A model is a replica of the teeth and the associated supporting bony
tissue of a jaw, which is prepared from an impression. Die is a positive
reproduction of the form of a prepared tooth in any suitable hard substance
usually in metal or specially prepared artificial stone.
Type of Model/casts
1. Study cast
2. Diagnostic cast
3. re!operative cast
". #efractory cast
$. %nvestment cast
&. 'aster cast
(. )inal cast
1, 2 & 3 * cast made for the purpose of study and treatment planning.
4 & 5 * cast made of a material which will tolerate the temperature used in
casting and soldering.
6 & 7 * are the replica of the prepared tooth surfaces, residual ridges used to
fabricate a dental prosthesis or restoration.
'odel and cast are same, but model is used for e+hibition. An object
formed and poured in a matri+ with any desired material to create positive
li,eness for e+hibition.
Requirements of Model and ie materials
1. Should have accuracy and dimensional stability.
2. Should have a smooth, hard surface which should not easily abrade.
3. Should be compatible with impression material.
". Should have high strength.
$. Should have good colour contrast.
&. Should be cheap.
(. Should be able to manipulate easily and fast.
-. Should be non!injurious to health.
Materials used for models and dies
1. Gypsum products
'odel plaster
Dental stone
%mproved stone
.ypsum bonded investment
hosphate bonded investment
2. Metals
/lectroplated copper
/lectroplated silver
'etal sprayed dies
3. Cements
Silico phosphate cements
4. Polymers and filled polymers
Self curing acrylics
/po+y resins
olyesters and epiamines
5. Ceramics
6. Divestments
Selection of model and die material depends on0
1. 1he impression material used.
2. urpose for which the cast or die is used.
3. 1ime factor involved.
". 'aterials that will be manipulated on the cast or die.
!ompati"ility of impression materials #it$ model and die materials%
1. Gypsum products
%mpression compound
2inc o+ide eugenol
%mpression plaster coated with separating medium
olysulphide rubber base
oly ether rubber base
2. Electroplated copper
%mpression compound
3. Electroplated silver
olysulphide rubber base
Silicone rubber base 4addition type5
oly ether rubber base
4. Epoy !esin
Silicone rubber base
oly sulphide rubber base coated with separator
oly ether rubber base
5. "mal#am
%mpression compound
6. $o% fusin# alloy
oly sulphide rubber base
Silicone rubber base
&. Ceramic
oly sulphide rubber base
Silicone rubber base
Any non!a6ueous impression material
'. (ilicop)osp)ate cement
%mpression compound
*. "crylic or polyester amine
Silicone rubber base
Model Materials
1he most commonly used model materials are gypsum products.
.ypsum is a mineral found as white to mil,y!yellowish mass in nature. %t is
calcium sulphate di!hydrate 47aS8
85. )rom this 47aS8"5
8 i.e.
calcium sulphate hemihydrate is prepared.
Types of $emi$ydrates used in dentistry
1. Dental plaster or plaster of paris.
47alcined hemihydrate or beta hemihydrate5
2. Stone plaster
4Autoclaved hemihydrate or alpha hemihydrate5
3. %mproved stone
4Autoclaved hemihydrate5 * harder variety.
As per American Dental Association specification 9o.2$ gypsum
products are classified as follows0
1. 1ype % laster 4%mpression plaster5.
2. 1ype %% laster 4'odel plaster5.
3. 1ype %%% stone 4Dental stone5 43ydrocal5 * 7lass % dental stone.
". 1ype %: stone 4%mproved stone5 or die stone 4Densite5.
Manufacture of &ypsum 'roducts
(ydrates of !alcium )ulp$ate
'ineral source ;y product of other industries
7alcium sulphate dihydrate, 47aS8
3eat in open vessel
hemihydrate 4beta
. 3
3eat in autoclave
under steam pressure,
hemihydrate 4alpha
hemihydrate or
3eat ground gypsum
in water with small
6uantity of organic
acid or salt in an
autoclave, 1"<=7
hemihydrate 4alpha
3eat in 3<> solution
calcium or
magnesium chloride
7alcium hemihydrate
3eat 13<!2<<=7
3e+agonal calcium sulphate 4soluble anhydrite5 7aS8
3eat 2<<!1<<<=7
8rthorhombic calcium sulphate 4insoluble anhydrite5 7aS8
%n short the reaction is0 27aS8
8 @ 33
laster of paris or beta hemihydrate crystals are spongy, porous and
irregular in shape. Stone plaster or alpha hemihydrate crystals are more dense
and have a prismatic 4rods and prisms5 shape. %mproved stone 4Densite5 has
cubic or rectangular shaped crystals and are the densest hemihydrates.
