1. A 2.

4GHz 2Mb/s digital PLL-based transmitter for
802.15.4 in 10nm !M"#
A fully integrated 2.4GHz transmitter for 802.15.4 based on a digital ΣΔ fractional!
"## is $resented. A selfcalibrated t%o$oint modulation sc&eme enables modulation
rates muc& larger t&an t&e loo$ band%idt&. An o'ersam$led 1bit (uantizer is used as a
$&ase detector) reducing s$urs and nonlinearity associated %it& some *+,based digital
"##s. *&e $rototy$e ac&ie'es an -./ modulation rate of 2-b0s) deli'ers 2d1m of
out$ut $o%er) and is free of inband fractional s$urs. *&e transmitter) im$lemented in
120nm ,-3.) consumes 14m5 from a 1.26 su$$ly and occu$ies an acti'e area of
2. $%nami& band'idt( ad)*stment of an +, all-digital
8ecent ad'ances in digitization of 89 fre(uency synt&esizers for %ireless radios &a'e
resulted in alldigital "## :A+"##; arc&itectures t&at en<oy &ig& $recision and
re$eatability of t&eir c&aracteristics) as %ell as &ig& reconfigurability and re
$rogrammability features of digital logic. .o far) only semistatic o$eration manner of
t&ese features &a'e been e=$loited. 5&ile) for e=am$le) t&e transfer function of t&e
A+"## can be $recisely establis&ed) t&at setting is intended to be essentially constant
t&roug&out t&e missionmode o$eration. >n t&is $a$er) %e $ro$ose a dynamic manner of
t&e A+"## transfer function ad<ustment) %&ic& could be used) for e=am$le) to increase
t&e loo$ band%idt& due to &ig& instantaneous e=cursion of a modulating data.
?=$eriments confirm its $otential and feasibility.
. Lo'-noise fra&tional-- PLL design 'it( mi.ed-mode
tri/le-in/*t L! 0!" in 15nm !M"#
*&is $a$er $resents a lo%noise ΔΣ fractional! "## utilizing a mi=edmode tri$lein$ut
#, 6,3. An analog dual$at& 6,3 control rela=es t&e nonlinearity $roblem of t&e ΔΣ
fractional! "##) %&ile a combination of discrete and continuous tuning met&ods for
coarsetuning control significantly alle'iates t&e noise cou$ling $roblem caused by t&e
&ig& gain coarsetuning $at&. A 2.7 GHz ΔΣ fractional! "## im$lemented in 75 nm
,-3. e=&ibits nearly 100 d1c0Hz inband noise contribution and 52 d1c inband
fractional s$ur $erformances from a 1.8 GHz carrier.
4.A 100-000MHz2 *// do'n-&on3ert2 425d6m 77P2 1d6
-,2 a&ti3e mi.er 'it( integrated fra&tional-- PLL and
*&is $a$er $resents a broadband) &ig&dynamic range) acti'e mi=er %it& integrated "##
and 6,3. *&e synt&esizer uses a $rogrammable integern0fractionaln "## to generate
an #3 signal %it& an inband $&ase noise 93- of 222 d1c0Hz0Hz. *&e 1002000 -Hz
acti'e mi=er can be configured for u$ or do%n con'ersion. *&e mi=er@s linearity can be
boosted from A25 d1m to A2B d1m by increasing t&e bias current) and o$timized for a
%ide range of in$ut fre(uencies t&roug& a 'ariable ca$acitor setting. +esigned in .iGe
0.25 Cm 1i,-3.) t&e entire c&i$ occu$ies 5.84 mm
and consumes 250 mA from a 5 6
5. A 3ariable gain lo'-noise am/lifier 'it( noise and
nonlinearit% &an&ellation for $06 a//li&ations
A 'ariable gain lo%noise am$lifier :#!A; 89>, %it& noise and nonlinearity cancellation
is de'elo$ed in 0.18DEm ,-3. tec&nology. *&is 'ariable gain #!A is designed for t&e
need of lo% $o%er consum$tion and &ig& $erformance in +61 a$$lications. *&e 'ariable
gain #!A ac&ie'es t&e ma=imum gain of B.214.4 d1 from 50 -Hz to 870 -Hz) %&ic&
also $ro'ides t&e dynamic range more t&an 20 d1. *&e in$ut and out$ut return losses less
t&an 5.7 d1 and 10 d1) res$ecti'ely. *&e su$$ly 'oltage is 1.8 6 and $o%er
consum$tion is 1B.8 m5. 5it& t&e success of cancellation) t&e 'ariable gain #!A %it&
ma=imum gain &as t&e measured noise figure of 2.52.5 d1 and t&e measured 3>"
of 10
14 d1m from 50 -Hz to 870 -Hz. *&e c&i$ area of t&e im$lemented 'ariable gain #!A
89>, is 0.48FG0.85 mm
5.A #*b 10 !M"# L-A dedi&ated to 802.11b/g
a//li&ations 'it( self-test 8 (ig( reliabilit%
A lo% noise am$lifier designed in a 0.12 mum ,-3. tec&nology) %&ic& &as selftest and
&ig& reliability ca$abilities) is $resented. .uc& a #!A could be used in t&e design of
frontend of critical nodes in %ireless local area net%orHs to ensure t&e data transmission.
