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Association of Southeast Asian
Nations
Flag Emblem
Motto:
"One Vision, One Identity, One Community"
[1]
Anthem: The ASEAN Way
Headquarters
Jakarta, Indonesia
a
Working language
Membership
Leaders
- Secretary General
Le Luong Minh
[2]
- Summit Presidency Myanmar
(Burma)
[3]
Establishment
- Bangkok Declaration 8 August 1967
- Charter 16 December 2008
Area
- Total
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations
[5]
(ASEAN
/ˈɑːsi.ɑːn/ AH-see-ahn,
[6]
/ˈɑːzi.ɑːn/ AH-zee-ahn)
[7][8]
is a
geo-political and economic organisation of ten countries
located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August
1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and
Thailand.
[9]
Since then, membership has expanded to include
Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
Its aims include accelerating economic growth, social
progress, cultural development among its members,
protection of regional peace and stability, and opportunities
for member countries to discuss differences peacefully.
[10]
ASEAN covers a land area of 4.46 million km², which is 3%
of the total land area of Earth, and has a population of
approximately 600 million people, which is 8.8% of the
world's population. The sea area of ASEAN is about three
times larger than its land counterpart. In 2011, its combined
nominal GDP had grown to more than US$ 2 trillion.
[11]
If
ASEAN were a single entity, it would rank as the eighth
largest economy in the world.
Contents
1 History
1.1 Continued expansion
1.1.1 East Timor and Papua New
Guinea
1.2 Environment
1.3 ASEAN Plus Three
1.4 Free Trade
2 The ASEAN way
2.1 Critical reception
3 Meetings
3.1 ASEAN Summits
3.2 East Asia Summit
3.3 Commemorative summit
3.4 Regional Forum
3.5 Other meetings
3.5.1 Another Three
3.5.2 Asia–Europe Meeting
3.5.3 ASEAN–Russia Summit
3.5.4 ASEAN Foreign Ministers
English
10 states
2 observers
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4,479,210.5 km
2
2,778,124.7 sq mi
Population
- 2011 estimate 602,658,000
- Density 135/km
2
216/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
- Total US$ 3.574 trillion
[4]
- Per capita US$ 5,930
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
- Total US$ 2.356 trillion
- Per capita US$ 3,909
HDI (2012) 0.663
b
medium
Currency
Time zone ASEAN
(UTC+9 to +6:30)
Calling code
Internet TLD
Website
www.asean.org (http://www.asean.org)
Address: Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta.
Calculated using UNDP data from member states.
3.5.4 ASEAN Foreign Ministers
Meeting
4 Economic community
4.1 From CEPT to AEC
4.2 Comprehensive Investment Area
4.3 Trade in Services
4.4 Single Aviation Market
4.5 Free-trade agreements with other
countries
4.6 ASEAN six majors
4.6.1 Development gap
4.7 From CMI to AMRO
4.8 Foreign Direct Investment
4.9 Intra-ASEAN travel
4.10 Intra-ASEAN trade
5 Charter
6 Cultural activities
7 ASEAN Media Cooperation
7.1 New media and social media
7.2 SEA Write Award
7.3 ASAIHL
7.4 Heritage Parks
7.4.1 ASEAN Heritage Sites
7.5 Songs and music
8 Education and human development
8.1 School enrollment and participation
8.1.1 Primary education
8.1.2 Secondary education
8.2 Tertiary education
8.2.1 University Network
8.3 Public efforts
8.3.1 Financial resources
8.3.2 Scholarship
8.4 Education as a determinant of human
development
8.4.1 Literacy rates
9 Sports
9.1 Southeast Asian Games
9.2 ASEAN Para Games
9.3 FESPIC Games / Asian Para Games
9.4 Football Championship
9.5 ASEAN 2030 FIFA World Cup bid
10 ASEAN Defence Industry Collaboration
11 Criticism
12 ASEAN competitions
13 See also
10 currencies
10 codes
10 TLDs
a.
b.
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v • d • e (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Template:Supranational_Asian_Bodies&action=edit)
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between
various Asian regional organizations.
13 See also
14 Literature
15 References
16 External links
History
See also: Member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASEAN was preceded by an organization
called the Association of Southeast Asia,
commonly called ASA, an alliance consisting
of the Philippines, Malaysia and Thailand that
was formed in 1961. The bloc itself, however,
was established on 8 August 1967, when
foreign ministers of five countries – Indonesia,
Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and
Thailand – met at the Thai Department of
Foreign Affairs building in Bangkok and
signed the ASEAN Declaration, more
commonly known as the Bangkok
Declaration. The five foreign ministers – Adam
Malik of Indonesia, Narciso Ramos of the
Philippines, Abdul Razak of Malaysia, S.
Rajaratnam of Singapore, and Thanat
Khoman of Thailand – are considered the
organisation's Founding Fathers.
[12]
The motivations for the birth of ASEAN were
so that its members’ governing elite could
concentrate on nation building, the common
fear of communism, reduced faith in or
mistrust of external powers in the 1960s, and
a desire for economic development.
The bloc grew when Brunei
Darussalam became the
sixth member on 8 January
1984, barely a week after
gaining independence on 1
January.
[13]
Continued expansion
See also: Enlargement
of Association of
Burma
(Myanmar)
Laos
←Vietnam
Thailand
Cam-
bodia
Philippines
Brunei→
Malaysia
Malaysia
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Southeast Asian
Nations
On 28 July 1995, Vietnam
became the seventh
member.
[14]
Laos and
Myanmar (Burma) joined
two years later on 23 July
1997.
[15]
Cambodia was to
have joined together with
Laos and Burma, but was
deferred due to the
country's internal political
struggle. The country later
joined on 30 April 1999,
following the stabilisation of
its government.
[15][16]
During the 1990s, the bloc
experienced an increase in
both membership and drive
for further integration. In
1990, Malaysia proposed
the creation of an East Asia
Economic Caucus
[17]
comprising the then
members of ASEAN as
well as the People's
Republic of China, Japan,
and South Korea, with the
intention of
counterbalancing the growing influence of the United States in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and
in the Asian region as a whole.
[18][19]
This proposal failed, however, because of heavy opposition from the United
States and Japan.
[18][20]
Despite this failure, member states continued to work for further integration and ASEAN
Plus Three was created in 1997.
In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme was signed as a schedule for phasing tariffs and
as a goal to increase the region’s competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market.
This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area. After the East Asian Financial Crisis of
1997, a revival of the Malaysian proposal was established in Chiang Mai, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative,
which calls for better integration between the economies of ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three countries
(China, Japan, and South Korea).
[21]
Aside from improving each member state's economies, the bloc also focused on peace and stability in the region.
On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of
turning Southeast Asia into a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. The treaty took effect on 28 March 1997 after all but
The member states of ASEAN
Malaysia
Singapore
I n d o n e s i a
I n d o n e s i a
I n d o n e s i a
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Satellite image of the 2006 haze over
Borneo.
one of the member states have ratified it. It became fully effective on 21 June 2001, after the Philippines ratified it,
effectively banning all nuclear weapons in the region.
[22]
East Timor and Papua New Guinea
East Timor submitted a letter of application to be the eleventh member of ASEAN at the summit in Jakarta in
March 2011. Indonesia has shown a warm welcome to East Timor.