)ettin* of &ypsum products
Ahen alpha hemihydrate is mi+ed with water, a reaction which is the
reverse of the one occurring during its formation ta,es place and this results in
a much stronger and harder product than obtained when the beta hemihydrate is
mi+ed with water. 1his is mainly because the alpha variety re6uires much less
gauging waterBmi+ing than the beta variety.
+actors determinin* t$e *au*in* #ater
a5 article siCe and particle siCe distribution * smaller the particles
less the gauging water. After manufacture, the hemihydrates are
ground to smaller particles.
b5 Adhesion between the particles if more, less is the gauging water
surface active materials li,e gum Arabic plus lime increase
)ettin* reaction of *ypsum products
1he setting reaction of plaster and stone is e+othermic and the heat
evolved is e6uivalent to the heat used originally in calcination. 1<<gm of
hemihydrate re6uires 1-.& ml water for complete hydration. ;ut the water
re6uirement is more if a wor,able mi+ which can be poured is to be obtained.
1here are two theories regarding the setting reaction0
1. 7rystalline theory.
2. 7olloidal 4gel5 theory.
1he crystalline theory was originated in 1--( by 3enry Douis De
7hatelier and it received fullsupport of Eacobus 3endricus :anFt 3off in 1G<(.
Accordingly the following steps constitute the reaction0
1. Ahen hemihydrate is mi+ed with water, a suspension of the
hemihydrate is formed. 1he mi+ture appears 6uite fluid at this stage.
2. Some hemihydrate then dissolves, the solubility being <.-> at room
3. 1he dissolved calcium sulphate hemihydrate reacts with water and
forms calcium sulphate dihydrate.
". 1he solubility of dihydrate is much less than that of the hemihydrate at
room temperature 4<.">5 and therefore the formed dihydrate is a
supersaturated solution.
$. Since all supersaturated solutions represent an unstable condition, the
calcium sulphate dihydrate crystals precipitate out of the solution to
bring the solution to saturation, which is a stable form. 1he precipitation
or crystalliCation occurs on nuclei of crystalliCation.
&. As the dihydrate precipitates out of the solution, more calcium sulphate
hemihydrate dissolves and follows the same stages until all of the
hemihydrate is converted to dihydrate.
%t is the difference in solubilities of the dihydrate and hemihydrate
which causes the setting of plaster.
1his theory cannot be accepted as such. %t is now ,nown that neither the
hemihydrate nor the dihydrate can e+ist in a dissolved state. 8nly 7a@@ and
Hions and probably various comple+es between these substances and
water can e+ist. Also, in a setting mass of plaster, two centres are recogniCed
dissolution centres around the hemihydrate and precipitation centres around the
dihydrate. 1he calcium sulphate ions travel in solution by diffusion from the
dissolution centres to precipitation centres.
1he gel theory or colloidal theory was originated in 1-G3 by
'.'ichaelis. According to this, calcium sulphate dihydrate e+ists initially as a
dispersed phase of colloidal gel, out of which the gypsum crystals grow.
1he crystalline theory is more acceptable.
1he reaction rate can be followed by the e+othermic heat evolved or the
rise in temperature as a function of the elapsed time. 8wing to the relatively
low thermal conductivity of plaster, the observed temperature rise is li,ely to
lag the actual reaction time to some e+tent. 1he elapsed time before the
e+othermic heat becomes evident and the temperature time curve begins to rise
is ,nown as the Iinduction periodF. 1he crystals formed are characteristically
needle!li,e clusters called IspherulitesF. 1he final rigid structure of the set
gypsum is the result of intermeshing and entangling of the crystals. 1he spaces
between the crystals is initially occupied by the e+cess water used in mi+ing,
containing calcium sulphate in solution.