*&e test of t&e #!A is based on a builtin self test met&odology t&at $ermits to monitor
its be&a'ior and its reliability is ensured by t&e use of redundancies. *&e #!A %orHs
under a 0.B 6 su$$ly 'oltage and t&e test c&i$ &as c&aracteristics suitable for 802.11 b0g
a$$lications. "arametric faults are in<ected and detected t&at demonstrate t&e efficiency of
t&e 1>.* circuitry. .%itc&ing on eac& redundant blocH &as $ro'en t&at t&e #!A Hee$s its
1.A 12 m92 :.5 GHz 6and'idt(2 7nd*&tor-less !M"# L-A
for Lo'-Po'er2 Lo'-!ost2 M*lti-#tandard +e&ei3ers
A resisti'e feedbacH #!A is $resented based on a currentreuse transconductance
boosting tec&ni(ue t&at reduces t&e $o%er consum$tion to 12 m5. >t &as a gain of 21 d1
and a noise figure of 2.7 d1 at 5 GHz. *&e #!A ac&ie'es an out$ut>"2 of 12.2 d1m at 5
GHz by reducing loo$gain rolloff and by im$ro'ing linearity of indi'idual stages. *&e
acti'e die area of 0.012 mm is t&e lo%est re$orted for an #!A.
A Hig(l% Linear 6roadband !M"# L-A ;m/lo%ing -oise
and $istortion !an&ellation
*&is $a$er $resents a broadband 'ery lo% 2
order intermodulation inductorless lo%
noise am$lifier :#!A; im$lemented in 0.12 mum ,-3. tec&nology. *&e #!A consists
of a commongate in$ut stage for %ideband im$edance matc&ing) follo%ed by t%o
$arallel common source am$lifiers %&ic& $erform noise and distortion cancellation.
*&irdorder distortion due to am$lifier@s secondorder interaction is furt&er minimized by
em$loying a lo% secondorder distortion "-3.0!-3. in$ut $air. *&is #!A ac&ie'es
A17 d1m >>"
in bot& t&e B00 -Hz and 2 GHz bands. *&e #!A maintains minimum
internal gain 14.5 d1) noise figure belo% 2.7 d1 from 800 -Hz2.1 GHz %&ile dra%ing
11.7 mA from a su$$ly of 1.5 6.
A Lo' $istortion ,M <*ner Analog ,ront-;nd 'it( M*lti-
tan( Lo' -oise Am/lifier
A ,-3. analog frontend :A9?; of a fre(uency modulation :9-; tuner is $resented in
t&is contribution. *&e $ro$osed A9? consists of a tunable antenna interface and a
'ariablegain t%ostage lo%noise am$lifier :#!A;. *&e A9? can be tuned to resonate at
9- fre(uencies ranging from 72 -Hz to 12B -Hz. *&e #!A ac&ie'es a smallsignal
'oltage gain ad<ustable from 1.5 d1 to 20.5 d1 across t&e 9- band. 1y em$loying t&e
multitan& design $rinci$le in t&e #!As) t&e linearity of t&e A9? is im$ro'ed by 5 d1
and B d1 in t&e lo% and &ig& gain modes of t&e #!A) res$ecti'ely. *&e %&ole A9? is
fabricated in a *.-, 0.18mum ,-3. tec&nology. >t dra%s ma=imum 5.5 mA current
from a 1.256 su$$ly and occu$ies 0.15 mm
of c&i$ area. 1ot& e=$erimental and
simulation results are $ro'ided to demonstrate t&e $erformance of t&e A9?.