[23][24][25]
Papua New Guinea was accorded Observer status in 1976 and Special Observer status in 1981.
[26]
Papua New
Guinea is a Melanesian state. ASEAN embarked on a programme of economic cooperation following the Bali
Summit of 1976. This floundered in the mid-1980s and was only revived around 1991 due to a Thai proposal for a
regional free trade area.
Environment
At the turn of the 21st century, issues shifted to include a regional
approach to the environment. The organisation started to discuss
environmental agreements. These included the signing of the ASEAN
Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002 as an attempt to
control haze pollution in Southeast Asia.
[27]
Unfortunately, this was
unsuccessful due to the outbreaks of the 2005 Malaysian haze and the
2006 Southeast Asian haze. Other environmental treaties introduced by
the organisation include the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy
Security,
[28]
the ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network in 2005,
[29]
and
the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, both of
which are responses to the potential effects of climate change. Climate
change is of current interest.
Through the Bali Concord II in 2003, ASEAN has subscribed to the notion of democratic peace, which means all
member countries believe democratic processes will promote regional peace and stability. Also, the non-
democratic members all agreed that it was something all member states should aspire to.
[30]
ASEAN Plus Three
Leaders of each country felt the need to further integrate the region. Beginning in 1997, the bloc began creating
organisations within its framework with the intention of achieving this goal. ASEAN Plus Three was the first of these
and was created to improve existing ties with the People's Republic of China, Japan, and South Korea. This was
followed by the even larger East Asia Summit, which now includes these countries as well as India, Australia, New
Zealand, United States and Russia. This new grouping acted as a prerequisite for the planned East Asia
Community, which was supposedly patterned after the now-defunct European Community. The ASEAN Eminent
Persons Group was created to study the possible successes and failures of this policy as well as the possibility of
drafting an ASEAN Charter.
In 2006, ASEAN was given observer status at the United Nations General Assembly.
[31]
As a response, the
organisation awarded the status of "dialogue partner" to the United Nations.
[32]
Free Trade
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ASEAN members' flags in Jakarta.
In 2007, ASEAN celebrated its 40th anniversary since its inception, and 30 years of diplomatic relations with the
United States.
[33]
On 26 August 2007, ASEAN stated that it aims to complete all its free trade agreements with
China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand by 2013, in line with the establishment of the
ASEAN Economic Community by 2015.
[34][35]
In November 2007 the ASEAN members signed the ASEAN
Charter, a constitution governing relations among the ASEAN members and establishing ASEAN itself as an
international legal entity.
[citation needed]
During the same year, the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security
was signed in Cebu on 15 January 2007, by ASEAN and the other members of the EAS (Australia, People's
Republic of China, India, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea), which promotes energy security by finding energy
alternatives to conventional fuels.
[citation needed]
On 27 February 2009 a Free Trade Agreement with the ASEAN regional block of 10 countries and Australia and
its close partner New Zealand was signed, it is estimated that this FTA would boost aggregate GDP across the 12
countries by more than US$48 billion over the period 2000–2020.
[36][37]
ASEAN members together with the
group’s six major trading partners – Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand and South Korea – have began
the first round of negotiations on 26–28 February 2013 in Bali, Indonesia, on establishment of the Regional
Comprehensive Economic Partnership.
[38]
The ASEAN way
Since the post-independence phases of Southeast Asian
states, efforts were made to implement regional foreign
policies, but with a unifying focus to refrain from
interference in domestic affairs of member states.
There was a move to unify the region under what was called
the ‘ASEAN Way’ based on the ideals of non-interference,
informality, minimal institutionalisation, consultation and
consensus, non-use of force and non-confrontation.
ASEAN members (especially Singapore) approved of the
term ‘ASEAN Way’ to describe a regional method of
multilateralism.
Thus the signing of the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in
Southeast Asia adopted fundamental principles:
[39]
Mutual respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity, and national identity of all
nations
The right of every State to lead its national existence free from external interference, subversion or coercion
Non-interference in internal affairs
Settlement of differences or disputes in a peaceful manner
Renunciation of the threat or use of force
Effective regional cooperation
The ‘ASEAN way’ is said to contribute durability and longevity within the organisation, by promoting regional
identity and enhancing a spirit of mutual confidence and cooperation. ASEAN agreements are negotiated in a close,
interpersonal process. The process of consultations and consensus is designed to engender a democratic approach
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Royal Thai Embassy in Helsinki flying
the Asean flag as well as its own
national flag.
to decision making. These leaders are wary of any effort to legitimise efforts to undermine their nation or contain
regional co-operation.
Critical reception
The ASEAN way can be seen as divergent from the contextual
contemporary political reality at the formative stages of the association. A
critical distinction is made by Amitav Acharya, that the ‘ASEAN Way’
indicates “a process of ‘regional interactions and cooperation based on
discreteness, informality, consensus building and non-confrontational
bargaining styles’ that contrasts with ‘the adversarial posturing, majority
vote and other legalistic decision-making procedures in Western
multilateral organisations’".
[40]
However, critics argue that the ASEAN Way serves as the major
stumbling-block to it becoming a true diplomacy mechanism. Due to the
consensus-based approach every member has a veto, so contentious
issues must remain unresolved until agreements can be reached.
Moreover, it is claimed that member nations are directly and indirectly
advocating that ASEAN be more flexible and allow discourse on internal
affairs of member countries.
Additionally, the preference for informal discussions to adversarial
negotiations limits the leverage of diplomatic solutions within ASEAN.
Michael Yahuda,
[41]
explains, in his book International Politics of the
Asia Pacific (2003) second and revised edition, the limitations of the ASEAN way. In summary of his argument,
unlike the European Union, ‘the ASEAN Way’ has made ASEAN members never aspired to an economic and
political union. It was designed to sustain the independence and sovereignty of member states and to encourage
regional and national stability. ASEAN differed in assessment of external threat and they operated within conditions
in which legality and the rule of law were not generally consolidated within member states. ASEAN wasn’t a rule
making body subjecting its members to the discipline of adhering its laws and regulations. It was operated through
consensus and informality. Also, the member states avoided to confront certain issues if they were to result in
conflicts.
[42]
Meetings
ASEAN Summits
The organisation holds meetings, known as the ASEAN Summit, where heads of government of each member meet
to discuss and resolve regional issues, as well as to conduct other meetings with other countries outside of the bloc
with the intention of promoting external relations.
The ASEAN Leaders' Formal Summit was first held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976. Its third meeting was held in Manila
in 1987 and during this meeting, it was decided that the leaders would meet every five years.
[43]
Consequently, the
fourth meeting was held in Singapore in 1992 where the leaders again agreed to meet more frequently, deciding to
hold the summit every three years.
[43]
In 2001, it was decided to meet annually to address urgent issues affecting
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A billboard in Jakarta welcoming ASEAN
Summit 2011 delegates.
the region. Member nations were assigned to be the summit host in alphabetical order except in the case of Burma
which dropped its 2006 hosting rights in 2004 due to pressure from the United States and the European Union.
[44]
By December 2008, the ASEAN Charter came into force and with it, the ASEAN Summit will be held twice in a
year.
The formal summit meets for three days. The usual itinerary is as follows:
Leaders of member states would hold an internal organisation
meeting.