,ater/'o#der -,/'. Ratio
Aater and hemihydrate should be measured by weight rather than by
volume. 3igher the AB ratio, longer will be the setting time and wea,er the
set gypsum. 1he recommended AB ratios are as follows0
'odel plaster <."$ to <.$$ 4"$ to $$ml water to 1<< gm of powder5
7lass % stone <.3< to <.3$
7lass %% stone <.2< to <.2$
1hese ratios give a wor,able mi+ that can be poured into a mould
without traping air bubbles.
As the porous crystals of plaster soa, up more water, the amount of
gauging water re6uired is more than that of stone.
1he test for the consistency of the gypsum products is called Islump
testF. %t involves mi+ing 1<< gm of powder with water, removing the cylinder
and allowing the mi+ to spread over a glass slab. ;y changing the AB ratio
one can alter the diameter of the slumped mass until it falls within the range
allowed by A.D.A. specification 9o.2$.
)ettin* time
1he time elapsing between the beginning of mi+ing until the material
hardens is ,nown as the setting time.
1he dentist should be able to control this e.g. an impression plaster
should not ta,e too long to set. Setting time is measured by Ipenetration testsF.
1. Jsing .illmore needlesK the smaller needle weighs L lb and has a point
1B12M in diameter. Darger needle weighs 1 lb and has a point 1B2"M in
diameter. 1ime elapsing from start of mi+ing until the point of L lb
needle no longer penetrates the surface on being gently lowered on to it,
is the initial setting time or wor,ing time. 1ime elapsing from start of
mi+ing until the point of the 1 lb needle no longer penetrates the surface
of the set plaster is the final setting time.
2. Jsing :icat needles0 this is used to measure the setting time which is the
time elapsing from the start of the mi+ing until the needle no longer
penetrates to the bottom of the plaster. 1his measures only the intial
setting time.
3. Setting time is also determined clinically by noting the time at which the
gloss disappears 4loss of gloss5 from the surface of the setting plaster.
1he interstices of the crystals withdraw the surface water film by
capillary action to replace water of hydration, when loss of gloss occurs.
1his also coincides with the end of the induction period and the initial
setting time. Ahen the initial setting has occurred, the dentist can begin
wor,ing with the cast without crumbling or distorting it. 1he material
becomes rigid but not hardK it can be carved, but not moulded.
!ontrol of settin* time
1heoretically this is affected by0
1. %ncreasing or decreasing the solubility of the hemihydrate. Ahen
solubility increases, supersaturation of calcium sulphate is greater, rate
of crystalline deposition is increased and setting time lowered.
2. Altering the number of nuclei of crystalliCation. .reater the number of
nuclei faster the setting.
3. Altering the rate of crystal growth.
". ractically, setting time is controlled by the physical or chemical
composition of gypsum or by the method of manipulation by the dentist.
1hese factors include0
1) Impurities
.ypsum can remain if calcination is incomplete or if the manufacturer
adds gypsumK the nuclei of crystalliCation increases in number and setting time
is lowered.
3e+agonal anhydrite lowers the induction period. 8rthorhombic
anhydrite increases the induction period.
2) Fineness
)iner the particle siCe, faster the setting. 1he hemihydrate may be
ground during manufacture to give more solubility due to increased surface
area of plaster and more nuclei of crystalliCation.
3) W/P ratio
'ore the water used, fewer the nuclei per unit volume and longer the
setting time.
4) Mixing
Donger the mi+ing time, and more rapidly it is mi+ed within practical
limits, faster the setting. 1he initial crystals formed get bro,en up by
spatulation and get distributed throughout, increasing the number of nuclei.
/ffect of ,/' ratio and mi0in* time on t$e settin* time of plaster of paris
,/' ratio Mi0in* time -min1. )ettin* time -min1.
4from .ibson and Eohnson E. Soc. 7hem. %nd. 1G325
5) Temperature
Dittle change occurs between <=7 and $<=7. %f the temperature of the
plaster water mi+ e+ceeds $<=7, a retardation of setting reaction occurs. At
nearly 1<<=7, no reaction ta,es place as the solubilities of hemihydrate and
dihydrate are e6ual. At higher temperatures, a reverse hydrate. 4Aorner 3.N.
1G"", I1he effect of 1emperature on the #ate of setting of plaster of parisF.
