THE GASTROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SAMPAGUITA (J asminum sambac

)
AGAINST INDOMETHACIN-INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN RATS




A Thesis
Presented to the
Department of Pharmacy
College of Allied Medical Professions
Angeles University Foundation



In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN PHARMACY



By:
DIANA ROSE D. ANUSENCION
PAULINE ANDRĒI S. AYSON
GIZELLE ERIKA R. BUSTOS
OLYSA NICARE C. MANDANI
RICHELLE O. SANCHEZ


March 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researchers would like to extend their gratitude to the following persons for
serving as their inspiration and guide throughout the span of the study:
Mr. Rashlee Aibert Manalang, for always helping the researchers through guiding
them with the written manuscript and never failed to give the researchers determination;
Ms. Irene Jane Montoya and Ms. Rodella Salas, for all the understanding they
have imparted and for guiding, sharing their expertise and suggestions and
encouragement to the researchers and enough encouragement to finish the study;
Dr. Estelita Cayabyab and the Faculty of Pharmacy, for giving the researchers
advice as they consult about certain matter and for sharing their knowledge;
Mr. Richard Ryan Mergal for understanding and allotting his time to guide the
researchers in their statistical analysis and findings;
The parents of the researchers, for showering them with affection, and love for
supporting them mentally, emotionally and financially all throughout their study;
The researchers’ colleagues, for their unending support; and
Most importantly, to God Almighty, who gave the researchers guidance, strength,
knowledge, determination, and perseverance throughout their lives especially in the
duration of their study.





ABSTRACT

Jasminum sambac is popularly known in the Philippines as Sampaguita. In
folkloric medicinals, J.sambac which is a flowering plant from the family Oleaceae, is
used as treatment for several diseases. Its leaves are primarily used for fever, coughs
and colds, lactifuge, sprains, fractures and ulcers.
This study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of J. sambac leaves against
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induced gastric ulcers in rats. Healthy
and randomized rats was grouped into seven, orally treated with Indomethacin as the
ulcerant group, groups of 62.5mg/kg, 125mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg extract as the
experimental groups, Omeprazole as the positive control and no treatment group which
serves as the control group. Upon oral and experimental processes, the rats were
examined for a week and sacrificed on the 7
th
day. Gastric ulcerations from the stomach
of rats were observed by gross necropsy.
Gross necropsy results showed significant difference in gastroprotective activity.
The researchers found out that 500 mg/Kg concentration have gastroprotective effect
which has a comparable result with the positive control, Omeprazole (20 mg/kg). The
results from the negative control, Indomethacin 100 mg/kg showed that 2 of the test rats
were found with severe ulcer/streaks as well as erosion in the gastric mucosa with 1 of
the rats showing perforation. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg), on the other hand, managed to
prevent the appearance of perforations, erosions and severe ulcer or streaks. This
shows that as the concentrations get higher there is a higher gastroprotective effect and
closer action to that of the positive control.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………… i
Approval Sheet …………………………………………………………………………….. ii
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………………. iii
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………... iv
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………….. v
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………….. vi
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………. vii
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………... 1
Background of the Study ………………………………………………………….. 1
Statement of the Problem ……………..…………………………………………..
Null Hypothesis ………….………………………………………………………….
3
3
Significance of the Study ………………………………………………………….. 3
Scope and Delimitation ……………………………………………………………. 4
Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………. 4
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES ……………………… 6
The Plant Material ………………………………………………………………….. 6
Folkloric Uses ………………………………………………………………. 8
Phytochemical Characteristics ……………………………………………. 9
Overview of Gastric Ulcer …………………………………………………………. 10
Treatment and Management of Gastric Ulcer Activity …………….…… 11
III. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY …………………………………. 15
Research Design …………………………………………………………………… 15
Research Methods …………………………………………………………………. 15
Plant Collection and Extraction …………….…..……………………….. 15
Test for Gastroprotective Effect……………..……………..……………. 16
Gross Necropsy………………………...…………………………………. 18
Statistical Treatment…..………………………………………………….. 20
IV. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA …….…… 21
The Plant Extract …………………………………………………………………... 21
Gastroprotective Screening of Flavonoids, Saponins and Tannins…………. 22
Solvent Testing …………...……………………………………………………….. 23
GastroprotectiveEffect….………………….……………………………………… 24
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS… 28
Summary of Findings ……………………………………………………………… 28
Conclusions ……………………………………………………….………………... 29
Recommendations ……………………………….………………………………… 30
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………………………. 31
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………. 35
A. Certificate of Plant Authentication ……………………………………………………. 35
B. Documentation for Plant Preparation and Extraction……………………………….. 36
C. Documentation for Procurement and Physiological Adjustment of Rats ……...…. 37
D. Experimental Procedure……………………………………………………..………... 39
E. Gross Necropsy…………………………………………..……………………………. 40
F. Ulcerations of Stomachs……………………………………………………………….. 41
G. Computation of Doses………………………………….……………………………… 42
H. Certification of Gross Necropsy ………………………………………………………. 46
I. Letter Seeking Permission………………………………………………………...…... 47
J. English Critic Certification……………………………………………………………… 48













LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
2.1 Phytochemical Screening of JasminumsambacLeaves 10
3.2 Ulcer Score and Descriptive Observation 20
4.1 Phytochemical Screening Results of Crude Leaf Extract 22
4.2 Gross Necropsy Result 24
4.3 Gastroprotective Property of Jasminumsambac 25














LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
2.1 The Leaves and Flowers of Jasminum sambac 7
3.1 Flowchart of the Extraction Procedure 17
3.2 Experimental Procedure 19