Leaders of member states would hold a conference together
with foreign ministers of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
A meeting, known as ASEAN Plus Three, is set for leaders of
three Dialogue Partners (People's Republic of China, Japan,
South Korea)
A separate meeting, known as ASEAN-CER, is set for
another set of leaders of two Dialogue Partners (Australia,
New Zealand).
[citation needed]
ASEAN Formal Summits
No Date Country Host Host leader
1st
23–24
February
1976
Indonesia Bali Soeharto
2nd
4–5 August
1977
Malaysia
Kuala
Lumpur
Hussein Onn
3rd
14–15
December
1987
Philippines
Manila
Corazon
Aquino
4th
27‒29
January 1992
Singapore Singapore Goh Chok Tong
5th
14‒15
December
1995
Thailand Bangkok
Banharn Silpa-
archa
6th
15‒16
December
1998
Vietnam Hanoi Phan Văn Khải
7th
5‒6
November
2001
Brunei
Bandar Seri
Begawan
Hassanal
Bolkiah
8th
4‒5
November
2002
Cambodia
Phnom Penh Hun Sen
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9th
7‒8 October
2003
Indonesia Bali
Megawati
Soekarnoputri
10th
29‒30
November
2004
Laos Vientiane
Bounnhang
Vorachith
11th
12‒14
December
2005
Malaysia
Kuala
Lumpur
Abdullah
Ahmad Badawi
12th
11‒14
January
2007
1
Philippines
2
Cebu
Gloria
Macapagal-
Arroyo
13th
18‒22
November
2007
Singapore Singapore
Lee Hsien
Loong
14th
3
27 February
– 1 March
2009
10–11 April
2009
Thailand
Cha Am,
Hua Hin
Pattaya
Abhisit
Vejjajiva
15th
23 October
2009
Thailand
Cha Am,
Hua Hin
16th
3
8–9 April
2010
Vietnam Hanoi
Nguyễn Tấn
Dũng
17th
28–31
October
2010
Vietnam Hanoi
18th
4
7–8 May
2011
Indonesia Jakarta
Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono
19th
4
14–19
November
2011
Indonesia Bali
20th
3–4 April
2012 Cambodia
Phnom Penh
Hun Sen
21st
17–20
November
2012
Cambodia
Phnom Penh
22nd
24–25 April
2013
Brunei
Bandar Seri
Begawan
Hassanal
Bolkiah
23rd
9–10
October
Brunei
Bandar Seri
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Participants of the East Asia Summit.
ASEAN
ASEAN Plus Three
ASEAN Plus Six
Observer
2013 Begawan
1
Postponed from 10‒14 December 2006 due to Typhoon Utor.
2
hosted the summit because Burma backed out due to enormous
pressure from US and EU
3
This summit consisted of two parts.
The first part was moved from 12‒17 December 2008 due to the 2008
Thai political crisis.
The second part was aborted on 11 April due to protesters entering
the summit venue.
4
Indonesia hosted twice in a row by swapping years with
Brunei, as it will play host to APEC (and the possibility of hosting the
G20 summit which ultimately fell to Russia) in 2013.
During the fifth Summit in Bangkok, the leaders decided to meet "informally" between each formal summit:
[43]
ASEAN Informal Summits
No Date Country Host Host leader
1st 30 November 1996 Indonesia Jakarta Soeharto
2nd
14‒16 December
1997
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Mahathir Mohamad
3rd
27‒28 November
1999
Philippines Manila Joseph Estrada
4th
22‒25 November
2000
Singapore Singapore Goh Chok Tong
East Asia Summit
Main article: East Asia Summit
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asian forum held annually by
the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with
ASEAN in a leadership position. The summit has discussed issues
including trade, energy and security and the summit has a role in
regional community building.
The members of the summit are all 10 members of ASEAN plus
China, Japan, South Korea, India, Australia and New Zealand.
These nations represent nearly half of the world's population. In
October 2010, Russia and the United States were formally invited
to participate as full members, with presidents of both countries to
attend the 2011 summit.
[45]
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The first summit was held in Kuala Lumpur on 14 December 2005 and subsequent meetings have been held after
the annual ASEAN Leaders’ Meeting.
Meeting Country Location Date Note
First EAS Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 14 December 2005 Russia attended as a guest.
Second
EAS Philippines
Cebu City 15 January 2007
Rescheduled from 13 December 2006.
Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy
Security
Third EAS
Singapore
Singapore 21 November 2007
Singapore Declaration on Climate
Change, Energy and the Environment
[46]
Agreed to establish Economic Research
Institute for ASEAN and East Asia
Fourth EAS Thailand
Cha-am and Hua
Hin
25 October 2009
The date and location of the venue was
rescheduled several times, and then a
Summit scheduled for 12 April 2009 at
Pattaya, Thailand was cancelled when
protesters stormed the venue. The
Summit has been rescheduled for
October 2009 and transferred again from
Phuket
[47]
to Cha-am and Hua Hin.
[48]
Fifth EAS Vietnam Hanoi
30 October
2010
[49]
Officially invited the US and Russia to
participate in future EAS as full-fledged
members
[45]
Sixth EAS
Indonesia
Bali 19 November 2011
The United States and Russia to join the
Summit.
Seventh
EAS Cambodia
Phnom Penh 20 November 2012
Eighth EAS Brunei
Bandar Seri
Begawan
10 October 2013
Ninth EAS
Burma
(Myanmar)
Naypyidaw TBA
Commemorative summit
Main article: ASEAN Free Trade Area
A commemorative summit is a summit hosted by a non-ASEAN country to mark a milestone anniversary of the
establishment of relations between ASEAN and the host country. The host country invites the heads of government
of ASEAN member countries to discuss future cooperation and partnership.
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█ ASEAN full members.
█ ASEAN observers.
█ ASEAN candidate members.
██ ASEAN Plus Three.
███ East Asia Summit.
██████ ASEAN Regional Forum.
Meeting Host Location Date Note
ASEAN–Japan Commemorative
Summit
Japan Tokyo
11, 12
December 2003
To celebrate the 30th
anniversary of the establishment
of relations between ASEAN
and Japan. The summit was also
notable as the first ASEAN
summit held between ASEAN
and a non-ASEAN country
outside the region.
ASEAN–China Commemorative
Summit
China Nanning
30, 31 October
2006
To celebrate the 15th
anniversary of the establishment
of relations between ASEAN
and China
ASEAN–Republic of Korea
Commemorative Summit
Republic
of Korea
Jeju-do 1, 2 June 2009
To celebrate the 20th
anniversary of the establishment
of relations between ASEAN
and Republic of Korea
ASEAN–India Commemorative
Summit
India
New
Delhi
20, 21
December 2012
To celebrate the 20th
anniversary of the establishment
of relations between ASEAN
and India.
Regional Forum
The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a formal, official, multilateral
dialogue in Asia Pacific region. As of July 2007, it consists of 27
participants. ARF objectives are to foster dialogue and consultation,
and promote confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the
region.
[50]
The ARF met for the first time in 1994. The current
participants in the ARF are as follows: all the ASEAN members,
Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, the People's Republic of China, the
European Union, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea,
Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Russia,
East Timor, United States and Sri Lanka.
