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- CongoIese civiI sociely Ieader, Dungu

Dungu, 13 March 2014

Marlin KobIer
Uniled Nalions S¡eciaI Re¡resenlalive of lhe Secrelary GeneraI for lhe Democralic Re¡ubIic of
lhe Congo (DRC) and head of lhe UN SlabiIizalion Mission in DRC (MONUSCO)

Cc: UN Under-Secrelary-GeneraI for Ieacekee¡ing O¡eralions Herve Ladsous
MONUSCO Iorce Commander Lieulenanl GeneraI CarIos AIberlo dos Sanlos Cruz

Rc: Ca!! Inr MONU5CO tn strcngthcn civi!ian prntcctinn and hc!p cnd LRA vin!cncc in
nnrthcastcrn Dcmncratic Rcpub!ic nI Cnngn

Dear Mr. KobIer,

As re¡resenlalives of 59 inlernalionaI and CongoIese human righls and civiI sociely
organizalions, ve are vriling lo you vilh recommendalions on hov MONUSCO couId beller
¡rolecl civiIians and heI¡ end vioIence by lhe Lord's Resislance Army (LRA) in norlheaslern
DRC.

Ior lhe ¡asl 28 years, lhe LRA has allacked communilies in remole ¡arls of cenlraI Africa,
massacring lhousands of civiIians and abducling lens of lhousands of chiIdren inlo lheir
forces. In norlheaslern DRC loday, many civiIians remain lraumalized by a series of LRA
massacres belveen December 2008 and December 2009 in vhich LRA members kiIIed over
1,100 ¡eo¡Ie and abducled over 400 olhers. WhiIe LRA vioIence has decIined in recenl years,
lhe grou¡ conlinues lo ¡ose a ma|or securily lhreal lo civiIians Iiving in Haul UeIe and ßas
UeIe dislricls of DRC's OrienlaIe Irovince and senior LRA officers conlinue lo o¡erale lhere.
In 2013, lhe grou¡ commilled al Ieasl 124 allacks and abducled nearIy 200 civiIians in DRC.
Over 236,000 CongoIese civiIians remain dis¡Iaced by LRA allacks, incIuding nearIy 18,000
vho fIed lo neighboring counlries.

MONUSCO has o¡eraled in LRA-affecled areas since 2005, bul has nol ¡rovided sufficienl
¡roleclion lo civiIians Iiving in lhese areas. WhiIe ve recognize lhal MONUSCO has many
com¡eling demands across DRC, vilh dozens of armed grou¡s res¡onsibIe for allacks on
civiIians in differenl areas, ve beIieve much more couId be done lo beller ¡rolecl civiIians in
LRA-affecled areas vilhoul a significanl de¡Ioymenl of addilionaI resources. Wilh your
Ieadershi¡ and slralegic de¡Ioymenl of avaiIabIe resources, MONUSCO couId ¡Iay a key roIe
in ending allacks by one of Africa's mosl brulaI rebeI grou¡s.

CurrenlIy, MONUSCO ¡eacekee¡ers rareIy risk direcl conlacl vilh lhe LRA, inslead seeking
lo deler LRA allacks lhrough a ¡resence in key lovns and ¡eriodic ¡alroIs aIong roads.
Allem¡ls lo Iink civiIian earIy varning syslems, incIuding a High Irequency (HI) radio aIerl
nelvork, lo ra¡id res¡onse ¡alroIs by ¡eacekee¡ers have been moslIy ineffeclive.

HighIy mobiIe LRA fighlers easiIy ex¡Ioil ga¡s in lhe mission's ¡rediclabIe civiIian ¡roleclion
laclics and reguIarIy carry oul allacks in cIose ¡roximily lo MONUSCO bases. In Augusl 2010,
onIy 500 melers from a UN ¡eacekee¡ing base in Duru, lhe LRA abducled eighl civiIians,
incIuding lhree chiIdren, and Ialer kiIIed lhree of lheir ca¡lives vilh macheles. In a lvo-veek
s¡an in Iebruary 2014, sus¡ecled LRA forces commilled 10 allacks and abducled 11 ¡eo¡Ie
near Nambia, a viIIage |usl 15km norlh of lhe MONUSCO base in Niangara.

