False 94

2. True 3. False 4. False 5. True 6. False 7. True 8. False 9. True 10. False Fill in the blanks 1. Process 2. 32-bit preemptive 3. Microsoft 4. User and Kernel 5. Auto Hide 6. Hard Drive 7. Undo 8. Password 9. Search 10. Control Panel

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UNIX
STRUCTURE 4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.1.1 Why you must know UNIX Today 4.1.2 History of UNIX 4.1.3 Popularity and Success of UNIX

4.2 ARCHITECTURE OF UNIX
4.2.1 What Exactly is UNIX 4.2.2 System Architecture

4.3 FILE SYSTEM
4.3.1 File System 4.3.2 Tree Structure 4.3.3 Directories 4.3.4 Operating System Services

4.4. GETTING STARTED
4.4.1 Account and Password 4.4.2 Logging In 4.4.3 Shell

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Chapter 4

INTRODUCTION
Objectives:
After completing this chapter, you will the able to: • • • List 3 important phases of UNIX Understand why UNIX popular History of UNIX

UNIX consists of a large number of ideas, too many for a single person to master in a lifetime.

4.1.1 Why you must know UNIX Today
UNIX had to grow through 3 important phases in its life cycle. First reason, it was considered a product for the Engineering and Scientific community. Later, it made significant inroads into large Corporations and Government Organizations where its robustness established it on the operating system of choice for database work (Example Oracle, Sybase & Informix) The Internet is the third and most significant phase of the UNIX cycle. Even though the people say that UNIX was died, most servers on the net are UNIX machines. Internet Service Providers use UNIX machines.

4.1.2 History of UNIX
In 1965, Bell Telephone Laboratories joined an effort with the General Electric Company and Project MAC of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop a new operating system called Multics. The goals of the Multics system were to provide simultaneous computer access to a large community of users, to supply ample computation power and data storage, and to allow users to share their data easily, if desired. Many scientists later took part in the early development of the UNIX system. In 1969, Bell laboratories ended its participation in the project.

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Later Ken Thompson, Dennies Ritchie, and others sketched a paper design of a file system that it evolved into an early version of the UNIX file system. Although this early version of the UNIX system held much promise, it could not realize its potential until it was used in a real project. Ritchie has developed a new language called ‘C’, and in 1973, the UNIX operating system was rewritten in C. In January 1983, Bell Laboratories added several features to UNIX system III and called a new product UNIX System V, and AT & T announced official support for System V.

4.1.3 Popularity and Success of UNIX
Unlike DOS and Windows UNIX can be used by several users concurrently. The UNIX is popular for the following reasons: • The system is written in a High Level Language, making it easy to read, understand, change, and move to other machines. • It uses a hierarchical File System that allows easy maintenance and efficient implement • It has a simple user interface that has the power to provide the service that users want. • It provide a simple, consistent interface to peripheral devices.

• It is a multi-user, multiprocessor System, each user can execute several processes • simultaneously.

• It hides the machine architecture from the user, making it easier to write program that run on different Hardware implementations. • UNIX is a multitasking operating system, You can be performing two tasks • • simultaneously. UNIX has networking built in environment.

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If you are migrating from the DOS/ Windows environment, then you have quite a bit of mental preparation to do before you start feeling comfortable. That is, UNIX is not very friendly.

Exercise 4.1:
1. Give three important reasons of UNIX 2. When UNIX system III released 3. Name the Scientist who give the paper discover of or File system

4.2 ARCHITECTURE OF UNIX Objectives:
After completing this section, you will be able to : • • List Operating system functions Draw UNIX system architecture

4.2.1 What Exactly is UNIX
UNIX is an operating system in the same way MS-DOS and OS/2 are Operating System. An operating system performs many functions: • It actually runs a program: When you enter a program‘s filename at the command line the operating system takes over by loading the program into your computers memory and runs it. • It controls all input and output on the computer: When you delete a file, the operating system goes ahead and eliminates a record of that file. When you save a file, the operating system makes sure your file isn’t written on top of an existing file.

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4.2.2 System Architecture:
UNIX carries out various functions through 3 separate, but closely integrated parts: the File System . the shell, and the kernel. The responsibilities are given below: • functions. the kernel is responsible for all basic operating system

• the File System tracks files and where they are located. Every thing on UNIX, whether it’s a file created in a text processor or a driver used to send instructions to a pointer is contained in a file. • the shell or command-line interpreter, is the part of UNIX you will actually • be using most of the time.
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The hardware at the center of the diagram (see Figure1) provides the operating system with basic services. The operating system interacts directly with the hardware, providing common services to programs, viewing the system as a set of layers. The operating system is commonly called the system kernel or just the kernel.