[51]
The Republic of China
(also known as Taiwan) has been excluded since the establishment
of the ARF, and issues regarding the Taiwan Strait are neither
discussed at the ARF meetings nor stated in the ARF Chairman's
Statements.
Other meetings
Aside from the ones above, other regular
[52]
meetings are also held.
[53]
These include the annual ASEAN
Ministerial Meeting
[54]
as well as other smaller committees.
[55]
Meetings mostly focus on specific topics, such as
defence
[52]
or the environment,
[52][56]
and are attended by Ministers, instead of heads of government.
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Another Three
The ASEAN Plus Three is a meeting between ASEAN, China, Japan, and South Korea, and is primarily held
during each ASEAN Summit. Until now China, Japan and South Korea have not yet formed Free Trade Area
(FTA), the meeting about FTA among them will be held at end of 2012.
[57]
Asia–Europe Meeting
The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an informal dialogue process initiated in 1996 with the intention of
strengthening cooperation between the countries of Europe and Asia, especially members of the European Union
and ASEAN in particular.
[58]
ASEAN, represented by its Secretariat, is one of the 45 ASEM partners. It also
appoints a representative to sit on the governing board of Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF), a socio-cultural
organisation associated with the Meeting.
ASEAN–Russia Summit
The ASEAN–Russia Summit is an annual meeting between leaders of member states and the President of Russia.
ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting
The 44th annual meeting was held in Bali on 16 to 23 July 2011. Indonesia proposed a unified ASEAN travel visa
to ease travel within the region for citizens of ASEAN member states.
[59]
The 45th annual meeting was held in
Phnom Penh, Cambodia. For the first time in the history of ASEAN there was no diplomatic statement issued by
the bloc at the end of the meeting. This was due to tensions over China's claim of ownership over near the entirety
of the South China Sea and the counterclaim to such ownership by neighbouring states.
Economic community
ASEAN has emphasised regional cooperation in the “three pillars”, which are security, sociocultural integration, and
economic integration.
[60]
The regional grouping has made the most progress in economic integration by creating an
ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 2015.
[61]
The average economic growths of ASEAN's member nations
during 1989–2009 was Singapore with 6.73 percent, Malaysia with 6.15 percent, Indonesia with 5.16 percent,
Thailand with 5.02 percent, and the Philippines with 3.79 percent. This economic growth was greater than the
average Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economic growth, which was 2.83 percent.
[62]
From CEPT to AEC
A Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) scheme to promote the free flow of goods within ASEAN lead to
the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA).
[61]
The AFTA is an agreement by the member nations of ASEAN
concerning local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. The AFTA agreement was signed on 28 January 1992 in
Singapore.
[63]
When the AFTA agreement was originally signed, ASEAN had six members, namely, Brunei,
Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Vietnam joined in 1995, Laos and Burma in 1997,
and Cambodia in 1999. The latecomers have not fully met the AFTA's obligations, but they are officially considered
part of the AFTA as they were required to sign the agreement upon entry into ASEAN, and were given longer time
frames in which to meet AFTA's tariff reduction obligations.
[64]
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The next step is ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with main objectives are to create a:
single market and production base
highly competitive economic region
region of equitable economic development
region fully integrated into the global economy
Since 2007, the ASEAN countries gradually lower their import duties among them and targeted will be zero for
most of the import duties at 2015.
[65]
Since 2011, AEC has agreed to strengthen the position and increase the competitive edges of small and medium
enterprises (SME) in the ASEAN region.
[66]
Comprehensive Investment Area
The ASEAN Comprehensive Investment Area (ACIA) will encourage the free flow of investment within ASEAN.
The main principles of the ACIA are as follows
[67]
All industries are to be opened up for investment, with exclusions to be phased out according to schedules
National treatment is granted immediately to ASEAN investors with few exclusions
Elimination of investment impediments
Streamlining of investment process and procedures
Enhancing transparency
Undertaking investment facilitation measures
Full realisation of the ACIA with the removal of temporary exclusion lists in manufacturing agriculture, fisheries,
forestry and mining is scheduled by 2010 for most ASEAN members and by 2015 for the CLMV (Cambodia, Lao
PDR, Burma, and Vietnam) countries.
[67]
Trade in Services
An ASEAN Framework Agreement on Trade in Services was adopted at the ASEAN Summit in Bangkok in
December 1995.
[68]
Under AFAS, ASEAN Member States enter into successive rounds of negotiations to
liberalise trade in services with the aim of submitting increasingly higher levels of commitments. The negotiations
result in commitments that are set forth in schedules of specific commitments annexed to the Framework
Agreement. These schedules are often referred to as packages of services commitments. At present, ASEAN has
concluded seven packages of commitments under AFAS.
[69]
Single Aviation Market
The ASEAN Single Aviation Market (ASEAN-SAM), is the region's major aviation policy geared towards the
development of a unified and single aviation market in Southeast Asia by 2015. The aviation policy was proposed
by the ASEAN Air Transport Working Group, supported by the ASEAN Senior Transport Officials Meeting, and
endorsed by the ASEAN Transport Ministers.
[70]
The ASEAN-SAM is expected to fully liberalise air travel
between member states in the ASEAN region, allowing ASEAN countries and airlines operating in the region to
directly benefit from the growth in air travel around the world, and also freeing up tourism, trade, investment and
services flows between member states.
[70][71]
Since 1 December 2008, restrictions on the third and fourth
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freedoms of the air between capital cities of member states for air passengers services have been removed,
[72]
while from 1 January 2009, full liberalisation of air freight services in the region took effect.
[70][71]
On 1 January
2011, full liberalisation on fifth freedom traffic rights between all capital cities took effect.
[73]
The ASEAN Single Aviation Market policy will supersede existing unilateral, bilateral and multilateral air services
agreements among member states which are inconsistent with its provisions.
Free-trade agreements with other countries
ASEAN has concluded free trade agreements with China (expecting bilateral trade of $500 billion by 2015),
[74]
Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and India.
[75]
ASEAN-India bilateral trade crossed the $ 70 billion target
in 2012 (target was to reach the level only by 2015).
[citation needed]
The agreement with People's Republic of
China created the ASEAN–China Free Trade Area (ACFTA), which went into full effect on 1 January 2010. In
addition, ASEAN is currently negotiating a free trade agreement with the European Union.
[76]
Republic of China
(Taiwan) has also expressed interest in an agreement with ASEAN but needs to overcome diplomatic objections
from China.
[77]
ASEAN six majors
ASEAN six majors refer to the six largest economies in the area with economies many times larger than the
remaining four ASEAN countries.
Country GDP (nominal) GDP (PPP)
Indonesia
895,854,000,000 1,211,000,000,000
Thailand
376,989,000,000 602,216,000,000
Malaysia
307,178,000,000 447,980,000,000
Singapore
267,941,000,000 314,906,000,000
Philippines
257,890,000,000 416,678,000,000
Vietnam
137,681,000,000 320,450,000,000
Development gap
When Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia joined ASEAN in the late 1990s, concerns were raised about a
certain developmental divide regarding a gap in average per capita GDP between older and the newer members. In
response, the Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI) was formed by ASEAN as a regional integration policy with
the principle goal of bridging this developmental divide, which, in addition to disparities in per capita GDP, is
manifested by disparities in dimensions of human development such as life expectancy and literacy rates. Other than
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the IAI, other programmes for the development of the Mekong Basin - where all four newer ASEAN members are
located - that tend to focus on infrastructure development have been effectively enacted. In general, ASEAN does
not have the financial resources to extend substantial grants or loans to the new members. Therefore, it usually
leaves the financing of these infrastructure projects to international financial institutions and to developed countries.