6) Accelerators an retarers
1he most effective and practical method to control the setting time is the
addition of chemical modifiers to plaster or dental stone. %f the chemical added
decreases the setting time, it is an accelerator. %f it increases the setting time, it
is a retarder. .elatin, blue, agar, gum arabic etc. absorb onto the surface of the
hemihydrate particles and reduce their dissolution. 'ost other salts accelerate
the reaction.
!) "umiit#
3emihydrate is hygroscopic and if stored in open containers, absorb
water and form dihydrate which in small concentrations is an accelerator.
Above <.$!1> the dihydrate increases the setting time.
)ettin* /0pansion
An e+pansion of the plaster mass can be observed during the change
from hemihydrate to dihydrate. 1he e+pansion depends on the composition of
the gypsum product and varies from <.<&> linear to <.$> linear. 1heoretically
however, a contraction or reduction in volume of *(.11> can be calculated.
1he crystals growing from the nuclei not only intermesh but also intercept each
other during growth. 1his impingement of crystals causes stress and the
crystals move in an outward direction to relieve the stress. 1hus an apparent or
observed e+pansion ta,es place even though the true volume of crystals alone
is less. 1his crystal impingement and movement results in the production of
micropores. As e+ternal volume is greater and crystalline volume less, the set
material is porous, the set plaster of paris being more porous than the set stone
8n drying, the e+cess water filling the interspaces of crystals is lost and
the total empty spaces increase. .reater the AB ratio, greater the porosity.
8nly that part of the setting e+pansion which occurs after the initial set
is of interest. Any e+pansion before this is compensated by the fluidity of the
mi+. 1his setting e+pansion can cause warpage at the palatal vault region of
impression plaster, as the tray flanges do not allow lateral e+pansion. 1he
A.D.A. specification 9o.2$ lists ma+imum permissible values of setting
e+pansion of <.3>, <.2> and <.1> for model plaster, stone and improved
stone, respectively.
!ontrol of )ettin* /0pansion
Setting e+pansion is useful in some cases li,e in investment materials to
compensate for the casting shrin,age by mould e+pansion.
Desser the AB ratio and longer the mi+ing time, greater the setting
e+pansion. Addition of chemicals can control the setting e+pansion.
2nti /0pansion solution -21/1 )olution.
Jsed to decrease setting e+pansion of impression plaster.
otassium Sulphate ">
;ora+ <."!1>
AliCarin red <.<"> 4igment5
)lavouring agent
&''ect o' W/P ratio an mixing time on setting expansion o' plaster o' paris
,/' ratio Mi0in* time -Min1. )ettin* e0pansion -3.
T$eory of 2ccelerators and Retarders
1hey generally decrease the setting e+pansion. Sodium chloride in
concentrations up to $> is an accelerator but in concentrations of 2<> or
above, is a retarder. 1he 9a7l crystals which form initially deposit on the
nuclei of crystalliCation thus retarding further crystalliCation. 1his is called
Inuclei poisoningF.
Sodium sulphate is also an accelerator in lower concentrations and a
retarder in concentrations above 12>.
otassium sulphate is the most commonly used accelerator which
decreases the setting time in any concentration. %n concentrations of 2!3> or
above, the reaction product is IsyngeniteF N
8, which crystalliCes
very rapidly. A 2> solution of N
in water is an e+cellent accelerator. 1his
reduces the setting time of plaster from appro+imately 1< minutes to about "
;ora+ is a retarder in any concentration, as it forms insoluble calcium
borate which causes poisoning of nuclei.
owdered gypsum and he+agonal anhydrite are accelerators.
8rthorhombic anhydrite, agar, blue, gum arabic etc. are retarders.
#eduction of setting e+pansion noticed with modifiers is effected either
by a change in crystalline form of the dihydrate or an initial rate of
crystalliCation so rapid the subse6uent growth is resisted by early formation of
a rigid frame wor,.
Dried blood, saliva and most colloidal gels li,e alginate citrates, acetates
and borates are retarders. %mpressions should be thoroughly rinsed in cold
running water to remove traces of blood and saliva, before the impression is
(y*roscopic )ettin* /0pansion
%f setting is allowed to occur under water, setting e+pansion may be
more than doubled in magnitude. Jnder the water, additional room for crystal
growth is permitted. %n normal setting in air, water around the hemihydrate
particles is reduced by hydration and the particles are drawn more closely
together by the surface tension of water. ;ut such limitation of crystal growth
is not there in hygroscopic setting as the water is again replenished from the
normal setting e+pansion as well as the hygroscopic setting e+pansion.