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Programs such as shell and editors (ed and vi) shown in the outer layers interact with the kernel, by invoking a defined set of system calls. The system calls instruct the kernel to do various operations for the calling program and exchange data between the kernel and the program. Several programs shown the figure 1 are in standard system configurations and are known as commands. Others application programs can build on top of low-level programs. For example, the standard C compiler cc is in the outermost layer of the kernel: it involves a C preprocessor, assembler, and loader, all separate lower-level programs. Many application subsystems and programs that provide a high-level view of the system such as the shell, editors, and document preparation packages, have gradually become synonymous with the name “UNIX System”.

Exercise 4.2:
1. Close the book and draw the architecture of UNIX system 2. Who taken over, when your delete a file 3. List out the program around the kernel 4. Give the another name of command-line interpreter

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4.3 FILE SYSTEM Objectives:
After completing this section, you will be able to: • • • 4.3.1 File system The UNIX file system is characterized by • • • • • • a hierarchical structure consistent treatment of file data the ability to create and delete files dynamic growth of files the protection of file data the treatment of peripheral devices as files List UNIX File system characters Under stand file system hierarchy List- operating services

4.3.2 Tree Structure The file system is organized as a tree with a single root node called rod (“/”) (see figure 2) every non leaf node of the file system structure is a directory of files, and files at the leaf nodes of the tree are either directories, regular files, or special device files. The name of the file is given by a path name that describes how to locate the file in the file system hierarchy. 102

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A path name is a sequence of component names separated by slash(/) characters.

Example:
“/etc/password”, “/usr/ucb/telnet”, “/home/Anand”. etc . A full path names start is a slash (‘/‘) character and specifies a file that can be provided by staring at this file system root and traversing the file tree.

4.3.3 Directories Directories are like regular files the system treats this data in a directory as a byte stream, but the data contains the names of the files in the directory. Permission to access a file is controlled by access permissions associated with the file. Access permission can be set independently to control read, write, and execute permission. Permission is given three classes of users: the file owner, a file group, and every one else. You may create files if directory permission is given. Devices are also protected in the same way that regular files are protected. Generally, the system calls allow uses to write programs that do sophisticated operations and as a result, the kernel of the UNIX system does not contain many functions that are part of the “kernel” in their systems. The shell allows 3 types of commands. First, a command can be an executable file that contains object code produced by compilation of source code (a C program for example). Second, a command can be an executable file that contains a sequence of shell command lines. Finally, a command can be internal shell command. The shell searches for commands in a given sequence of directories, changeable by user/invocation of the shell. The shell usually execution a command synchronously, waiting for the command to terminate before reading the next command line.

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4.3.4 Operating System Services Among the services provided by the kernel so (Figure 1) are: • controlling the execution of process by allowing their creation, termination or suspension, and communication. • • Scheduling process fairly for execution on the CPU. Allocating main memory for an executing program

• Allocating secondary memory for efficient storage and retrieval of user data. • Allowing processes controlled access to peripheral devices such as terminal tape drives, disk drives, and network devices.

Exercise 4.3:
1) List at least 3 characters of UNIX file system 2) What is root? 3) Check whether the following statements True/False a) Leaf nodes are directories b) Leaf nodes are special device files 4) What is path give one example 5) Who allocate main memory for program execution 6) Who control access to peripheral devices

4.4 GETTING STARTED Objectives:
After completing the section, you will be able to: • • Understand what is Account and Password Understand One job of system administrator

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• • •

Understand login procedure Know what is shell List different shells

4.4.1 Account and password UNIX is security- conscious, and can be used only by those persons who maintain an account with the computer system .You can’t simply sit down at any terminal and start working as in DOS/Windows. If you are using a UNIX workstation, you must set up your own user account. System administrator will grant you that authority. He opens an account with the name (is known as login name/user name) for your use, and given you a secret code called password that you have to enter when the system prompts you for it. 4.4.2 Logging In Logging in is a simple procedure that tells the UNIX system who you are: $ login: The login prompt indicates that the terminal is available for some one to login (i.e connect). This message also indicates that the previous user has “logged out” (disconnected). Enter your user name (or login name) and hit the <Enter> key after the string: $ login : Type user name <Enter> Password: The system now, request you to enter the secret code (password) that was handed over to you by your administrator. This code should be known to none except yourself. Enter your password. The terminal does not display what you type. Then press the <Enter> key. Example: $ login: Anand <Enter> Password:*******<Enter>