Nevertheless, it has mobilised funding from these institutions and countries and from the ASEAN-6 (Indonesia,
Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei Darussalam, Singapore, and Thailand) themselves for areas where the development
gap needs to be filled through the IAI programme. Other programmes intended for the development of the
ASEAN-4 take advantage of the geographical proximity of the CLMV countries and tend to focus on infrastructure
development in areas like transport, tourism, and power transmission.
[78]
From CMI to AMRO
Due to Asian financial crisis of 1997 to 1998 and long and difficult negotiations with International Monetary Fund,
ASEAN+3 agreed to set up a mainly bilateral currency swap scheme known as the 2000 Chiang Mai Initiative
(CMI) to anticipate another financial crisis or currency turmoil in the future. In 2006 they agreed to make CMI with
multilateralisation and called as CMIM. On 3 May 2009, they agreed to make a currency pool consist of
contribution $38.4 billion each by China and Japan, $19.2 billion by South Korea and totally $24 billion by all of
ASEAN members, so the total currency pool was $120 billion.
[79]
A key component has also newly been added,
with the establishment of a surveillance unit.
[80]
The ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic and Research Office (AMRO) started its operation in Singapore in May
2011.
[81]
It performs a key regional surveillance function as part of the $120 billion of Chiang Mai Initiative
Multilateralisation (CMIM) currency swap facility that was established by Finance Minister and Central Bank
Governors of ASEAN countries plus China, Japan and South Korea in December 2009.
[82]
According to some analysts, the amount of $120 billion is relatively small (cover only about 20 percent of needs),
so coordination or help from International Monetary Fund is still needed.
[83]
On 3 May 2012 ASEAN+3 finance
ministers agreed to double emergency reserve fund to $240 billion.
[84]
Foreign Direct Investment
In 2009, realised Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) was $37.9 billion and increase by two-fold in 2010 to
$75.8 billion. 22 percent of FDI came from the European Union, followed by ASEAN countries themselves by 16
percent and then followed by Japan and US.
Intra-ASEAN travel
With the institutionalisation of visa-free travel between ASEAN member states, intra-ASEAN travel has boomed, a
sign that endeavours to form an ASEAN Community shall bear fruit in years to come. In 2010, 47 percent or 34
million out of 73 million tourists in ASEAN member-states were from other ASEAN countries.
[85]
Intra-ASEAN trade
Until end of 2010, Intra-Asean trade were still low which mainly of them were mostly exporting to countries outside
the region, except Laos and Myanmar were ASEAN-oriented in foreign trade with 80 percent and 50 percent
respectively of their exports went to other ASEAN countries.
[86]
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The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jalan
Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia.
Charter
Main article: ASEAN Charter
On 15 December 2008, the members of ASEAN met in
the Indonesian capital of Jakarta to launch a charter, signed
in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an
EU-style community".
[87]
The charter turns ASEAN into a
legal entity and aims to create a single free-trade area for
the region encompassing 500 million people. President of
Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated that "This is a
momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating,
integrating and transforming itself into a community. It is
achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in
Asian and global affairs at a time when the international
system is experiencing a seismic shift", he added, referring
to climate change and economic upheaval, and concluded
"Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn
region it was in the 1960s and 1970s". The fundamental
principles include:
a) respect for the independence, sovereignty, equality, territorial integrity and national identity of all ASEAN
Member States;
b) shared commitment and collective responsibility in enhancing regional peace, security and prosperity;
c) renunciation of aggression and of the threat or use of force or other actions in any manner inconsistent with
international law;
d) reliance on peaceful settlement of disputes;
e) non-interference in the internal affairs of ASEAN Member States;
f) respect for the right of every Member State to lead its national existence free from external interference,
subversion and coercion;
g) enhanced consultations on matters seriously affecting the common interest of ASEAN;
h) adherence to the rule of law, good governance, the principles of democracy and constitutional government;
i) respect for fundamental freedoms, the promotion and protection of human rights, and the promotion of social
justice;
j) upholding the United Nations Charter and international law, including international humanitarian law, subscribed
to by ASEAN Member States;
k) abstention from participation in any policy or activity, including the use of its territory, pursued by an ASEAN
Member State or non-ASEAN State or any non-State actor, which threatens the sovereignty, territorial integrity or
political and economic stability of ASEAN Member States;
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l) respect for the different cultures, languages and religions of the peoples of ASEAN, while emphasising their
common values in the spirit of unity in diversity;
m) the centrality of ASEAN in external political, economic, social and cultural relations while remaining actively
engaged, outward-looking, inclusive and non-discriminatory; and
n) adherence to multilateral trade rules and ASEAN's rules-based regimes for effective implementation of economic
commitments and progressive reduction towards elimination of all barriers to regional economic integration, in a
market-driven economy.
[88]
However, the ongoing global financial crisis was stated as being a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter,
[89]
and also set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009.
This proposition caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish
countries who violate citizens' rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.
[90]
The body was established
later in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). In November 2012, the
Commission adopted the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration.
Cultural activities
The organisation hosts cultural activities in an attempt to further integrate the region. These include sports and
educational activities as well as writing awards. Examples of these include the ASEAN University Network, the
ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, the ASEAN Outstanding Scientist and Technologist Award, and the Singapore-
sponsored ASEAN Scholarship.
ASEAN Media Cooperation
The ASEAN Media Cooperation (AMC) set digital television standards, policies and create in preparation for
broadcasters to transition from analogue to digital broadcasting, better promote media collaboration and
information exchange to enhance voice, understanding, and perspective between ASEAN people on the
international stage.
The ASEAN member countries aim media sector towards digitalisation and further regional media coaction. AMC
establishes partnerships between ASEAN news media, and cooperate on information sharing, photo swapping,
technical cooperation, exchange programmes, and facilitating joint news coverage and exchange of news footage.
The concept was stressed during the 11th AMRI Conference
[91]
adopting the theme: ”Media Connecting Peoples
and Bridging Cultures Towards One ASEAN Nation”. ASEAN Ministers believed that the new and traditional
media are important mediums to connect ASEAN people and bridging the cultural gap.
Accessing information towards the goal of creating a One ASEAN nation requires participation among the nation
members and its citizens. During the 18th ASEAN Summit
[92]
in May 2011, the Chair stated the important role of a
participatory approach among people and stakeholders of ASEAN towards a “people-oriented , people centred
and rule-based ASEAN”.
Several key initiatives that were initiated under the AMC:
[93]
ASEAN Media Portal (http://www.aseanmedia.net/SitePages/MDAHome.aspx), The new ASEAN Media
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Portal
[94]
was launched 16 November 2007 by the ASEAN Secretary-General, Mr Ong Keng Yong, and
witnessed by Singapore’s Minister for Information, Communications and the Arts, Dr Lee Boon Yang. The
said portal aims to provide a one-stop site that contains documentaries, games, music videos, and multimedia
clips on the culture, arts and heritage of the ASEAN countries to showcase the rich ASEAN culture and the
capabilities of its media industry.