There has aIso been insufficienl consuIlalion and sharing of informalion belveen MONUSCO
and CongoIese civiI sociely re¡resenlalives. Many residenls in LRA-affecled areas feeI
fruslraled vilh or indifferenl lo lhe mission's vork. MONUSCO ¡ersonneI are aIso
inconsislenl in conducling lhorough invesligalions inlo re¡orled LRA allacks. As a resuIl,
MONUSCO is oflen Iefl oul of IocaI informalion nelvorks, Iimiling ils abiIily lo anaIyze lrends
in LRA aclivily, undersland lhe lhreals civiIians face, and effecliveIy largel ils resources lo
¡rolecl civiIians.

In addilion, lhe mission's once robusl Disarmamenl, DemobiIizalion, Re¡alrialion,
RehabiIilalion, and Reinlegralion (DDRRR) ¡rogram has Iosl momenlum in LRA-affecled
areas. Il has faiIed lo gain lraclion even lhough recenl LRA defeclors suggesl many fighlers
are disiIIusioned and vanl lo defecl. Many CongoIese communily members feeI lhal lhe
DDRRR leam does nol adequaleIy consuIl vilh lhem vhen designing ¡rograms. The mission
has aIso been sIov lo reacl lo defeclion o¡¡orlunilies, incIuding vhen LRA members indicale
lheir desire lo esca¡e. Ior exam¡Ie, MONUSCO lroo¡s rebuffed a Ugandan LRA combalanl
allem¡ling lo surrender lo lhem severaI limes in A¡riI and May 2013 before he vas finaIIy
vas abIe lo do so in Augusl of lhal year.

ßeIov is a sel of more delaiIed recommendalions on hov MONUSCO couId more effecliveIy
im¡Iemenl ils civiIian ¡roleclion and DDRRR mandales in LRA-affecled areas.

We beIieve lhal vilh MONUSCO's heI¡, il is ¡ossibIe lo end vioIence by lhe LRA in
norlheaslern DRC. We are encouraged by lhe lenlalive bul im¡orlanl ¡rogress in im¡roving
securily in olher ¡arls of easlern DRC, and ve urge you lo simiIarIy revilaIize lhe mission's
vork in LRA-affecled areas.

We vouId be gralefuI for lhe o¡¡orlunily lo meel vilh you lo discuss lhese recommendalions
furlher.

Yours sincereIy,

A/$$ 3#$ $9: )* 3#$ :)(';$93 *)2 3#$ *'77 75&3 )* BC &5D983)2= )2D895E835)9& 89: 2$42$&$938356$&F
Rccnmmcndatinns nn Rcinvignrating MONU5CO's Civi!ian Prntcctinn
and DDRRR EIInrts in LRA-aIIcctcd Arcas

1. Rccstab!ish trust and inInrmatinn sharing with thc !nca! civi!ian pnpu!atinn
RebuiIding a slrong reIalionshi¡ vilh CongoIese civiI sociely Ieaders and IocaI communilies in
LRA-affecled areas is crilicaI lo MONUSCO's abiIily lo deveIo¡, im¡Iemenl, and evaIuale
effeclive civiIian ¡roleclion slralegies. To faciIilale such efforls, MONUSCO shouId increase
lhe number of Communily Liaison Assislanls (CLAs) and MiIilary Observers (MILOßS)
de¡Ioyed lo MONUSCO bases in lhese areas and ensure lhey have an adequale su¡¡orl
slruclure in Dungu.

These ¡ersonneI, vho shouId incIude bolh men and vomen, shouId meel vilh communily
members more frequenlIy, incIuding via IocaI fora such as o¡en-air communily meelings and
focus grou¡s. In addilion lo meeling vilh IocaI governmenl officiaIs and a smaII number of
civiI sociely focaI ¡oinls, lhey shouId consuIl vilh a more a diverse range of communily
members lhal incIudes youlh, eIders, vomen, reIigious Ieaders, and hunlers.

Such consuIlalions, vhich couId be enhanced lhrough reguIar IM radio broadcasls, vouId
aIso heI¡ MONUSCO ¡ersonneI beller ex¡Iain lheir aclivilies and miligale unreaIislic
ex¡eclalions vilhin communilies. MONUSCO's communily oulreach efforls viII aIso im¡rove
if ils ¡ersonneI receive enhanced ¡raclicaI lraining on hov lo consuIl vilh IocaI communilies
and inleracl vilh vomen and olher vuInerabIe grou¡s.