A 2.4 to 5.4 GHz Lo' Po'er !M"# +e&onfig*rable L-A
for M*ltistandard 9ireless +e&ei3er
A ,-3. reconfigurable #!A is re$orted. 1y combination of s%itc&ed inductors and
'aractors it $erforms continuous fre(uency tuning from 2.4 to 5.4 GHz %it& 500 -Hz 2
d1band%idt&. .%itc&ing transistor is used to $ro'ide 'ariable gain control o'er a 12 d1
range. *&e #!A su$$orts standards including 1luetoot&) 5i-AI) J51 mode1) 802.11
b0g and $art of 802.11a. 9abricated in 0.12 um ,-3. $rocess t&e #!A ac&ie'es u$ to 25
d1 $o%er gain) 2.2 d1 noise figure) 1 d1m >>"2 %&ile consuming less t&an 5 m5 from
16 $o%er su$$ly.
A g
-6oosted !*rrent-+e*se L-A in 0.18=m !M"#
+emand for fullyintegrated 89 circuits offering lo% $o%er consum$tion continues to
gro%) along %it& a strong desire for &ig& $erformance. >n t&is $a$er a design t&at
en&ances t&e $erformance of t&e commongate #!A is detailed. *&e noise $erformance
is im$ro'ed t&roug& t&e use of a g
boosting tec&ni(ue) %&ile t&e gain $erformance is
im$ro'ed using currentreuse tec&ni(ues. *&e $ro$osed solution alle'iates t&e issues
related to t&e commonsourcecommonsource currentreuse to$ologies. *&e tec&ni(ue is
'alidated %it& a design in 0.18 mum ,-3.) %it& a 5.4 GHz #!A %&ic& ac&ie'es K20
d1 of gain) L2 d1 !9 and consumes only 2.4 m5 of $o%er.
A 9ide-6and !M"# 0ariable-Gain Lo' -oise Am/lifier
for M*lti-#tandard <errestrial and !able <0 <*ner
A ,-3. %ideband lo% noise am$lifier :#!A; based on t&e current am$lification for
t&e multistandard terrestrial and cable tuner is $ro$osed. ,on'entional %ideband #!As
suffer from t&e tradeoff bet%een noise figure and %ideband in$ut matc&ing. 1y ado$ting
t&e structure combined t&e common source :,.; am$lifier %it& t&e common gate :,G;
am$lifier by t&e current am$lification) t&e noise figure does not &a'e any influence on
%ideband in$ut matc&ing so t&at %e can ac&ie'e lo% noise figure by t&e noise canceling
and e=cellent %ideband in$ut matc&ing at t&e same time %&ile allo%ing some 'ariable
gains. *&e $ro$osed #!A is fabricated in 0.18mum ,-3. $rocess and ac&ie'es a
$o%er gain of A15.5M5.5 d1) an a'erage noise figure of 2.7 d1) an >>"2 of 1 d1m at t&e
ma=imum gain) and .11 of 15 d1. *&e $o%er consum$tion is 50.4 m5 and c&i$ area is
0.54 mm
Lo'-!ost $ire&t !on3ersion +, ,ront-;nds in $ee/
#*bmi&ron !M"#
*&is $a$er re'ie%s arc&itectures and circuit tec&ni(ues suitable for &ig&ly integrated
broadband recei'er frontends. +irect con'ersion sim$lifies t&e recei'er arc&itecture)
resisti'e feedbacH #!As reduce silicon area and current mode $assi'e mi=er o$eration
im$ro'es t&e recei'er linearity and reduces flicHer noise. A 25.8 GHz recei'er frontend
dissi$ating 85 m5 at 5 GHz %&ile occu$ying 0.2 mm
acti'e area is fabricated as a
demonstration of t&e combination of t&ese conce$ts. >t $ro'ides 44 d1 of gain) 2.4 d1
double side band noise figure) 21 d1m i>"2 and 15 d1 of in$ut matc&ing.
A M*lti-band 500MHz/1.8GHz/5.2GHz L-A for
+e&onfig*rable +adio
A multiband B00 -Hz01.8 GHz05.2 GHz lo% noise am$lifier :#!A; %&ic& can o$erate
at mobile band of B00 -Hz and 1.8 G and 5#A! band of 5.2 GHz fre(uency is
$ro$osed. >n$ut matc&ing) noise matc&ing and narro% gain are ac&ie'ed at t&ree
fre(uency bands by ado$ting a s%itc&ed out$ut load and a resisti'e s&untfeedbacH
circuit. *&e $ro$osed #!A is designed in *.-, 0.18 um ,-3. tec&nology %it& a
su$$ly 'oltage of 1.8 6. *&e #!A &as gains of 14 d1) 12 d1 and 17 d1 and noise figures
of 2.2 d1) 2.B d1 and 2.4 d1 at B00 -Hz) 1.8 GHz and 5.2 GHz fre(uency bands)
res$ecti'ely) %&ile dissi$ating $o%er of 4.5 m5 at all fre(uency bands.