ASEAN NewsMaker Project (http://www.aseanmedia.net/SitePages/ContentList.aspx?
Category=ASEAN%20NewsMaker%20Project), an initiative launched in 2009 that trains students and
teachers to produce informational video clips about the lifestyle in their country. The project was initiated by
Singapore to work closely with 500 primary and secondary students, aging from 9 to 16 years old, along
with their mentors from the 10 ASEAN countries to produce informative videos promoting their respective
country’s culture. Students underwent training for the NewsMaker software use, video production and
responsible internet use and hope to develop the language skills and story narration among the said students.
Engaging the youth using new media is an approach to create a One Asean Community as stressed by Dr
Soeung Rathchavy, Deputy Secretary-General of ASEAN for ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community: “Raising
ASEAN awareness amongst the youth is part and parcel of our efforts to build the ASEAN Community by
2015. Using ICT and the media, our youths in the region will get to know ASEAN better, deepening their
understanding and appreciation of the cultures, social traditions and values in ASEAN.”
[95]
ASEAN Digital Broadcasting Meeting, an annual forum for ASEAN members to set digital television
standards and policies, and to discuss progress in the implementation of the blueprint to switchover from
analogue to digital TV broadcasting by 2020. During the 11th ASEAN Digital Broadcasting Meeting,
[96]
members updated the status on DTV implementation and agreed to inform ASEAN members on the
Guidelines for ASEAN Digital Switchover.
[97]
An issue was raised on the availability and affordability of Set
Top Boxes (STB), thus ASEAN members were asked to make policies to determine funding for the STB,
methods of allocation, subsidies and rebates and other methods for the allocation of STB. It was also agreed
in the meeting to form a task force to develop STB specifications for DVB-T2 to ensure efficiency.
ASEAN’s Next Top Chef (http://www.aseanmedia.net/SitePages/ContentListDetail.aspx?
MID=1096&Category=Games) and The Legend of the Golden Talisman
(http://www.aseanmedia.net/SitePages/ContentListDetail.aspx?MID=1332&Category=Games), two
interactive games developed to raise awareness about ASEAN, and its people, places and cultures
New media and social media
During the 11th ASEAN Ministers Responsible for Information meeting (http://www.asean.org/news/item/joint-
media-statement-eleventh-conference-of-the-asean-ministers-responsible-for-information-11th-amri-and-second-
conference-of-asean-plus-three-ministers-responsible-for-information-2nd-amri3-kuala-lumpur-1st-march-2012)
held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ASEAN leaders recognised the emergence of new and social media as an
important tool for communications and interaction in ASEAN today. The Ministers agreed that efforts should be
made to leverage on social media to promote ASEAN awareness towards achieving an ASEAN community by
2015. Initially, ASEAN will consolidate the ASEAN Culture and Information Portal and the ASEAN Media Portal
to incorporate new media elements.
SEA Write Award
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Logo of the SEA
Write Award.
The S.E.A. Write Award is a literary award given to Southeast Asian poets and writers annually since 1979. The
award is either given for a specific work or as a recognition of an author's lifetime achievement. Works that are
honoured vary and have included poetry, short stories, novels, plays, folklore as well as
scholarly and religious works. Ceremonies are held in Bangkok and are presided by a
member of the Thai royal family.
ASAIHL
ASAIHL or the Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning is a non-
governmental organisation founded in 1956 that strives to strengthen higher learning
institutions, espescially in teaching, research, and public service, with the intention of
cultivating a sense of regional identity and interdependence.
Heritage Parks
ASEAN Heritage Parks
[98]
is a list of nature parks launched 1984 and relaunched in 2004. It aims to protect the
region's natural treasures. There are now 35 such protected areas, including the Tubbataha Reef Marine Park and
the Kinabalu National Park.
[99]
ASEAN Heritage Sites
Site Country Site Country
Alaungdaw Kathapa
National Park
Burma
Ao Phang-nga Marine
National Park
Thailand
Apo Natural Park
Philippines
Imperial City, Huế Vietnam
Bukit Barisan Selatan
National Park Indonesia
Gunung Leuser National
Park Indonesia
Gunung Mulu National
Park Malaysia
Ha Long Bay Vietnam
Hoi An Ancient Town Vietnam
Mounts Iglit-Baco National
Park Philippines
Indawgyi Lake Wildlife
Sanctuary
Burma
Inlé Lake Wildlife
Sanctuary
Burma
Kaeng Krachan National
Park
Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National
Park Indonesia
Khakaborazi National Park Burma Khao Yai National Park Thailand
Kinabalu National Park
Malaysia
Komodo National Park
Indonesia
Imperial Citadel of Thang
Long
Vietnam
Lampi Kyun Wildlife
Reserve
Burma
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Lorentz National Park
Indonesia
Meinmhala Kyun Wildlife
Sanctuary
Burma
Mu Ko Surin-Mu Ko
Similan Marine National
Park
Thailand Nam Ha Protected Area Laos
Phong Nha-Ke Bang
National Park
Vietnam
Preah Monivong (Bokor)
National Park Cambodia
Puerto Princesa
Subterranean River
National Park
Philippines
Sungei Buloh Wetland
Reserve Singapore
Taman Negara National
Park Malaysia
Tarutao Marine National
Park
Thailand
Tasek Merimbun Wildlife
Sanctuary
Brunei
Thung Yai-Huay Kha
Khaeng National Park
Thailand
Tubbataha Reef Marine
Park Philippines
Ujung Kulon National Park
Indonesia
Virachey National Park
Cambodia
Keraton Yogyakarta
Indonesia
Mỹ Sơn
Vietnam
Citadel of Ho Dynasty
Vietnam
Mount Malindang
Philippines
Vigan City
Philippines
Taal Volcano
Philippines
Mayon Volcano
Philippines
Songs and music
The ASEAN Way, the official regional anthem of ASEAN. Music by Kittikhun Sodprasert and
Sampow Triudom; lyrics by Payom Valaiphatchra.
ASEAN Song of Unity or ASEAN Hymn. Music by Ryan Cayabyab.
Let Us Move Ahead, an ASEAN song. Composed by Candra Darusman.
ASEAN Rise, ASEAN's 40th Anniversary song. Music by Dick Lee; lyrics by Stefanie Sun.
Education and human development
As the "collective entity to enhance regional cooperation in education", the ASEAN Education Ministers have
determined four priorities that ASEAN efforts toward improved education would address: (1) Promoting ASEAN
awareness among ASEAN citizens, particularly youth; (2) Strengthening ASEAN identity through education; (3)
Building ASEAN human resources in the field of education; and (4) Strengthening ASEAN university
networking.
[100]
Nations such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines have experienced
rapid development over the past 20 years, and this has been visibly evident in their educational systems. Each
country has developed unique - yet interconnected through ASEAN initiatives - human and physical infrastructure
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to provide youth education, a primary determinant in future capabilities and sustained economic growth for the
entire region.
[101]
Various programmes and projects have been and are currently in the process of being developed
to fulfil these directives and to reach these future goals.