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The system cross check this password and if it is right you will be presented with a login sequence like the following: Welcome to SCO system v/386 Login: Password: If you are logging onto a UNIX system V Release 5, the sequence look like this: Login: Password: UNIX system V release AT & T 3B2 System id Copy right © 1984, 1986, 1987, 1988 AT & T All Rights Reserved Last login : Friday March 09 10 :45 : 21 on term /12 If you make mistakes while typing simply press this <Enter> key one or two times till the login prompt reappears on the screen. If you enter either of them in correctly, the system flashes the following message Login incorrect Wait for login retry: If the login was successful, you will be taken to the $ prompt. $ 4.4.3 Shell When you login your UNIX system, you are immediately thrust into your login shell. Information about this shell is usually contained in this file /etc/password, as in login into for all this users on your system. No Command can be executed unless it obtains the clearance of the shell some popular shells one: • • • Ksh. Csh Sh. the Bourne shell, developed by stephen Bourne in 1979. korn shell, Developed by David Korn at Bell labs the C shell. Developed by Bill joy ( a founder of Sun Microsystems Inc) 108 This is equivalent of the C:\>

• •

Jsh bash

the job shell. An extension of the Bourne shell. Bourne Again shell. Developed by the Free Software Foundation.

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Exercise 4.4:
1) What is an account? 2) What is login name or user name 3) What is Password 4) Explain how to login in UNIX 5) Ask your system administrator and create your own account and then login 6) Who sets the required environment when login is done 7) List different shells 8) Close the book and draw the kernel-shell relation ship diagram

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Chapter 5

LINUX SYSTEM
Structurre
5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1.1 What you need? 5.1.2 What is LINUX? 5.1.3 Features of LINUX 5.2 GETTING STARTED 5.2.1 Logging in to Red Hat Linux 5.2.2 The login session 5.2.3 The Shell interface 5.2.4 Checking Directories and permission 5.2.5 Exiting the shell 5.3 LINUX FILE SYSTEM 5.3.1 Working with the Red Hat Linux File system 5.3.2 Creating files and directories 5.3.3 Understanding File permission 5.3.4 Moving Copying and deleting files 5.4 vi TEXT EDITOR 5.4.0 Using the vi Text editor 5.4.1 Starting with vi 5.4.2 Moving around the file 5.4.3 Searching for text 5.4.4 Using numbers with command

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5.1 INTRODUCTION Objectives:
After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. PC configuration needed for LINUX 2. Know what is LINUX 3. Features of LINUX 5.1.1 What you need? To work with LINUX, you need a Personal Computer with the following general configuration: • • • • An Intel 80386, Pentium, or compatible CPU. At least 16MB of RAM, although 24MB or more is recommended. To run the GNOME or KDE desktop, Red Hat recommends 48MB. You need 500MB of hard disk space for a typical installation. To install everything, you need about 1.6GB of space. A CD-ROM drive is recommended for installation, although you can install over a network instead. For that, you need at least a 3.5-inch floppy disk drive and a network connected to a computer that has the Red Hat Linux software packages available.

5.1.2 What is LINUX? LINUX is a free Operating System that was created by Linus Torvalds when he was a student as the University of Helsinki in 1991. Torvalds started Linux by writing a kernel, which is the heart of the operating system, In the 1980s and 1990s, while Microsoft flooded the world with personal computers running DOS and Windows operating systems, power users demanded more from an operating system. They ached for system that could run on networks, support many users at once (multiuser), and run many programs at once (multitasking). DOS and Windows didn’t cut it. 111