A 1.2 02 7nd*&torless2 6roadband L-A in 50 nm !M"# LP
*&is $a$er $resents a no'el broadband) inductorless) resisti'efeedbacH ,-3. #!A. *&e
#!A is designed for t&e fre(uency band 0.4 1 GHz. *&e measured $o%er gain of t&e
#!A is 17 d1 at 1 GHz and t&e 2d1 band%idt& is 2 GHz. A noise figure of 2.5 d1 and
an >>"2 of 14 d1m are measured at B00 -Hz. *&e S11 is better t&an 10 d1 in t&e
fre(uency band from 200 -Hz u$ to 1 GHz. *&e current consum$tion is 14 mA from a
1.2 6 su$$ly. *&e circuit is designed in a baseline ,-3. B0 nm lo% $o%er :#"; $rocess.
A $*al-6and $ire&t-!on3ersion +, ,ront-;nd for
9iMedia >96 +e&ei3er
*&is $a$er describes a directcon'ersion 89 frontend designed for dualband 5i-edia
J51 recei'er. *&e frontend o$erates in band grou$s 1G1 and 1G2. >t includes multi
stage #!As) do%ncon'ersion mi=ers) a $oly$&ase filter for (uadrature local oscillator
:#3; signal generation) and #3 buffers. As targeted for mobile &andset) se'eral issues
related to &ostile en'ironment are taHen into account in t&is design. *&e frontend
ac&ie'es a$$ro=imately 27d1 gain and 4.B to 5.7d1 noise figure :!9; across t&ree
subbands of 1G1. >n 1G2 mode it obtains 22 27d1 gain and 7.B to 4.4d1 !9. *&e
frontend consumes 48.1 mA and 42.4 mA from a 1.26 su$$ly 'oltage in 1G1 and 1G2
o$eration modes) res$ecti'ely. *&e c&i$ %as im$lemented in a 0.12mum ,-3..
A ::-GHz +e&ei3er ,ront ;nd for Passi3e 7maging
A 5ideband 44GHz 9ront ?nd 8ecei'er for "assi'e >maging &as been designed and
c&aracterized. *&is system com$rises a fully differential #!A) doublebalanced mi=er
and 6,3. *&e #!A ac&ie'es 4.B7.0 d1 !9) 1827 d1 gain) and .11) .22 of 12.0 and
12.8 d1) res$ecti'ely. *&e doublebalanced mi=er ac&ie'es 1214 d1 !9) 2027 d1
con'ersion gain and 27 d1m "ld1 :in$utreferred;. *&e 6,3 ac&ie'es out$ut $o%er
from 2 to 0 tl1m %it& $&ase noise of MB2 d1c0Hz at 42 GHz) and a$$ro=imately 2 GHz
of tuning range. *&e recei'er ac&ie'es 4047 d1 ma= con'ersion gain) out$utreferred
"1d1 of 2 d1m and $o%er dissi$ation of 1B5 m5.
A 0.5 0 +e&ei3er in 50 nm !M"# for 2.4 GHz
5e re$ort an ultralo% 'oltage 89 recei'er for a$$lications in t&e 2.4 GHz band)
designed in a B0 nm ,-3. tec&nology. *&e sliding>9 recei'er $rototy$e includes an
#!A) an imagere<ect #, filter %it& singleended to differential con'ersion) an 89 mi=er)
an #, >9 filter) a (uadrature >9 mi=er) 89 and >9 #3 buffers) and an >0N baseband section
%it& a 6GA and a lo%$ass c&annelselect filter in eac& $at&) all integrated onc&i$. >t
&as a $rogrammable o'erall gain of 20 d1) noise figure of 18 d1) outofc&annel >>"2 of
22 d1m) and 27 d1 of onc&i$ image re<ection. *&e 2.4 mm
c&i$ consumes 8.5 m5
from a 0.5 6 su$$ly.
A 0.18-=m !M"# >96 L-A 'it( 5 GHz 7nterferen&e
A ultra%ideband lo% noise am$lifier :#!A; %it& integrated notc& filter for interference
re<ection is designed using 0.18mum ,-3. tec&nology. *&e t&reestage #!A em$loys
a current reuse structure to reduce t&e $o%er consum$tion and a serial #, circuit %it& N
en&ancement circuit to $roduce band re<ection in t&e 57 GHz fre(uency band. *&e load
tanH o$timization for t&e current reuse stage is discussed for gain flatness tuning
-easurements s&o% t&at t&is #!A &as a $eaH gain of 21.5 d1 in t&e lo% band :25 GHz;
and 15 d1 in t&e &ig& band :710 GHz; %&ile consuming 12 mA of current from a 1.8 6
+, su$$ly. *&e measured noise figure :!9; and >>"2 are 4.0 d1 and 18.5 d1m at 2.5
GHz) 5.1 d1 and 15.5 d1m at 4.2 GHz res$ecti'ely. A 712 d1 gain notc& in t&e 57
GHz is realized for interference re<ection.