[100]
At the 11th ASEAN Summit in December 2005, ASEAN Leaders set new directions for regional education
collaboration when they welcomed the decision of the ASEAN Education Ministers to convene the ASEAN
Education Ministers’ Meetings (ASED) on a regular basis. The Leaders also called for ASEAN Education
Ministers to focus on enhancing regional cooperation in education.
[102]
The ASEAN Education Ministers Meeting,
which meets annually, oversees ASEAN cooperation efforts on education at the ministerial level. With regard to
implementation, such programmes and activities resulting from such efforts are for the most part carried out by the
ASEAN Senior Officials on Education (SOM-ED), which reports to the ASEAN Education Ministers Meeting.
SOM-ED also manages cooperation on higher education through the ASEAN University Network (AUN). The
AUN was established to assist ASEAN in (1) promoting cooperation among ASEAN scholars, academics, and
scientists in the region; (2) developing academic and professional human resources in the region; (3) promoting
information dissemination among the ASEAN academic community; and (4) enhancing the awareness of regional
identity and the sense of "ASEAN-ness" among members.
[100]
Education indicators outlined hereafter belong to primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Primary education is
generally defined as the level of education where children are provided with basic reading, writing, and
mathematical skills together with elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science,
social science, art, and music. Secondary education continues to build up on the knowledge provided by primary
education and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development with more advanced
material and learning mechanisms. Tertiary education, whether or not leading to an advanced research qualification,
requires minimally the successful completion of secondary education for admission and entails the level of education
within some college or university.
[103]
School enrollment and participation
Participation in formal education is usually measured by the metric Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) and Net
Enrollment Ratio (NER). The NER demonstrates the extent of participation in a given age-specific level of
education. The purpose of the GER is to show the total enrollment in a level of education regardless of age. The
GER is expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population corresponding to the same level of
education.
[104]
Primary education
We can make a few observations based on reported data on primary education enrollment. Brunei Darussalam had
almost reached 100% net enrollment by 2001, while Indonesia has slowly moved downward from close to that
enrolment percentage thereafter. The Philippines has been inching closer and closer to this target in recent years.
The data indicate two groups of countries - one which has consistently attained a net enrollment ratio of more than
90% (Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore) and the other group with around 80%
(Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar). Vietnam started in the lower group and has moved to the upper group in the
last few decades. Thailand has not provided data for both sexes, but the separate net enrolment ratio for girls and
boys indicates that the overall ratio would be between 86% and 87%, and as such would be closer to the higher
group. The primary net enrolment ratios of boys were almost always higher than those of girls for all reporting
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High school students in Laos
assemble a jigsaw puzzle map of
Southeast Asia. Laos is a member of
ASEAN but most students know little
about the other 9 member countries.
The map is one of many hands-on
activities offered by Big Brother
Mouse, a not-for-profit literacy and
education project.
countries except Malaysia. For Singapore and Indonesia since 1998, however, the net enrolment ratios for girls and
boys were not significantly different. A marked widening of gender gap was noticeable in the Philippines in 1997
but in 1999 the net enrolment ratios for girls exceeded that for boys.
[105]
It is also useful to look at retainment and efficiency rates in education throughout ASEAN. The effectiveness of
efforts to extend literacy depends on the ability of the education system to ensure full participation of school-age
children and their successful progression to reach at least grade 5, which is the stage when they are believed to have
firmly acquired literacy and numeracy. The usual indicator to measure the level of this efficiency achievement is the
proportion of pupils starting grade 1 reaching grade 5 of primary education.
[106]
Most reporting countries in ASEAN have steadily improved retention rates of pupils through 5th grade. At the top
are Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, which have shown consistent survival rates of close to 100%, indicating a
very high retention of children in school through at least 5th grade. Among the rest of the countries with rates
ranging from 57% to 89% towards the end of the past century, Myanmar has maintained the largest improvements
over the years.
[107]
Secondary education
By 2001, Brunei Darussalam, Myanmar, Singapore, Malaysia, and the
Philippines had achieved improvements in net enrolment ratios for
secondary education of 11%-19% over those of 1990 or 1991. Vietnam
experienced the fastest growth rate in net enrolment between the years
1993 and 1998. Singapore, the country with the highest overall
achievement, has maintained consistently high net enrolment rates of
above 90% since 1994. With regard to gender differences, the difference
in the ratios of females to males ranges from 0.2%-6% (for the six
countries for which these ratios are available: Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand,and Vietnam). "The overall pattern is
that girls seem to exhibit appreciably higher net enrolment ratios for
secondary education, except in the case of Singapore where the ratios
for girls and boys converged in the second half of the reporting
period."
[108]
Tertiary education
While the HPAEs (High Performing Asian Economies) and ASEAN-6
(the 6 oldest ASEAN members) have invested heavily in public
education, and, unlike many other developing nations, have concentrated
on primary and secondary schooling, tertiary education has been left largely to the private sector.
[109]
Tertiary
education in Southeast Asia is, in general, relatively weak. In most cases universities are focused on teaching and
service to government rather than academic research. Additionally, universities in Southeast Asia, both in terms of
academic salaries and research infrastructure (libraries, laboratories), tend to be financially handicapped and poorly
supported. Moreover, regional academic journals cater to their 'home' informed audiences and respond less to
international standards which makes universal or regional benchmarking difficult.
[110]
University Network
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The ASEAN University Network (AUN) is a consortium of Southeast Asian universities. It was originally
founded in November 1995 by 11 universities within the member states.
[111]
Currently AUN comprises 26
Participating Universities.
[112]
The Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development Network (SEED-NET) Project, was officially
established as an autonomous sub-network of the ASEAN University Network (AUN) in April 2001'.
AUN/SEED-Net (http://www.seed-net.org/) aimed at promoting human resources development in
engineering in ASEAN. The Network consists of 19 leading Member Institutions (http://www.seed-
net.org/info_members.php) (selected by the Ministries in charge of higher education of respective countries)
from 10 ASEAN countries with the support of 11 leading Japanese Supporting Universities
(http://www.seed-net.org/info_jsuc.php) (selected by Japanese Government). AUN/SEED-Net is mainly
supported by the Japanese Government through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and
partially supported by the ASEAN Foundation. AUN/SEED-Net activities are implemented by the
AUN/SEED-Net Secretariat with the support of the JICA Project for AUN/SEED-Net, now based at
Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
Public efforts
Financial resources
Governments have a vested interest in investing in education and other aspects of human capital infrastructure,
especially those governments of rapidly-developing nations such as those within ASEAN. In the short run,
investment spending directly supports aggregate demand and growth. In the longer term, investments in physical
infrastructure, in productivity enhancements by businesses, and especially in the public provision of education and
health services determine the potential for growth.
[113]
To measure the investments in education by governments, we use the metrics of public current expenditure on
primary education as a percent of GDP and expenditure per pupil as a percent of GDP. These two indicators are
based on public current expenditure at all government levels on all public primary schools and subsidies to private
educational institutions, teachers and pupils. In some instances regarding figures used in these calculations, data on
current public expenditure on education may refer only to the Ministry of Education, excluding other ministries that
spend a part of their budget on educational activities.
