Neuroanatomy - 4

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Shift Practical Guide
Circle of Willis - when one blood vessel is blocked, another blood vessel can augment the
circulation.


Artery Notes
Anterior Communicating Connects left/right Anterior Cerebral arteries
Anterior Cerebral (ACA)
Supplies: Medial brain, 1 inch of superior surface;
Blockage: Paralysis of legs
Middle Cerebral (MCA)
Supplies: Dorsolateral brain; Blockage: motor, spastic
paralysis in upper extremities; Left Blockage: aphasia
Internal Carotid Artery
2 Terminal Branches: Middle Cerebral (larger), Anterior
Cerebral (smaller)
Posterior Cerebral (PCA)
Supplies: Area posterior to parieto-occipital sulcus; infero-
lateral surface of temporal lobe
Blockage: loss of vision
Basilar
Union of 2 Vertebral Arteries @ Ponto-medullary junction
Terminal Branch: Posterior Cerebral Artery
Pontine Arteries Small
Vertebral Branch of Subclavian



Artery Notes
Superior Cerebellar (SCA) Supplies: Superior lobe of Cerebellum
Anterior Inferior Cerebellar (AICA) Supplies: Anterior Inferior Cerebellum
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar (PICA) Largest branch of vertebral


Dural Reflections/Sinuses


Dural Reflection Notes
Falx Cerebri
Midline, vertical, sickle-shaped reflection; occupies longitudinal fissure  corpus callosum;
divides supratentorial compartment into right/left cerebral hemispheres
Superior Margin: Superior Sagittal Sinus
Inferior Margin: Inferior Sagittal Sinus
Tentorium Cerebelli
Horizontal; between the cerebellum and occipital lobe; divides cranial cavity into
supratentorial/infratentorial; Open end free due to attachment of brainstem;
Falx Cerebelli Small dural reflection, between the postero-superior portions of the cerebellar hemispheres
Diaphragma Sellae
Covers sella turcica of the sphenoid bone; separates pituitary gland from the hypothalamus and
optic chiasm; cavernous sinus is the space found here.


Dural Sinuses - Separations of the 2 layers of the dura mater. Venous sinuses receive blood from the veins draining the brain and
flows from venous sinuses  internal jugular vein
Dural Sinus Notes
Superior Sagittal
Receives tributaries from the nasal veins, terminates at confluence; region where CSF is drained
to join general circulation
Inferior Sagittal Opens into the straight sinus
Straight
Junction of tentorium and falx; Formed by the union of the Inferior Sagittal sinus + Great vein of
Galen
Transverse
Posterior portion of tentorium cerebelli; receives blood from the confluence; continues as
sigmoid sinus.
Sigmoid Terminate at the jugular foramen; continues as the internal jugular veins
Occipital Roof of the falx cerebella; empties into the confluence of the sinuses.
Superior Petrosal
Antero-lateral portion of tentorium cerebelli; Terminates at internal juglar vein; in petrous
portion of temporal bone
Inferior Petrosal Drains into internal jugular vein; in petrous portion of temporal bone
Confluence of Sinuses Meeting point of superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, occipital sinus, straight sinus

Ventricular System


Ventricle Roof Floor Wall Notes
Lateral
Terminates at Foramen of Monroe;
drains into 3
rd
ventricle
CSF produced by choroid plexus
3
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Ventricle
Tela Choroidea Midbrain Tegmentum Front – Lamina Terminalis
Lateral – Hypothalamus/thalamus
Tela Choroidea = Pia mater + ependyma
Choroid Plexus = Tela Choridea + BV
Iter / Sylvian Aqueduct Located in midbrain
4
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Ventricle
Sup/Inf medullar velum Rhomboid Fossa Cerebellar Peduncles Forms posterior surface of pons and
medulla
Foramen of Magendie (Medial)
Foramen Luschka (Lateral)
Corpora Quadrigemina
Path of CSF: Lateral Ventricle  through Forman of Monroe  3
rd
Ventricle  Iter / Sylvian Aqueduct  4
th
Ventricle  through Foramen of Magendie & Luschka 
Subarachnoid Space (Cisterna Magna)  Arachnoid Villi (Superior Sagittal Sinus) Confluence  Transverse  Sigmoid  Internal Jugular Vein
Communicating Hydrocephalus – free communication between the ventricles and subarachnoid space. Obstruction to flow of CSF.
Non-communicating Hydrocephalus – CSF in ventricular system cannot reach subarachnoid space; obstruction in flow of CSF in the foramen of Monroe, Iter, Foramen of
Magendie and Foramen of Luschka