5.1.3 Features of LINUX: • Multi user –Not only can you have many user accounts available on a LINUX system, but you can also have multiple users logged in and working on the system, at the same time. • Multitasking –You can have many programs running at the same time in LINUX. Besides meaning that you can have lots of programs going at once, it also means that Linux, itself, can have programs running in the background. Many of these system processes make it possible for LINUX to work as a server. • Graphical User Interface (X Window System) –The powerful framework for working with graphical applications in Linux is referred to as the X Window system (or simply X). X handles the functions of opening X-based GUI applications and displaying them on X server process (the process that manages your screen, mouse, and keyboard). • On top of X, you use an X-based window manager to provide the specific look-and-feel of your GUI (icons, window frames, menus, and colors). There are dozens of desktop managers you can choose from. (Red Hat provides several desktop managers, but focuses on Gnome and KDE.) • Hardware support –You can configure in support for almost every type of hardware that can be connected to a computer. There is support for floppy disk drives, CD-ROMs, removable disks (such as Zip drives), sound cards, tape devices, video cards, and most anything else you can think of. • Networking connectivity –To connect your Linux system to a network, Linux offers support for a variety of Local Area Network (LAN) boards, modems, and serial devices, Ethernet, the most popular protocol TCP/IP (which is used to connect to the Internet). Other protocols, such as IPX (for Novell networks) and X.25 (a packet-switching network type that is popular in Europe), are also available.

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• Network service-Providing networking services to the client computers on your LAN or to the entire Internet is what Linux does best. A variety of software packages are available that enable you to use Linux as a print server, file server, FTP server, mail server, web server, news server, or workgroup server. • Application support- Because of compatibility with POSIX and several different application programming interfaces (APIs), a wide range of freeware.

Exercise 5.1:
Practice the following:
1. Give the general configuration of PC to run LINUX operating system. 2. Is LINUX is a free software? 3. Who wrote LINUX operating system. 4. Mention at least five important features of LINUX system.

5.2 GETTING STARTED Objectives:
After completing this section, you will be able to: • • • • Logon to LINUX system Understand login session Understand shell interface List existing shells

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This section presents a view of Red Hat Linux from the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter that lets you access some of the most critical Red Hat Linux tools. The shell is powerful, complex, and almost completely unintuitive. This section is your guide to logging in and working with Linux system commands, processes, and file system from the shell. This chapter also describes the shell environment and helps you tailor it to your needs. 5.2.1 Logging in to Red Hat Linux Because Red Hat Linux was created as a multi-user computer system, even if you are the only person using the computer, you start by logging in. Logging in identifies you as a particular user. After the computer has been turned on and the operating system has started, you will see a login prompt similar to this: Red Hat Linux release 6.1 (Hedwig) Kernel 2.2.10-3smp on an i686 local host login: The graphical login is typically your entry into the X Window System graphical user interface (GUI).

5.2.2 The login session As you log on, Red Hat Linux starts up a user environment that is unique to your user account. Some of the features that make up your user environment are: • A home directory: The home directory identifies a location on the computer’s hard disk where you can save and protect the files that you need. The root user’s home directory in Linux is usually root(/). Other users typically have home directories in the /home directory. • A shell configuration: There are several shells available for use with Linux, with each having slightly different features. The bash shell (which stands for Bourne Again Shell) is most commonly used with Linux. • A graphical configuration: Most GUIs used with Linux are based on X Windows system (often referred to simply as X). While X 114

provides a framework for a GUI that lets you run applications, it enables you to choose from many different window managers. The window manager provides the specific look and feel of the GUI. Once the login process is complete, either a shell or a GUI is started automatically.

5.2.3 The shell interface Assuming that you are using a shell interface, the first thing you see is the shell prompt. The default prompt for a user is simply a dollar sign: $ The default prompt for the root user is a pound sign: # 5.2.4 Checking Directories and permissions When you first log in to Linux, you begin with your home directory as the current directory. When you request to open or save a file, your shell uses the current directory as the point of reference. To find out what your current directory is, type the pwd command; $ pwd /usr/bin In this example, the current or working directory is /urs/bin. To find out the name of your home directory, type the echo command, followed by the $HOME variable: $ echo $HOME /home/Anand In the above example, the home directory is /home/Anand. To get back to your home directory, you can simply type the change directory (cd) command. $ cd The UNIX system commands cd, ls, which work in the same way in LINUX system.

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5.2.5 Exiting the shell To exit from the shell when you are done, you either type exit or press Ctrl+D. If you are existing from your login shell (the shell that started when you first logged in), type logout to exit the shell.

Exercise 2:
Practice the following:
1. What message will appear on the screen when the LINUX system on. 2. When you login into your account, which prompt appears. 3. Use pwd command to know your current directory. 4. Use cd .. command and then use pwd to know where you are. 5. Type echo $HOME command and then use pwd. 6. Type logout and see the effect. 7. Type exit from login mode and watch the difference with respect to logout.