2. 5uppnrt cnmmunity sc!I-prntcctinn initiativcs
Iacing significanl resource conslrainls across lhe DRC, MONUSCO ¡eacekee¡ers aIone are
nol abIe lo consislenlIy ¡rolecl ruraI ¡o¡uIalions in lhe UeIes from highIy mobiIe LRA grou¡s.
Hovever, MONUSCO can significanlIy im¡rove ils su¡¡orl lo communily seIf-¡roleclion
inilialives vilh Iov-cosl, high-im¡acl aclivilies, such as enhancing informalion sharing vilh
civiIians, im¡roving invesligalions of LRA aclivily, and ex¡anding Quick Im¡acl Iro|ecls.

Avareness of ¡allerns in LRA movemenls and allacks can heI¡ civiIians reduce lheir
vuInerabiIily lo lhe rebeI grou¡. MONUSCO ¡ersonneI, ¡arlicuIarIy civiIian slaff and
MILOßs, shouId use meelings of IocaI securily commillees in lovns vhere lhey are de¡Ioyed
lo videIy disseminale informalion aboul lrends in LRA aclivily. MONUSCO ¡ersonneI shouId
aIso more ¡roacliveIy share informalion vilh civiI sociely in lhe more remole communilies
surrounding lheir bases and ex¡Iore vays lo enhance informalion sharing vilh unarmed
civiIian seIf-defense grou¡s.

ßy engaging in such inilialives, MONUSCO ¡ersonneI may find communily members, such as
hunlers, more viIIing lo share informalion aboul LRA allacks, lraveI roules, and cam¡s. As
¡arl of a muluaI exchange of informalion, MONUSCO ¡ersonneI in lhe fieId shouId be
encouraged lo conducl lhorough invesligalions of LRA allacks, incIuding via direcl inlervievs
vilh viclims of LRA allacks and LRA esca¡ees vhenever ¡ossibIe. This informalion can lhen
be anaIyzed logelher vilh informalion lhe mission coIIecls in olher communilies, aIIoving
MONUSCO lo lhen ¡rovide civiIians vilh nev insighls on LRA aclivily lrends lhal can inform
and enhance seIf-¡roleclion slralegies.

In consuIlalion vilh humanilarian organizalions, MONUSCO shouId ex¡and lhe use of Quick
Im¡acl Iro|ecl (QII) funds. QII funds can su¡¡orl lrainings and vorksho¡s in vhich
communily members can reinforce ¡raclicaI slralegies lo minimize lheir vuInerabiIily lo LRA
allacks vhen farming, hunling, and lraveIIing aIong roads. QII funds can aIso be used lo
im¡rove IocaI infraslruclure lhal reduces civiIian vuInerabiIily lo LRA allacks, for inslance by
¡Iacing valer ¡um¡s in more secure areas. MONUSCO ¡ersonneI shouId ensure such ¡ro|ecls
lake ¡arlicuIar accounl of lhe vuInerabiIily of vomen and chiIdren and do nol ¡Iace civiIians
al grealer risk by undermining exisling seIf-¡roleclion slralegies.

3. Ensurc prntcctinn mcasurcs arc tai!nrcd and cnnrdinatcd
Im¡roved informalion sharing vilh CongoIese communilies viII heI¡ lhe ballaIion of
Moroccan ¡eacekee¡ers (MORßAT) de¡Ioyed in LRA-affecled areas execule lheir civiIian
¡roleclion res¡onsibiIilies more effecliveIy. In ¡arlicuIar, communily in¡ul can heI¡ ensure
lhe MORßAT laiIors lheir ¡alroIs lo besl minimize IocaI lhreals lo civiIians, incIuding by
conducling fool and vehicIe ¡alroIs aIong s¡ecific roads and near viIIagers' farms. Togelher
vilh more mobiIe ¡eacekee¡ing unils, such as lhe GualemaIan S¡eciaI Iorces (GUASIOR), lhe
MORßAT shouId aIso res¡ond more quickIy vhen LRA forces re¡ealedIy lhrealen civiIians in
oulIying lovns, as lhey did in Nambia in Iebruary 2014.

