The right Solder Paste

for Your Process
Contents
What is a Solder Paste
 Kind of Solder Paste
 Composition of Solder Paste
 Solder Alloy / Solder Powder
 Flux medium
 Characteristic of Solder Paste
 Solder Paste Technology
 Practical Use of Solder Paste
 Focus on printing
 Focus on Reflow
What is Solder Paste ?
Solder Paste = Solder Powder + Flux Medium
Kind of Solder Paste
 Different types of solder pastes available today
 Products categorized in the following manner by
type of flux:
Water Soluble
Paste
Halide Paste
Halide Free
Paste
No-Clean
Type
No Yes Yes
Cleaning
Type
Yes Yes Yes
5
Composition of Solder Paste
Solder Paste
Alloy
Powder
Flux
medium
SnPb
SAC
Others
Particle
Size
Solid
part
Volatile
part
SnPb Alloy
Alloy
Solidus-
Liquidus, ̊C
Inventec Paste
Recommandation
Sn63Pb37 183 Ecorel
TM
Easy 803M2
Sn62Pb36Ag2 178
Ecorel
TM
Easy 802M2
Ecorel
TM
Easy 862
 Leaded Pastes still used by industries, exempted by
ROHS: aeronautics, railway, automotive (under the
hood), medical
Solder Alloy
7
Solder Alloy
Lead-Free Alloy
Alloy
Solidus-
Liquidus, ̊C
Sn95.5Ag4Cu0.5 217
Sn96.5Ag3.5 221
Sn96.5Ag3Cu0.5 217-218
 Ecorel
TM
Free range is a range of Lead-Free
pastes to fit all the different industries
Solder Powder
Solder powder or metal particles
are characterised by
 Particles Shape
 Particles size
 Particles size distribution
 Surface condition
 Impurities
Alloy liquidus / solidus temperature
Solder Paste Classification Based on
Solder Powder Size
(IPC-J-STD-006B, January 2006)
At least 80% between At least 85% between
Type 1 150 – 75
Type 2 75 - 45
Type 3 45 - 25
Type 4 38 - 20
Type 5 25 - 15
Type 6 15 - 5
Type 7 11 - 2
Unit : µm
Organic Part / Flux Medium
Fundamental roles of flux medium
 To eliminate oxides film of substrates
 To prevent from re-oxidation
 To reduce the surface tension of solder to
enhance wettability
 To provide rheology and viscosity
Page
Organic Part / Flux Medium
Resin Activators
Solvents Thixotropic
agent
FLUX
Rosin / Resin
Component Responsibility Characteristic
Rosin
Resin

Printability
Solderability
Slump resistivity
ICT testability
Tackiness
Color of residue
The rosin soften during pre-heat
stage (softening point is around
80~130̊ C) and spread to the surface
of solder particles and substrate.
In order to control workability
properties (slumping, tackiness, etc.)
and residue properties (color, flow,
ICT testability) different rosins are
normally formulated together.
Activators
Component Responsibility Characteristic
Organic acids
Halides

Activation strength
(solderability)
Reliability (SIR,
electro migration,
corrosion)
Shelf life
The activator are determinative
elements for the strength of oxide
substances removal force.
Along with softening and liquefying
of rosin, these activators wet to
metal surface and react with oxide
substances.
Activator is directly influential for
electrical and chemical reliability.
Thixotropic agents
Component Responsibility Characteristic
Hydrogenated Castor oil

Printability
Thixotropic index
Viscosity
Slump resistivity
Clean ability
Odor
These agents help make the solder
paste resistant to shear stress
during printing and recover viscosity
after the solder paste is deposited
on the pad.
Such agents also have a function to
improve smooth release of paste
from stencil apertures for better
printability.
Solvents
Component Responsibility Characteristic
Polyhydric alcohol

