SEKOLAH TINGGI TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR

UTS Proses Kimia Bahan Nuklir 2013
Program Studi : Teknokimia Nuklir Nama :
Hari, tanggal : Selasa, 8 Oktober 2013 NIM :
Waktu : 100.00 menit tanda tangan
Sifat : CLOSED BOOK

Berdo’alah sebelum mulai mengerjakan, kejujuran pangkal kesuksesan

1. A proses that is used to remove the unused uranium U
235
in the spent fuel is called (a) reprocessing,
(b) enrichment, (c) purification, or (d) fabrication. [1]
2. Fuel used in a HTR type NPP is : (a). enriched uranium, (b) natural uranium, (c) pyrocarbon coated
uranium, (d) depleted uranium. [1]
3. Berikan 3 (tiga) macam proses dan persamaan reaksinya dalam proses reduksi uranium [10]
a. UO
3
+ H
2
→ UO
2
+ 2H
2
O
b. UF
6
+ H
2
→ UF
4
+ 2HF
c. UF
4
+ Ca → U + 2 CaF
2


4. Dalam proses pengendapan larutan uranil nitrat (UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
) hasil ekstraksi diperlukan NH
4
OH
sebanyak 1 ton per hari. Selanjutnya, hasilnya disaring/difiltrasi, diketahui bahwa yield proses
pengendapan adalah 95% yang lain masih terlarut dalam filtrat. Bila reaksinya berjalan secara
stoichimetric dan konsentrasi uranil nitrat dalam larutan hasil ekstraksi adalah 40%, ditanyakan
berapa banyaknya uranil nitrat dan H
2
O dalam hasil ekstraksi. [10]

(UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
) + 4 NH
4
OH (NH
4
)
2
(UO
2
)(OH)
2
+ 2NH
4
NO
3
+ 2H
2
O + O
2

(UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
) ∞ 4 NH
4
OH ∞ (NH
4
)
2
(UO
2
)(OH)
2
∞ 2NH
4
NO
3
∞ 2H
2
O ∞ O
2

Hasil ekstraksi Konsentrasi (UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
) = 40% ,
Berat molekul= 238+16*8 +14*2 = 238+176 = 414

Berat NH
4
OH dibutuhkan = 1 ton/hr = 1000 Kg/hr
Berat molekul = 14+5+16 = 35
Jumlah mol NH
4
OH = 1000/35 Kmol/hr = 28,57 Kmol/hr
jumlah mol (UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
)= 1/4 Jumlah mol NH
4
OH = 7,143 Kmol/hr
Berat (UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
) hasil ekstraksi= 7,143 * 414 = 2957,14 Kg/hr
Berat (UO
2
(NO
3
)
2
) hasil ekstraksi= 7,143 * 414/0,95 = 3112,78 Kg/hr

Berat H
2
O hasil ekstraksi = 3112,78 * (60/40) = 4669,17 Kg/hr.

5. Describe why spherical shape of fuel is required in the high temperature reactor (HTR) and why this
kind of fuel needs several layers to cover it. [5]
Answer: These layers are used as a fission product collector, a cladding and moderator as
well as a contactor with cooling material.

6. Draw a flow diagram of uranium preparation associated with a PWR nuclear power plant in detail at
each steps. You have to start with uranium mining up to a condition where uranium fuel bundle is
ready to be loaded in the reactor. [28]
Answer: Read the Power Point and Lecture’s Notes.

7. Describe the basic requirements of fuel materials used in a thermal nuclear reactor.
Answer: Read the Power Point and Lecture’s Notes.


8. The nuclear fission process is initiated by interaction of a neutron and a fissionable material. Which
of the following elements can be classified as fissionable materials: (a)
94
Pu
239
, (b)
92
U
235
(c)
92
U
238

or (d)
92
U
233
. Please describe why do you choose that? [5]
Answer: a fissionable material is a matter that can react fission when it is bombarded by thermal
neutron. The materials that react with neutron are (a)
94
Pu
239
, (b)
92
U
235
and (d)
92
U
233.

9. Please write down and describe the nuclear reaction to show that Th
232
in the breeder reactor produce
U
233
. [5]
Answer:
90
Th
232
+
o
n
1

90
Th
233

91
Pa
233
+ e
-1

92
U
233
+ e
-1


10. Suatu unit pengkayaan uranium dari uranium alam murni nuklir (0,7% U
235
) dapat menghasilkan
15% U
235
sebanyak 5 ton per tahun. Sedang buangannya mengandung 0,3% U
235
. Berapa banyaknya
umpan dan tail productnya? [5]
Penyelesaian: gambarkan dulu block diagramnya.

Umpan : uranium alam murni nuklir (0,7% U
235
) P=5 ton/th, 15% U
235

↓ T= ?, 0,3% U
235

Neraca massa overall : Umpan, F = P + T
Neraca massa komponen : Umpan, F. x
F
= P. x
P
+ T.x
T

Penyelesaian selanjutnya tinggal memasukkan angkanya.

11. The average density of Kalimantan mineral deposit is 2.3 g/cm
3
with the average thickness is 800 m.
Concentration of natural uranium in the deposit is only 1%, with composition ratio of
92
U
235
to
92
U
238
is 0.7%. PWR requires about 20 tons of fuel/year with an enrichment of 5% of
92
U
235
. The
pilot project of uranium separation showed that the efficiencies of leaching (produce yellow cake)
and purifying processes (produce UO
3
) were 30% and 50%, respectively. The enriched uranium will
be supplied by IAEA at composition of 20% enriched. Please draw a simple flow diagram of the
process. Calculate the amount of yellow cake that must be supplied from Kalimantan and how many
tons the amount of mineral deposit and also the area of geological site have to be prepared in order to
fulfill the PWR requirement for 50 years operation. [30]




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