5.3 LINUX FILE SYSTEM Objectives:
After completing this section, you will be able to: • • • • • • • Know the hierarchy of LINUX file system Create your own directory Use ls command Use cd command Use chmod command Understand file permissions Move files from one directory to another directory

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5.3.1 Working with the Red Hat Linux File system The Red Hat Linux file system is the structure in which all the information on your computer is stored. Files are organized within a hierarchy of directories. Each directory can contain files, as well as other directories. At the top is the root directory, which is represented by a single slash (/). Below that is a set of common directories in the Linux system, such as /bin, /dev, /home, /lib, and /tmp, to name a few. Each of those directories, as well as directories added to the root, can contain subdirectories. bin/ dev/ etc/ home/ root/ tmp/ …

mary/ Anand/ tom/

memos/ briefs/ personal/

Figure 3-1 illustrates how the Linux file system is organized as a hierarchy.

Some of the Red Hat Linux directories that may be of interest to you include the following: • /bin- Contains common Linux user commands, such as ls, sort, date and chmod. • /dev- Contains files representing access points to devices on your systems. These include terminal devices (tty*), floppy disks (fd*), hard disks (hd*), RAM (ram*), and CD-ROM (cd*). (Users normally access these devices directly through the device flies.) • • account. /etc-Contains administrative configuration commands and files. /home-Contains directories assigned to each user with a login

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• /mnt- Provides a location for mounting devices, such as remote file systems and removable devices (cdrom, floppy, and so on). • • processes. • /root-Represents the root user’s home directory. /sbin- Contains administrative commands and daemon

/tmp- Contain temporary files used by applications.

• /usr-Contains user documentation, games, graphical files (X11), libraries (lib), and a variety of other user and administrative commands and files. The files systems in the DOS or MS Windows operating systems differ from Linux file structure. 5.3.2 Creating files and directories You will use some of these commands in the file creation process: • • • • • cd – Change to another current working directory. pwd – Print the name of the current working directory. mkdir – Create a directory chmod – Change the permission on a file or directory ls – List the contents of a directory.

The following procedure steps for creating directories within your home directory, moving among your directories, and setting appropriate file permissions: 1. First, go to your home directory. To do this, simply type cd. 2. To make sure that you got to your home directory, type pwd. When you do this, you get the following response (reflects your home directory): $ pwd /home/Anand

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3. Create a new directory called test by using mkdir command in your home directory as follows: $ mkdir test 4. Check the permission of the directory by typing: $ ls - ld test drwxr-xr-x 2 Anand sales 1024 January 24 12:17 test Notice that this listing says that test is a directory (d), the owner is Aanand, the group is sales, and the file was most recently modified on January 24 at 12:17 p.m. Suppose that you want to prevent everyone else who uses this computer from using or viewing the files in this directory. The permissions for the directory is rwxr-xr-x. The coming section explains what these permissions are. 5. Type the following; $ chmod 700 test This command changes the permissions of the directory to give you complete access and everyone else no access at all. (The new permissions should read like rwx --- ---). 6. Next, make the text directory your current directory as follows: $ cd test 5.3.3 Understanding File Permissions Permissions associated with files and directories in Linux (exactly similar to UNIX) were designed to keep users from accessing other users’ private files and to protect important system files. The nine bits assigned to each file for permissions define the access that you and others have to your file. Permission bits appear as rwxrwxrwx. The first three bits apply to the owner’s permission, the next three apply to the owner’s group, and the last three apply to all others. You can see the permission for any file or directory by typing the ls – ld name command. The name file or directory will appear as those shown in the example below:

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$ ls - ld ch3 test -rw-rw-r-- 1 Anand sales 4983 Jan 18 22:13 ch3 drwxr-xr-x 2 Anand sales 1024 Jan 24 13:47 test Here are some examples of how to change permission on a file and what the resulting permission would be: chmod 777 file names  rwx rwx rwx chmod 755 file names  rwx r-x r-x chmod 644 file names  rw- r-- r— chmod 000 file names  --- --- --When you try to create a file, by default it is given the permission: rw- r-- r--. A directory is given the permission rwx r-x r-x. These default values are determined by the value of umask. Type umask to see what your umask values. For example: $ umask 022

5.3.4 Moving copying and deleting Files Commands for moving, copying, and deleting files are fairly straight forward. To Change the location of a file, use the mv command. To copy a file one location to another, use the cp command. To remove a file, use the rm command. Here are some examples: $ mv abc def $ mv abc ~ $ cp abc def $ cp abc ~ 120

$ rm abc $ rm *

Exercise 5.3:
Practice the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Draw the organization of a LINUX file system Name few subdirectories of root directory What is home directory Work with mkdir, chmod, and ls commands Explain file permissions Watch file permission of any file Work with mv, cp, and rm command

Warning: Do not use rm * command!