Slump resistivity
Stencil life / tack time
Odor
Depending on boiling point,
evaporation rate varies and
determines open time and slump
property of solder pastes.
Boiling point of solvents normally
use are about 220~290̊ C.
Classification of Flux Type, J-STD-004
• Activity level determined by Cu mirror test, SIR, corrosion & Halide contents
• Halide contents of L1 : < 0.5%, M1 : 0.5~2.0%, H1 : > 2.0%
Flux Composition Activity Level Halide Content
Rosin (RO)
Resin (RE)
Organic (OR)
Inorganic (IR)
L : Low/No flux
residue activity
L0 : No Halide
L1 : with Halide
M : Moderate flux
residue activity
M0 : No Halide
M1 : with Halide
H : High flux residue
activity
H0 : No Halide
H1 : with Halide
17
High Reliability
SIR (Surface Insulation Resistance)
This test is to characterize flux by
determining the degradation of electrical
insulation resistance of rigid comb type
electrode specimen due to deleterious
effects of high humidity and heat
conditions.
18
SIR Test (according to J-STD-004)
19
SIR Test (according to J-STD-004)
Result
Surface insulation resistance measurements were above 1 x 10
8
ohms for the
tested paste at the end of 96 and 168 hours of testing. (Resistance is
permitted to drop below 100 mega ohms at the end of 24 hours as long as it
recovers).
All tests boards including the control board were examined using back-
lighting for evidence of electrochemical migration growth under a x 30
magnification.
20
High Reliability
Electro migration is a phenomenon that
metallic filament (Ag, Sn, Cu and etc.)
grows (dendrite growth) from cathode to
anode by DC voltage.
When the flux residue which lies between
the terminals is of ionic and is exposed in
high humidity environment or condensed
with water, it causes leakage current and
which leads dendrite growth.
Electro Migration
Dendrite Growth
21
Inspection
Flux medium of the solder paste is composed of solvent and solids
(rosins, activators, thixotropic agents). Most of the solid content remain on
the substrate after reflow as a flux residue.
Since reasonable amount of solids is needed to have certain rheology and
solderability properties, it is technically difficult to reduce the quantity of
non volatile residue.
The new solder pastes formulations have a better cosmetic
appearance of the residue because the flux medium is less sensitive
to oxidation during reflow and because the spreadability is better
Flux Residue
22
Inspection
( ICT = In-Circuit Test)
ICT Testability
Typical factors which cause poor probability and conventional
measures to cope with it are as shown in the table below:-
Spreading of flux
Hardness of flux residue
Test equipment
Hard flux residue cracks by
being struck with a probe.
As pieces of the residue stick
on to the tip of the probe create
poor conductivity, flux
components should be
selected to remain softer flux
residue.
Solder Paste Technology
Residue cosmetic
Alloy Powder
Paste Flux
Solder Paste
Reflow
performance
Printability Slump Tackiness
Solder balling
and beading
ICT
Cleanability
Chemical
reliability
Acid Index
Halide
NVR
Shape
Elements
Oxide
24
Printing
Stencil – Apertures - Printing rules
Empiric Rule for a good printing :
W stencil opening width
E Stencil Thickness
G Powder particle size diameter
1- W/ G ›or = 5
2- W/E › 1.5
25
Printing
Stencil – Apertures - Printing rules
MINIMUM PITCH 0,4mm
120 µm
200 µm
200 / 40 = 5 200 / 120 = 1,6 > 1,5
26
Printing
Stencil – Printing Rules
Area ratio of the stencil apertures :
Ratio between the area of the stencil aperture and the area of
the aperture walls
The higher is the area ratio the higher the
transfer efficiency of the solder paste
27
Printing
Stencil – Printing Rules – type 3 solder paste
28
ID
Surface
Insulation
resistance
pattern
Print
capability
pattern
Solder
balling test
Reflow behavior test pattern Solder paste wetting test pattern
BGAs
QFP
LGA
Components with large heat sink pad
Fine pitch
components
EFSOT BOARD
Printing
29
Opening width decreases : less transfer

Dam width decreases : more shorts

Printing
30
Evaluation criterion for smearing / short-circuits
ACCEPTABLE
SHORT
CIRCUIT