MONUSCO Ieadershi¡ shouId aIso im¡rove ils coordinalion vilh lhe CongoIese securily
forces, es¡eciaIIy lhose de¡Ioyed vilh lhe AU RegionaI Taskforce on lhe LRA (RTI), and vilh
US miIilary advisers in Dungu. The }oinl InleIIigence O¡eralions Cenlre (}IOC), vhich
anaIyzes lrends in LRA aclivily and coordinales aII miIilary forces de¡Ioyed in lhe UeIes,
couId ¡Iay a grealer roIe in ¡Ianning ¡eacekee¡er ¡alroIs and de¡Ioymenls. IalroIs are
currenlIy designed IargeIy by MONUSCO Iluri ßrigade ¡ersonneI in ßunia vho are Iocaled far
avay from LRA-affecled areas and are nol as famiIiar vilh LRA aclivily, RTI o¡eralions, and
civiIian vuInerabiIilies. The }IOC can ¡Iay an es¡eciaIIy im¡orlanl roIe in lvo regards: guiding
MONUSCO ¡alroIs lo ensure lhey miligale risks lo civiIians during RTI counler-LRA
o¡eralions and ¡roviding MONUSCO ¡ersonneI in oulIying lovns vilh slralegic informalion
galhering ob|eclives.

CongoIese communilies have aIso ex¡ressed a slrong desire for MONUSCO ¡eacekee¡ers lo
enhance lheir su¡¡orl lo CongoIese army lroo¡s lasked vilh ¡rolecling civiIians in LRA-
affecled areas, incIuding lhrough increased IogislicaI su¡¡orl and |oinl ¡alroIs. If lhey do so,
lhe mission shouId ensure lhal lhese lroo¡s are ¡ro¡erIy screened, according lo lhe guideIines
in lhe UN's Due DiIigence IoIicy, and lhal ¡eacekee¡ers do nol ¡rovide su¡¡orl lo CongoIese
army unils lhal have been res¡onsibIe for serious human righls abuses.

4. Rcvita!izc DDRRR
DDRRR is an effeclive and resource-efficienl melhod of reducing lhe LRA's ca¡acily lo allack
civiIians. MONUSCO shouId increase lhe funding and ¡ersonneI avaiIabIe lo lhe Dungu
DDRRR office, vhich shouId de¡Ioy civiIian slaff allached lo each forvard MONUSCO
de¡Ioymenl. DDRRR ¡ersonneI, ¡arlicuIarIy lhose de¡Ioyed lo lhe fieId, shouId more
frequenlIy consuIl communily members on DDRRR aclivilies, incIuding IeafIels and IM radio
sensilizalion cam¡aigns. They shouId galher informalion from communily members aboul lhe
movemenls and aclivilies of LRA grou¡s, and deveIo¡ ra¡id res¡onse slralegies vhen LRA
defeclion o¡¡orlunilies arise. MONUSCO ¡ersonneI shouId ensure lhal communily members
are nol onIy consuIled, bul have infIuence on lhe im¡Iemenlalion of such inilialives.

DDRRR ¡ersonneI shouId beller coordinale lheir vork vilh defeclion inilialives Ied by NGOs
and lhe US Slale De¡arlmenl and miIilary advisers. They shouId aIso im¡rove lraining for
MONUSCO ¡eacekee¡ers on hov lo recognize signs lhal LRA members are lrying lo esca¡e,
faciIilale lheir surrender, and coordinale vilh DDRRR ¡ersonneI lo ensure lhal ¡eacekee¡ing
¡alroIs do nol inadverlenlIy undermine DDRRR inilialives.

In consuIlalion vilh UN civiIian agencies and humanilarian grou¡s, MONUSCO's DDRRR
leam shouId aIso ¡rovide lechnicaI and maleriaI su¡¡orl lo reinlegrale CongoIese civiIians
defecling from lhe LRA. MONUSCO ¡ersonneI can heI¡ design reinlegralion ¡ro|ecls lhal
acliveIy invoIve hosl communilies, ¡romole economic and sociaI inlerde¡endence, and reduce
communilies' hosliIe alliludes lovards former LRA.

