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Objectives:

Understand

With feedback, the poles of the closed-loop system shift

The shift is a well defined curve, termed a root locus plot

Definitions:

Assume a feedback system of the following form:

K G

U

Y R

where

k ⋅ G(s) =

⎛

⎝

k⋅z(s)

p(s)

⎞

⎠

Open-Loop Gain: k G(s)

Closed-Loop Gain:

⎛

⎝

kG

1+kG

⎞

⎠

Open-Loop Poles: solutions to p(s) =0

Open-Loop Zeros: solutions to z(s) =0.

Closed-Loop Poles: solutions to p(s) +kz(s) =0.

Root Locus: Plot of the closed-loop poles as k varies from 0 to infinity.

Background:

Feedback is a very useful method for controlling the output of a system. With feedback, it is much easier to

regulate the output and automatically compensate for disturbances, such as noise, aging, manufacturing variations,

etc. Feedback can also make a system behave worse - it can even make a system go unstable.

One property feedback has is that the dynamics of the closed-loop system change as you vary the feedback gain.

Root locus techniques allow you to

Predict how the closed-loop system will behave as you vary the feedback gain (k), and

Pick the 'best' value of k to get the 'best' response possible.

In addition, root locus techniques help provide insight as to how to improve the system's response with a

pre-filter.

What is a root locus plot

NDSU Root Locus ECE 461

J SG 1 rev October 5, 2007

Assume you have a unity feedback system as follows:

K G

U

Y R

where

KG =

⎛

⎝

kz(s)

p(s)

⎞

⎠

As you vary k from 0 to infinity, the dynamics of the closed-loop system will vary. The closed-loop system will

be

.

⎛

⎝

kG

1+kG

⎞

⎠

=

⎛

⎝

k⋅z(s)

p(s)+k⋅z(s)

⎞

⎠

The roots of the closed-loop system determine how the system will behave. Hence, we are interested in the

solutions to

p(s) + k ⋅ z(s) = 0

A root locus plot is a plot of the solutions to p(s)+kz(s)=0 for 0<k< . ∞

NDSU Root Locus ECE 461

J SG 2 rev October 5, 2007

Example: Plot the root locus of

kG(s) =

⎛

⎝

k

s(s+2)(s+5)

⎞

⎠

or, equivalently, the solution to

s(s + 2)(s + 5) + k = 0

Using MATLAB to do this with 1000 values of k results in the following plot:

Note the following:

The roots follow a well defined path

At k=0, the root locus starts at the poles of the open-loop system (0, -2, -5)

As k increases, the roots slide together

As k increases further the poles become complex

As k gets really large, the poles go into the right half plane and the system becomes unstable.

This root locus plot is essentially your shopping list: you can place the closed-loop poles anywhere on the above

root locus plot. If you pick a point on the root locus plot, there is a gain, k, which results in that solution. If you

pick a point off the root locus plot, however, there is no solution for k.

NDSU Root Locus ECE 461

J SG 3 rev October 5, 2007

Example: Plot the root locus for the following system

G =

⎛

⎝

10

s(s+2)(s+4)(s+5)

⎞

⎠

or equivalently, the roots of

s(s + 2)(s + 4)(s + 5) + 10k = 0

Solution: Picking 1000 points for k results in the following root locus plot

Note again:

The roots follow a well defined path

At k=0, the root locus starts at the poles of the open-loop system (0, -2, -4, -5)

As k increases, the roots slide together

As k increases further the poles become complex

As k gets really big, two of the poles become unstable

NDSU Root Locus ECE 461

J SG 4 rev October 5, 2007

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