0 GHz !M"# Lo' -oise Am/lifier
20 GHz lo% noise am$lifier %as designed and fabricated in a B0 nm digital ,-3.
$rocess. *&e mm%a'e am$lifier &as a $eaH gain of 20 d1 at 28.5 GHz and a 2 d1
band%idt& of 2.7 GHz %it& t&e in$ut and out$ut matc&ing better t&an 12 d1 and 14 d1
o'er t&e entire band res$ecti'ely. *&e !9 is 2.B d1 at 28 GHz and less t&an 4.2 d1 across
t&e band and it can deli'er 2 d1m of $o%er to a matc&ed load at its 1 d1 com$ression
$oint. *&e am$lifier &as a measured linearity of >>>"2O4.5 d1m. >t consumes 17.25 m5
of $o%er using a lo% su$$ly 'oltage of 1 6 and occu$ies an area :e=cluding t&e $ads; of
1700 mum = 420 mum.
A #*/er(eterod%ne +e&ei3er ,ront-;nd 9it( "n-!(i/
A*tomati&all% ?-<*ned -ot&( ,ilters
A su$er&eterodyne recei'er frontend %it& onc&i$ automatically Ntuned notc& filters is
$ro$osed. *&e frontend includes a differential #!A and a Gilbert do%ncon'erter) eac&
blocH is cou$led %it& an onc&i$ imagere<ection notc& filter to get &ig& imagere<ection
ratio. *&e notc& filter is formed by one #, net%orH and one negati'eresistance cross
cou$led $air to com$ensate t&e loss of t&e #, net%orH. *&e current t&roug& t&e cross
cou$led $air is automatically ad<usted by a master N tuning circuit so t&at t&e loss of t&e
notc& filter is com$ensated to ac&ie'e a dee$ notc&. *&e master N tuning circuit is an
analogdigital mi=ed signal circuit) and successi'e a$$ro=imation register algorit&m is
used to searc& for t&e o$timum current 'alue. *&e circuit &as been im$lemented in 0.18
um ,-3.) and t&e e=$erimental results s&o% t&at t&e circuit ac&ie'es an image re<ection
ratio of 80 d1 %&ile t&e t%o imagere<ection filters only dra% 222 uA current from a 1.8
6 $o%er su$$ly.
A&(ie3ing 9ideband s*b-1d6 -oise ,ig*re and Hig(
Gain 'it( M"#,;<s if 7n/*t Po'er Mat&(ing is not
A 0.18 mum ,-3. lo% noise am$lifier :#!A; ac&ie'es sub1 d1 noise figure o'er
more t&an an octa'e of band%idt& %it&out e=ternal noise matc&ing com$onents. >t is
designed for a future radio telesco$e) re(uiring millions of c&ea$ #!As mounted directly
on $&ased array antenna elements. *&e s&ort distance bet%een antenna and #!A and lo%
fre(uency belo% 2 GHz allo%s for using an #!A %it& reflecti'e in$ut im$edance)
increasing t&e gain %it& 7 d1. 5it&out any matc&ing net%orH) 'ery lo% noise figure is
ac&ie'ed o'er a %ide band%idt&. At B0 m5 $o%er) sub1 d1 !oise is ac&ie'ed for 50
3mega source im$edance o'er a 0.81.8 GHz band %it&out e=ternal coils) and .21K20
d1) 3>"2K25 d1m and 3>"2K15 d1m. "reliminary results %it& 150 3mega source
im$edance s&o% noise tem$eratures as lo% as 25 / around B00 -Hz.
.1-4.:GHz 9iMedia >96 +,/Analog ,ront-;nd in
10nm !M"#
A &ig&ly integrated transcei'er for 5i-edia J51 a$$lications is $resented.
>m$lemented in 120 nm ,-3. and o$erating from 1.2 6 and 2.5 6 su$$lies) it features
direct con'ersion transmit and recei'e $at&s. *&ree "##s %it& ringoscillator 6,3s are
used in a fast&o$$ing :M2 ns; fre(uency synt&esizer. 3nc&i$ calibration is used by
se'eral blocHs for >0N mismatc&) filter tuning) +, offset cancellation and $o%er control.
*&e transcei'er ac&ie'es a transmit ?6- better t&an 20.7 d1 %&en o$erated in 480
-b$s mode.