5.4 vi TEXT EDITOR Objectives:
After completing this section, you will be able to: • • • • Open a file in vi editor Understand various vi commands Move around the file Search for text

5.4.0 Using the vi Text Editor The vi editor is difficult to learn at first. But once you know it, you will be able to edit and move around files quickly and efficiently. The vi in LINUX System is exactly similar vi in UNIX system.

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5.4.1 Starting with Vi To open a file called /tmp/test, type the following command: $ vi /tmp/test If this is a new file, you should see something similar to the following: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ “ /tmp/test” [New File] To start out, type either of the following input commands: a Add: After you type a you can input text that starts to the right of the cursor. i Insert: After you type i you can input text that starts to the left of the cursor. Type a few words and press Enter. Repeat that a few times until you have a few lines of text. When you are done typing press Esc. Try moving around within that text with the following commands: Arrow keys Use the arrow keys to move up, down, left, or right in the file one character at a time. To move left and right you can also use Backspace and the spacebar, respectively. If you prefer to keep you fingers on the keyboard, use h (left), I (right), j (down), or k (up) to move the cursor. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the next word. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the previous word. Moves the cursor to the end of the current line. Moves the cursor to the end of the current line. Moves the cursor to the upper-left corner of the screen (first line on the screen). Moves the cursor to the first character of the middle line on the screen.

w b 0 (Zero) $ H

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Moves the cursor to the lower-left corner of the screen (last line on the screen).

Vi commands for deleting text: x Deletes the character under the cursor.

X Deletes the character directly before the cursor. dw Deletes from the current character to the end of the current word. d$ Deletes from the current character to the end of the current line.

d0 Deletes from the previous character to the beginning of the current line. Several ways of saving and quitting the file follow: ZZ :w :wq :q Save the current changes to the file and exit from vi. Save the current file but continue editing. Same as ZZ. Quit the current file. This works only if you don’t have any unsaved changes. Quit the current file and DON’T save the changes you just made to the file.

:q!

5.4.2 Moving around the file Other ways of moving around a vi file. Ctrl + f Ctrl + b Ctrl + d Ctrl + u G 1G Page ahead, one pages at a time. Pages back, one page at a time. Page ahead ½ page at a time Pages back ½ page at a time Go to the last line of the file. Go to the first line of the file. (Instead of I, you could use any number to go to that line number in the file.)

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5.4.3 Searching for text To search for the next occurrence of text in the file, use either the slash (/) or the question mark (?) character. Within the search, you can also use metacharacters. / hello ? goodbye / The * foot Searches forward for the word hello. Searches backwards for the word goodbye. Searches forward for a line that has the word The in it and also, after that at some point, the word foot. Searches backward for either the word print or print. Remember that case does matter in Linux, so using brackets is one way to search for words that could have different capitalization:

? [ pP]rint

The vi command was originally based on the ex editor.
5.4.4 Using numbers with commands You can precede most Vi commands with numbers to have the command repeated that number of times. Here are some examples: 3dw Deleting the next three words.

5cl Changes the next five letters (i.e., removes the letters and goes into input mode). 12j Moves down 12 lines.

Exercise 5.4:
Practice the following:
1. Are there any differences, in starting up vi editor in UNIX and LINUX system. 2. Try the inert command i, in both UNIX and LINUX. 3. Move the cursor to end of the current line. 4. Move the cursor to lower left corner of the screen. 5. Move the cursor to the upper-left corner of the screen. 6. Delete from the current character to the end of the current line. 7. Move the cursor ½ page at a time in forward direction. 124

8. Move the cursor ½ page at a time in backward direction. 9. Search for the word ‘hello’. 10. Search for the word ‘the’. 11. Go to the last line of the file. 12. Search backwards for the word ‘hello’.

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