Printing
31
Evaluation criterion for printing definition

ACCEPTABLE
LACK OF
PASTE
BULLDOZED
Printing
32
Under stencil cleaning necessary if :
Smearing result ≤ 2 on 0,27/0,13
Printing result ≤ 2 on 0,22/0,18
Abandon time is also evaluated on this criteria
Criteria according to PHILIPS NOTATION
Printing
33
Under screen cleaning frequency depends on the paste
Paste A after 5 prints
smearing
Paste B after 5 prints
OK
Printing
34
Cleaning Frequency
 Clean stencil periodically to avoid flux bleeding
 For fine pitch printing, clean more frequently
Printing quality deteriorates mainly due to flux bleeding to the bottom
surface of the stencil, after certain times of printing.
When flux starts bleeding, it leads solder particles and amount of
solder paste being deposited becomes more and more, and
eventually, it turns out to be bridging. To prevent this, the stencil is
needed to be cleaned periodically.
How frequently it should be cleaned all depends on pitches of pattern,
nature of solder paste and so on.
35
ECOREL FREE 305-6
ECOREL FREE 305-2
Influence of the organic part
Printing
36
20
50
80
100
120
150
ECOREL FREE 305-6
ECOREL FREE 305-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
k
g
)
speed (mm/s)
Printing: minimum pressure required vs speed (250 mm width squeegee)
ECORELFREE305-6 ECORELFREE305-2
Minimum pressure required according to the printing speed
ECOREL FREE 305-2 / ECOREL FREE 305-6 at 22°C
Printing
37
Squeegee Pressure
W
Always avoid excessive pressure
 Start with low pressure, slowly increase until
a clean sweep is obtained
Excess pressure would be a cause of stretch or
miss positioning of stencil, deformation of
squeegee which could result in flux bleeding,
solder paste smearing.
38
Printing performances are good up to 12 consecutive prints without understencil cleaning
With 0.4 mm pitch, 120µm stencil is recommended
ECOREL FREE 305-2 Smearing results
120m stencil / 22°C
Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts
1 5 6 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
2 5 6 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
3 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
4 4 4 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
5 4 4 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
6 4 4 4 6 4 6 4 6 3 6
7 4 4 4 6 4 6 3 6 3 6
8 4 3 4 6 4 6 3 6 3 6
9 4 3 4 6 4 6 3 6 3 6
10 4 3 4 4 4 4 3 6 3 6
11 4 2 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 6
12 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 6
13
4 1 4 2 4 4 3 4 3 6
Underside cleaning
Board N°
Pad width/Pad distance perpendicular to print 120µm stencil
0,3/0,1 0,27/0,13 0,24/0,16 0,22/0,18 0,2/0,2
Printing
39
ECOREL FREE 305-6 Smearing results
120m stencil / 22°C
Printing performances are good up to 16 consecutive prints
without understencil cleaning
Printing
40
Powder T3/T4/T5
Influence of particle size
 Printing performance
 Reflow
Printing
41
Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts
1 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
2 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
3 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
4 5 5 5 6 4 6 5 6 5 6
5 5 5 5 6 4 6 5 6 4 6
6 5 4 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
7 5 4 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
8 5 4 5 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
9 4 3 5 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
10 4 3 5 4 4 6 3 6 3 6
11 4 3 4 4 4 6 3 6 3 6
12 4 2 4 4 4 6 3 6 3 6
13 4 2 4 3 4 6 3 6 3 6
14 4 1 4 2 4 5 3 6 3 6
Underside cleaning
0,24/0,16 0,22/0,18 0,2/0,2
Board Number
Pad width/Pad distance perpendicular to print 120µ stencil
0,3/0,1 0,27/0,13
ECOREL FREE 305-7 Smearing 120m stencil / 22°C
Printing performances are good up to 13 consecutive prints without understencil cleaning
With 0.4 mm pitch, 120µm stencil is recommended
Printing
42
Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts
1 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
2 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
3 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
4 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
5 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
7 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
8 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
9 5 5 5 6 5 6 4 6 4 6
10 5 5 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