3ygroscopic setting e+pansion affects the accuracy of dentures
fabricated on such casts, but this e+pansion is utiliCed in the fabrication of
accurate cast restorations with type %% gypsum investments.
7ompressive strength is more important than the tensile strength.
Strength increases rapidly as mateial hardens after initial setting.
1wo strengths are recogniCed * wet strength and dry strength. Aet
strength or IgreenF strength is the strength when e+cess water is left in the set
plaster. Dry strength is the strength when e+cess water is lost by drying. Dry
strength is 2 or more times the wet strength. 7ompressive strength is inversely
proportional to AB ratio, but tensile strength is directly proportional to it.
ADA specification 9o.2$ recommends the 1 hour compressive strength as
laster 12-<psi
Dental stone 2G-<psi
%mproved stone "G-<psi
Dry compressive strength increases with mi+ing time up to one minute
and then decreases as the gypsum crystals are bro,e up.
Accelerators and retarders lower both wet and dry strengths. )or
optimum properties, plaster or stone should be left to hydrate for one hour and
then dried to constant weight at "$=7.
)urface (ardens
3igher the compressive strength, greater the surface hardness. 3ardness
increases from the time of mi+ing until hydration is complete. )rom then it
remains constant till most of the e+cess water is lost by evaporation, after
which it increases again. Soa,ing the gypsum dies or casts in water, glycerin or
oils do not improve the surface hardness, but ma,e the surface so that the wa+
carver will not cut the stone as it glides over the surface. Surface hardness of
set plaster can be improved by dipping the cast in 2> bora+ solution for several
hours. 1his treatment is not effective for dental stone.
2"rasion Resistance
3igh abrasion resistance is desirable in dies and models. %mproved
stones have the highest abrasion resistance and dental plaster the least. 8ils
give smoothness as mentioned previously.
&ypsum 'roducts 4 Tec$nical !onsiderations
Dental stone contains added colouring matter to distinguish from
impression plaster and plaster of paris. otassium sulphate an accelerator and
sodium citrate, a retarder, are added to ma,e the stone IbalancedF, to provide a
setting time of $!- mins setting e+pansion of stone is limited to <.<&!<.12>.
7lass % stone is 3ydrocal, and 7lass %% stone is Densite or %mproved stone.
7lass % stones are used for ma,ing casts and 7lass %%, for dies 4hence called Idie
A smooth mi+ that can be easily poured should be made. 1he AB ratio
is adjusted accordingly by weighing.
A fle+ible rubber or plastic bowl which has a parabolic shaped innerwall
and a stiff!bladed spatula with rounded tip is used. Air bubbles wea,en the cast
and should be avoided in the mi+. 1he powder is sifted into the water and
allowed to stand for 3< seconds. ;ris, spatulation is done for 1!2 mins. Jntil a
uniform slurry consistency is obtained. Air bubbles are removed by placing on
a vibrator or tapping the bowl on table top, or by mi+ing in vacuum using a
:ac!J!:ester. A mechanical spatulator can also be used.
A laboratory plaster spatula can be modified so that it can be attached to
the vibrating handle of an electric tooth brush, to provide a bubble free mi+.
4'acro A.;. ontual, E. ros. DentK Ean. 1G-$5.
!onstruction of t$e cast
3 methods are there0
1. A beading wa+ is placed 1B2O below the periphery on the outer side of
the impression. A longitudinally cut modeling wa+ strip is adapted
around the impression and fused to the beading. 1his procedure is called
Ibo+ingF. 9ow the impression is poured without trapping air bubbles.
2. 1he impression is poured as usual. After the initial set, some plaster is
mi+ed and piled onto a glass plate and the cast inverted onto it to form a
3. 1he impression filled with stone is invested and placed in a rubber
mould called base former into which freshly mi+ed plaster has been
1he cast is removed after "$ to &< minutes. Ahen setting is complete.
.ypsum products are stored in air tight containers to ward off humidity.
/+amples of currently available gypsum model and die materials
Manufacturer Model 'laster ental stone 5mpro6ed stone
'odern materials
manufacturing 7o.