5ignatnry nrganizatinns and rcprcscntativcs
AIrica
1. Aclion Humanilaire }uslice ¡our Viclime
2. Aclion ¡our Ie DeveIo¡¡emenl el Ia Iroleclion Communaulaire (ADIC)
3. Associalion de Taxi Molo Dungu (ATAMOD)
4. Associalion des agricuIleurs de ßangadi
5. Associalion des Iemmes des Nazava ¡our Ie DeveIo¡¡emenl (AIND)
6. Associalions des Mamans de ßangadi
7. Associalions des Mamans de Duru
8. Associalion des Mamans de NgiIima
9. Associalion NalionaIe des Mamans ¡our I'Aide aux Desheriles (ANAMAD)
10. Carrefour |uridique cuIlureI
11. Cenlre de Reinserlion el d'Accom¡agnemenl au DeveIo¡¡emenl (CRAD)
12. CoaIilion CongoIaise ¡our Ia }uslice TransilionneIIe (CC}T)
13. CoaIilion NalionaIe ¡our Ia CII en RDC
14. CoIIeclif des AuxiIiaires Liberaux de }uslice
15. Commission Aulochlone de Lulle conlre Ia LRA: CALL
16. Commission Diocesaine de }uslice el Iaix du Dioece d'Isiro Niangara
17. Commission Diocesaine de }uslice el Iaix du Diocese Dungu Doruma
18. Commission Diocecaine de }uslice, Iaix el ReconciIialion, Diocece AngIicanne d'Aru
19. Congo Aclion ¡our Ie DeveIo¡¡emenl (CAD)
20. Communaule ¡our Ia Iromolion des Humains (CIH)
21. Communicaleurs ¡our Ia Iromolion, Iroleclion el Defense des Droils de L'homme ¡Ius
Ia Ligue des Iemmes Defenseures de droils Humains onl Ieurs sieges au Kasai OrienlaI
(COIIRODDHO ONGDH )
22. Congo en Images (CIM)
23. Dynamique de DeveIo¡¡emenl DurabIe (DDD)
24. Iondalion CongoIaise ¡our Ia Iromolion des Droils de I'Homme el Ia Iaix
25. Iondalion ¡oinl de vue des |eunes africains ¡our Ie deveIo¡¡emenl (II}AD asbI)
26. Iorum des Mamans de I'Iluri (IOMI)
27. Grou¡e d'Associalions de Defense des Droils de I'Homme el de Ia Iaix (GADHOI)
28. Grou¡e LOTUS
29. Inilialive CongoIaise ¡our Ia }uslice el Ia Iaix (IC}I)
30. Inslilul Su¡erieur de Dungu (ISD)
31. }USTICIA AsbI
32. Ia Ligue des femmes defenseures des Droils Humains (LIIIDDH)
33. Ligue des voIonlaires ¡our Ia defense des droils humains (LISVDHI)
34. Ligue NalionaIe Iour Les IIeclions Libres el Trans¡arenles (LINILIT)
35. Ligue ¡our Ia Iromolion el Ie DeveIo¡¡emenl InlegraI de Ia Iemme el de I'Infanl
36. Mama Tiya MoIende (MTM)
37. ONGDH }uslice IIus
38. O¡lion ¡our Assisler Ies Iersonnes VuInerabIes (OAIV)
39. Iresidenl de Ia sociele civiIe ßangadi
40. Iresidenl de Ia sociele civiIe de Iarad|e
41. Iroleclion, Aclion ¡our Ie DeveIo¡¡emenl InlegraIe (IADI)
42. Reseau des associalions des droils de I'homme du Sud Kivu (RADHOSKI)
43. Reseau des Organisalions feminines des UeIes (ROIU) |15 organisalions femininesj
44. Rl. Rev. SamueI Inosa Ieni, ßisho¡ of lhe Diocese of Nzara, Soulh Sudan and Chair for
RegionaI Taskforce for ReIigious Leaders and CiviI Sociely in lhe LRA-affecled region
45. Sociele CiviIe de Niangara
46. SoIidarile des VoIonlaires ¡our I'Humanile (SVH)
47. SoIidarile Ieminine ¡our Ia Iaix el Ie DeveIo¡¡emenl InlegraI (SOIIIADI)
48. SoIidarile el Assislance InlegraIe aux Iersonnes Demunies (SAIIID)
49. Terre des enfanls
50. Youlh Irogram for lhe DeveIo¡menl of Africa (YIDA)

Nnrth Amcrican/Eurnpc
1. ConciIialion Resources
2. Discover lhe }ourney
3. The Inough Iro|ecl
4. Iuro¡ean Nelvork for CenlraI Africa (IurAc)
5. GIobaI Cenlre for lhe Res¡onsibiIily lo Irolecl
6. }oceIyn KeIIy, Direclor, Women in War Irogram, Harvard Humanilarian Inilialive
7. IAX
8. The ResoIve LRA Crisis Inilialive
9. The Romeo DaIIaire ChiId SoIdiers Inilialive