11 5 5 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
12 5 4 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
13 5 4 5 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
14 5 4 4 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
15 5 2 4 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
16 4 2 4 5 4 6 3 6 3 6
17 4 2 4 5 4 5 3 6 3 6
0,24/0,16 0,22/0,18 0,2/0,2
Board Number
Pad width/Pad distance perpendicular to print 120µ stencil
0,3/0,1 0,27/0,13
Printing performances are good up to 17 consecutive prints without understencil cleaning
With 0.4 mm pitch, 120µm stencil is recommended
ECOREL FREE 305-7T4 Smearing 120m stencil / 22°C
Printing
43
Good Workability
Ability of the solder paste to be left on the stencil
and then recover, without kneading, to deliver
acceptable prints.
The rheological properties of the solder paste, and its inherent ability to
transition from its “at rest” viscosity to its “working” viscosity, influence
a solder paste’s ability to respond well to abandon times or pauses.
Stencil Abandon Time / Idle Time
44
ECOREL FREE 305-7 Abandon time 120m/22°C
Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts
1 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
2 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
3 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
4 5 5 5 6 4 6 5 6 5 6
5 5 5 5 6 4 6 5 6 4 6
6 5 4 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
7 5 4 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
8 5 4 5 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
9 4 3 5 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
10 4 3 5 4 4 6 3 6 3 6
11 4 3 4 4 4 6 3 6 3 6
12 4 2 4 4 4 6 3 6 3 6
13 4 2 4 3 4 6 3 6 3 6
14 4 1 4 2 4 5 3 6 3 6
15 4 1 4 2 4 5 3 6 3 6
14 4 2 5 5 4 6 3 6 2 6
15 4 2 4 5 3 6 2 6 2 6
Abandon time 20' without underside cleaning
Abandon time 90' without underside cleaning
Abandon time 4hrs without underside cleaning
Board Number
Pad width/Pad distance perpendicular to print 120µm stencil
0,3/0,1 0,27/0,13 0,24/0,16 0,22/0,18 0,2/0,2
Printing
45
Printing
Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts Print definition Shorts
1 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
2 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
3 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
4 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
5 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
7 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
8 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6
9 5 5 5 6 5 6 4 6 4 6
10 5 5 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
11 5 5 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
12 5 4 5 6 4 6 4 6 4 6
13 5 4 5 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
14 5 4 4 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
15 5 2 4 5 4 6 4 6 3 6
16 4 2 4 5 4 6 3 6 3 6
17 4 2 4 5 4 5 3 6 3 6
18 4 2 4 5 4 5 3 6 3 6
19 4 2 5 5 4 6 3 6 2 6
20 4 2 5 5 3 6 2 6 2 6
Abandon time 20' without underside cleaning
Abandon time 90' without underside cleaning
Abandon time 4hrs without underside cleaning
Board Number
Pad width/Pad distance perpendicular to print 120µ stencil
0,3/0,1 0,27/0,13 0,24/0,16 0,22/0,18 0,2/0,2
305-7 equal to 305-7T4
ECOREL FREE 305-7T4 Abandon time 120m/22°C
46
Slump Resistivity
Shear Slump
Slump which occurs over continual
printing by shear stress
Static Slump / cold slump
Slump which occurs at room temperature
without any shear stress
Hot Slump
Slump which occurs during heating
process
47
Slump Test / IPC
The paste is printed through the IPC-A-21
or IPC-A-20 stencil on alumina substrates.
Both specimen are exanimate at x 20
magnification to check that printing was
properly performed without bridging.
One specimen (n°1) was stored for 10 to 20
minutes at ambient conditions, 25 +/- 5°C
and relative humidity at 50+/- 10% and then
exanimate for slump.
One specimen (n°2) was preheated 1min at
100°C, 1minute at 140°C and 1minute at
160°C and then exanimate for slump.
n°1 n°2
48
NB = No Bridge
B = Bridge
ECOREL FREE 305-7: Cold / Hot slump
N°2: 3 x 1min
100°C, 140°C, 160°C
N°1: 25°C
N°1 N°2 N°1 N°2 N°1 N°2 N°1 N°2
Spacing
mm
Spacing
mm
0.79 NB NB NB NB 0.45 NB NB NB NB
0.71 NB NB NB NB 0.40 NB NB NB NB
0.63 NB NB NB NB 0.35 NB NB NB NB
0.56 NB NB NB NB 0.30 NB NB NB NB
0.48 NB NB NB NB 0.25 NB NB NB NB
0.41 NB NB NB NB 0.20 NB NB NB NB