Nerr corporation
#anson and
#andolph 7o.
7oe Daboratories
'odel plaster orthodontic
plaster lab plaster
Snow white plaster 9o.1
'odel plaster
'odel plaster
A 8rthodontic grade
Daboratory plaster
Denstone Snow
white stone
#apid stone
8rthodontic stone
7oecal buff Dab
orthodontic stone
Die! stone
Duroc .lastone
Sil,y #oc,
ie Materials
1( )ie stone
1his is type %: gypsum or 7lass %% stone or Densite and is most
commonly used.
a. #elatively ine+pensive.
b. /asy to use.
c. 7ompatible with most impression materials.
d. .ood reproduction of surface details.
e. Dimensional accuracy * a line less than 2< microns in width can
be reproduced accurately.
a. oor abrasion resistance and strength.
b. oor refractoriness of the dies.
Abrasion resistance can be increased by nearly 1<<> by using gypsum
hardeners li,e colloidal silica instead of water while mi+ing. 3ardness is not
increased significantly by this. 41ores,og S., hilips #.A. et al, Iroperties of
Die 'aterials! A 7omparative StudyF5.
%mpregnation of gypsum by a polymer * polyester, polystyrene acrylics
and epo+y resins can increase the abrasion resistance. %ncorporation of wetting
agents such as lignosulphonates reduces the amount of gauging water,
increasing the hardness and strength.
Ahen the surface is treated with resins without proper precautions, an
increase in thic,ness of 1< microns or more results leading to inaccuracy of the
stone die.
Met$ods of alterin* die dimensions
%f less setting e+pansion is desired, potassium sulphate 4accelerator5 and
bora+ 4retarder5 are added to the gauging waterK this limits the setting
e+pansion to <.<1>.
Sometimes a die slightly larger than the prepared tooth is desired to
compensate for casting shrin,age of metallic crowns etcK and to provide a
uniform space for the luting cement between the prepared tooth and the cast
restoration. 3ere colloidal silica may be used in the gauging li6uid, or surface
application of resins is done.
A larger die is also obtained by dipping the die first in benCoyl pero+ide
and then in ;%S.'AB1/.'A 4;is!.'A 0 ;isphenol A .lycidyl
'ethacrylate5 monomer containing tertiary amine. Jnder standardiCed
conditions the polymeriCed resin coats the die surface to a depth of 3< microns.
4Eorgensen N.D. and )iwger A. * IDie Spacing 1echni6ue ;y Diffusion
Die spacing prevents the layer of luting cement from interfering with the
complete seating of an otherwise precisely fitting casting. 1his is usually
achieved by coating the gypsum die with resin, paint! on li6uids, model paint,
coloured nail polish or thermoplastic volatile solvents to about <.$ mm of the
margin of the dieK the margin is not coated.
8ils, li6uid soap, detergents etc. are used as separators which facilitate
removal of wa+ pattern from the stone die.
2. Amalgam )ies
'odel amalgam is similar to silver amalgam used for fillings. 'odel
amalgam is used to ma,e hard metal dies which reproduce fine details and
sharp margins from compound impression of prepared teeth. Amalgam dies
cannot be made in hydrocolloid impressions as they will not withstand the
condensation pressure. After pac,ing the impression with amalgam the die can
be removed after a minimum of 12 hours, by gently warming the compound.
As amalgam and other metal dies are good conductors of heat, softened
wa+ applied to them cools rapidly. 1his may produce internal stresses which
may distort the wa+ pattern after removal from the die. Sudden cooling of wa+
may also result in contraction of the wa+ away from the die. 1hese are avoided
by warming the metal die to mouth temperature. A separating agent is needed
as with stone dies.
3( *ilicop+osp+ate cements
2inc silicophosphate cements are used in compound impressions. 1hese
dies are harder than stone dies. owder contains silica and Cinc o+ide and the
li6uid is orthophosphoric acid.
Air bubbles are easily trapped and so a centrifuging device is re6uired to
fill the impression. %t shrin,s on setting and losses water on standing, and so are
not accurateK the surface becomes fragile. Dies can be removed in 1 hour from
the impression.
4( )ies 'orme ,# &lectroeposition o' metal
Some impression materials can be electroplated e.g. impression
composition can be copper plated and elastomeric materials can be silver
a. !opper plated dies
Ahen a model or die is prepared by electroplating, the process is
referred to as IelectroformingF. 7opper dies reproduce fine detail. 9o
dimensional change occurs in electro!deposition, unli,e in dental stone,
amalgam or cement. /lectro!deposited die is tough and has good
strengthK metal restorations can be finished and polished accurately on
these dies.
A copper plating apparatus for dental use consists of a transformer
and rectifier to reduce the line voltage and to convert A7 to D7.
!omposition of /lectrolyte
7opper sulphate crystals ! 2<<gm
7oncentrated sulphuric acid ! 3<ml
henol sulphonic acid ! 2ml
Distilled water ! 1<<<ml
1he surface of the impression is rendered conductive by coating it with
fine particles of copper or graphite. 1his process is called ImetalliCationF. 1he
coated impression is made the cathode 4!ve electrode5 of the plating bath, with
an anode 4@ve electrode5 of copper. 1he copper sulphate in the electrolyte is the
source of copper, sulphuric acid increases the conductivity, phenol sulphonic
acid assists penetration of 7u ions to the deeper parts of the impression. 1o
start with, a current of 1$ma is suitable. 1he current causes dissolution of the
anode and movement of 7u ions from the anode to the cathode. 8nce a thin
layer of copper is deposited, the current can be increased to $<ma. 1he plating
time varies but is usually about 1< hours. Dental stone is then poured into the
plated impressionK when it has set, the metal covered die can be removed from
the impression.
1his techni6ue is not suitable for elastomeric impression materials as
they are not dimensionally stable in an acid solution.
". )il6er plated dies
olysulphide and silicone impression materials can be silver
plated by the same techni6ue as above, e+cept0
i. 1he impression is coated with silver or graphite powder.
ii. 1he anode is pure silver.
iii. 1he electrolyte is an al,aline solution of silver cyanide, with
the following composition0
Silver cyanide 3& gm
otassium cyanide &< gm
otassium carbonate "$ gm
Distilled water 1<<< ml
Al,aline silver baths soften the surface of impression compound and
hence are not compatible with it.
1he silver electrolyte is poisonous and e+treme care must be ta,en not to
contaminate the hands, wor,bench and clothing with it. Accidental contact of
solution with any acid 4pic,ling acid or acid copper sulphate solution5 produces
hydrogen cyanide, and e+tremely poisonous gas. 1he bath should be well
covered and the room well ventilated. /lectro!deposition should be done for 12
to 1$ hours.
'ro"lems in sil6er platin*
a5 +aulty conduction
Ammeter may show the reading but the impression does not plate, or
plates irregularly or very slowly. 1his may be due to short circuiting of the
wires in the solution.
b5 E)austed solution
lating is very slow and the deposit is discoloured. #eplace with fresh
c5 A ceramic material, supplied as powder and li6uid and
mi+ed into a putty!li,e consistency. After 1 hour the material is removed
from the impression and fi+ed at &<<=7 for - mins. 1o produce a hard
strong die.
Dies with well defined margins can be produced 6uic,ly. 1he material is
strong and abrasion resistant but e+pensive, and the short wor,ing time may be
-) )i.estment
%t is a die stone!investment combination in which the die material and
investing medium have a comparable composition. Divestment is a commercial
gypsum!bonded materialK it is mi+ed with colloidal silica li6uid. 1he die is
made from this mi+ and the wa+ pattern constructed on this. 1hen the entire
assembly 4die and pattern5 is invested in the divestment, thereby eliminating
the possibility of distortion of the pattern upon removal from the die or during
the setting of the investment. 1he setting e+pansion of the material is <.G> and
the thermal e+pansion is <.&> when heated to &((=7.
Since Divestment is a gypsum bonded material, it is not recommended
for high fusing alloys, as used with metal ceramic restoration. 3owever, it is a
highly accurate techni6ue for use with conventional gold alloys, especially for
e+tra!coronal preparations.
1. Aorner 3.N. 0 1he effect of temperature on the rate of setting of plaster
of paris, 1G"".
2. 'acro A.;. ontualK E..D., 1G-$.
3. 1ores,oy S., hilips #.A. et al 0 roperties of Die materials * A
comparative study.
". S,innerFs Science of Dental 'aterials.