0.33 NB B NB B 0.15 NB B NB B
0.10 NB B NB B
0.06 B B B B
Hor. Vert. Hor. Vert.
STENCIL IPC-A-21 (0,2 mm thick)
CONDITIONS
Pad size 0.63 x 2.03 mm Pad size 0.33 x 2.03 mm
Printing
49
N°2: 3 x 1min
100°C, 140°C, 160°C
N°1: 25°C
NB = No Bridge
B = Bridge
N°1 N°2 N°1 N°2 N°1 N°2 N°1 N°2
Spacing
mm
Spacing
mm
0.79 NB NB NB NB 0.45 NB NB NB NB
0.71 NB NB NB NB 0.40 NB NB NB NB
0.63 NB NB NB NB 0.35 NB NB NB NB
0.56 NB NB NB NB 0.30 NB NB NB NB
0.48 NB NB NB NB 0.25 NB NB NB NB
0.41 NB NB NB NB 0.20 NB NB NB NB
0.33 NB B NB B 0.15 NB B NB NB
0.10 NB B NB B
0.06 B B B B
Hor. Vert. Hor. Vert.
STENCIL IPC-A-21 (0,2 mm thick)
CONDITIONS
Pad size 0.63 x 2.03 mm Pad size 0.33 x 2.03 mm
305-7 / 305-7T4
Same
behaviour
ECOREL FREE 305-7T4: Cold / Hot slump
Printing
50
0
2
4
6
Fine pitch printing
Printing speed
Stencil life
Abandon time
Cold slump
Steady tack
Hot slump
Reflow process window Wettability
Solder beading
Tombstoning
Residue cosmetic
ICT Test
Residue cleanliness
Reliability
0
2
4
6
Fine pitch printing
Printing speed
Stencil life
Abandon time
Cold slump
Steady tack
Hot slump
Reflow process window Wettability
Solder beading
Tombstoning
Residue cosmetic
ICT Test
Residue cleanliness
Reliability
ECOREL FREE 305-7 ECOREL FREE 305-7T4
Decreasing powder particle size improves printing quality
Powder particle size influence conclusion
Printing
REFLOW
52
Good Solderability: Wettability
Wetting is a phenomenon that a liquid solder spreads to
the surface of a terminal of a component.
Smaller contact angle = Better wettability
Larger contact angle = Poor wettability
A = Poor wettability ; C = Good wettability
ﻻSG = ﻻSL + ﻻLG Cos Ɵ
53
Good Wettability Vs Poor Wettability
Good Wettability Poor Wettability
54
Good Solderability : Solber Ball
Micro-solder ball Solder bead
There are 2 type of solder balling issue:
Micro-solder ball
Solder bead
55
Oxides
Activation
Oxides
Time / Temperature
Oxides / Activation
X
Reflow
Consequence of too long preheat on solder paste
Activators destruction Activity loss
Powder and land pattern reoxidation Risk of oxides formation
56
Consequence of too long preheat on solder joint
Grainy joint
Insufficient wettability
Solderballing
Insufficient residue spreadability
Reflow
57
Recommended time above liquidus : 45 – 100 sec
Recommended cooling rate : 1.8°C/sec to 2.2°C/sec
Reflow Process Window
Ecorel Free 305-7 or 305-7T4
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
time (seconds)
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
°
C
)
260
230
217
45-100 sec
Reflow
58
Reflow
59
ID
Surface
Insulation
resistance
pattern
Print
capability
pattern
Solder balling
test
Reflow behavior test pattern Solder paste wetting test pattern
BGAs
QFP
LGA
Components with large heat sink pad
Fine pitch
components
EFSOT BOARD
60
OP A
T4 88%
OP A
T5 88%
OP A
T3 88%
0.3 mm
Deposit
0.6mm
Deposit
Reflow
61
Slight influence of % powder in the T3 paste
Slight influence of % powder in the T4 paste
But big influence of particle size
Reflow
ORGANIC
PART
POWDER
TYPE
POWDER
%
GRAINY
JOINT
microballs
A T3 87 slightly some
A T3 88 slightly some
A T3 89 some some
A T4 87 yes yes
A T4 88 yes yes
A T4 89 yes + yes
A T5 89 MORE
yes + (all
deposits)
62
OP A
T4 88%
OP C
T4 88%
Reflow
0.3 mm
Deposit
0.6mm
Deposit
63
Big Influence of the organic part for all type of powders
Organic part C : good aspect in type 4
Organic part C : still insufficient in type 5
Reflow
ORGANIC
PART
POWDER
TYPE
POWDER
%
GRAINY
JOINT
microballs
A T3 88 slightly some
A T3 89 some some
A T4 88 yes yes
A T4 89 yes + yes
A T5 89 MORE
yes + (all
deposits)
B T4 88
slightly (less
than OP A)
some
C T3 89
no
shiny joint
no
C T4 88 non some
C T5 88 slightly some
64
Air
Nitrogen 1000ppm O2
Nitrogen 100ppm O2
Good wettability under air and under nitrogen
Better residue spreadability / colorless residue under nitrogen
ECOREL FREE 305-7
Print Deposit
(mm)
5,00
3,00
1,00
0,60
0,30
Reflow
65
SOLDER PASTE
Solder powder / organic part
Printing properties / Reflow properties
Smaller particle size
 Better printing quality for fine pitch
 More oxidation during preheat
- Reflow process window
- Reflow under nitrogen
- Stronger organic part may be needed
- Caution : no degradation of printing properties with stronger
organic part
MAKE THE RIGHT CHOICE
Printing and reflow : Conclusion
Emmanuelle Guéné R&D Chemist, Application Engineer
eguene@inventec.dehon.com
THANK YOU