[103]
Primary education expenditure in the reporting ASEAN countries is usually lower than 3% of GDP, with the
exception of Indonesia, which reported 5%. Two countries that show noticeable rising trends are the Philippines
and Lao PDR. Malaysia has experienced a gradual downward trend throughout the 1990s but stabilised around the
year 2000. Indonesia experienced a sharp decline in primary education expenditure as a percent of GDP between
1995 and 1999 from almost 10% to 5%. Singapore has maintained a stable 0.6% up until 2000 and increased
slightly to 0.7% in 2001.
[114]
While the public current expenditure on primary education as percentage of GDP can never be close to 100%, it is
theoretically possible to have the public current expenditure per pupil as percentage of GDP per capita to reach or
exceed 100%. Except for Singapore, this indicator fluctuates somewhat, but seems to have stabilised at around
10% for two reporting countries of ASEAN at the end of the 1990s decade. Since 1996, the indicator has steadily
risen in the Philippines reaching almost 14% by 1998. Upward or downward trend for this indicator can have many
causes which include sharp changes in enrolment rates of government expenditures on primary education.
[114]
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Scholarship
The ASEAN Scholarship is a scholarship programme offered by Singapore to the 9 other member states for
secondary school, junior college, and university education. It covers accommodation, food, medical benefits &
accident insurance, school fees, and examination fees.
[115]
Scholarship recipients who then perform well in the GCE
Advanced Level Examination may apply for ASEAN Undergraduate Scholarships, which are tailored specifically
for undergraduate institutions in Singapore and in other ASEAN member countries.
[116]
Singapore has effectively
used this programme to attract many of the best students from the ASEAN region over the past several years, and
scholars for the most part tend to remain in Singapore to pursue undergraduate studies through the ASEAN
Undergraduate Scholarship programme.
[117]
Education as a determinant of human development
Statistically, educational attainment (as measured by average years of schooling) strongly correlates with subsequent
income levels and development capabilities. An improvement in educational attainment will have a positive effect on
a country's income and human development (humanity) growth.
[118]
It is therefore evident that "universal access to, and completion of, primary or basic education is a self-evident goal
upon which the foundations for building the human capacity rests. Increased participation, regardless of sex, in
secondary and tertiary levels of education is a necessary step to be able to move forward in the process of
achieving equity, capacity building, access to information, and strengthening science."
[114]
Literacy rates
Literacy indicators provide us with a measure of the number of literate persons within the population who are
capable of using written words in daily and to continue to learn.
[119]
The literacy rate essentially reflects the
cumulative accomplishment of education in spreading literacy. The literacy rate is usually linked to school enrolment
ratios and school retainment rates (through at least grade 5) of primary education, both of which contribute to the
literate population.
The data of literacy rates in reporting countries of 15 to 24 years old reflect outcomes of the basic education
process and is therefore considered an accepted measure of the effectiveness of that country's education system's
investment in children. Among the eight ASEAN countries reporting six have made significant progress towards
100% literacy by 2000. This progress is comprable with member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-
operation and Development (OECD), an impressive accomplishment. Overall, there is not much disparity between
male and female literacy with the exceptions of Cambodia and Lao PDR, where the literacy rate for females is
about 10% lower than that of males in 1999. The results of overall improvement in literacy rates, though, indicate
positive effectiveness of the primary education systems of these countries throughout the 1990s.
[120][121]
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Country
Year
(most
recent)
Adult (15+)
Literacy Rate
Total
Adult
Men
Adult
Women
Youth (15-24)
Literacy Rate
Total
Youth
Men
Youth
Women
Brunei 2009 95% 97% 94% 100% 100% 100%
Cambodia
2008 78% 85% 71% 87% 89% 86%
Indonesia
2008 92% 95% 89% 99% 100% 99%
Laos 2005 73% 82% 63% 84% 89% 79%
Malaysia
2009 92% 95% 90% 99% 98% 99%
Burma 2009 92% 95% 90% 96% 96% 95%
Philippines
2008 95% 95% 96% 98% 97% 98%
Singapore
2009 95% 97% 92% 100% 100% 100%
Thailand
2005 94% 96% 92% 98% 98% 98%
Vietnam
2009 93% 95% 91% 97% 97% 96%
Looking at adult (defined as the entire population 15 and older) literacy rates, we can see that most reporting
countries have made significant progress in this demographic as well. All but two reporting countries reached adult
literacy rates of around 90% or better. Looking at the differences in literacy rates by sex, we can see a visible
gender gap. This gap is most apparent in Cambodia and Laos, with percentage differences between adult men and
adult women literacy rates of 14% and 19%, respectively.
[122]
Sports
Southeast Asian Games
The Southeast Asian Games, commonly known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multi-sport event involving
participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian
Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Olympic Council of
Asia.
ASEAN Para Games
The ASEAN Para Games is a biennial multi-sport event held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with
physical disabilities. The games are participated by the 11 countries located in Southeast Asia. The Games,
patterned after the Paralympic Games, are played by physically challenged athletes with mobility disabilities, visual
disabilities,
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Logo of the ASEAN Para Games.
FESPIC Games / Asian Para Games
The FESPIC Games, also known as the Far East and South Pacific Games for the persons with disability, was the
biggest multi-sports games in Asia and South Pacific region. The
FESPIC Games were held nine times and bowed out, a success
[123]
in
December 2006 in the 9th FESPIC Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The Games re-emerged as the 2010 Asian Para Games in Guangzhou,
China. The 2010 Asian Para Games debuted shortly after the conclusion
of the 16th Asian Games, using the same facilities and venue made
disability-accessible. The inaugural Asian Para Games, the parallel event
for athletes with physical disabilities, is a multi-sport event held every four
years after every Asian Games.
Football Championship
The ASEAN Football Championship is a biennial Football competition organised by the ASEAN Football
Federation, accredited by FIFA and contested by the national teams of Southeast Asia nations. It was inaugurated
in 1996 as Tiger Cup, but after Asia Pacific Breweries terminated the sponsorship deal, "Tiger" was renamed
"ASEAN".
ASEAN 2030 FIFA World Cup bid
January 2011: As a result of ASEAN Foreign ministers at Lombok meeting, they agreed bid to host the FIFA
World Cup in 2030 as a single entity.
[124]
May 2011: ASEAN will go ahead with its bid for the FIFA 2030 World Cup. It was a follow up to the agreement
reached in January before.
[125]
ASEAN Defence Industry Collaboration
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand have established defence industries. To cut cost and plan to be self-
sufficient by 2030, Indonesia and Malaysia have agreed to promote the creation of the ASEAN Defence Industry
Collaboration (ADIC).
[126]
The United States military reportedly has said that ADIC could have additional benefits
beyond cost savings for ASEAN members, including facilitating a set of standards, similar to NATO, that will
improve interoperability among ASEAN and U.S. militaries and increase the effectiveness of regional response to
threats to Asia-Pacific peace and stability.
[127]
Criticism
Non-ASEAN countries have criticised ASEAN for being too soft in its approach to promoting human rights and
democracy in the junta-led Burma.
[128]
Despite global outrage at the military crack-down on unarmed protesters in
Yangon, ASEAN has refused to suspend Burma as a member and also rejects proposals for economic
sanctions.
[129]
This has caused concern as the European Union, a potential trade partner, has refused to conduct
free trade negotiations at a regional level for these political reasons.
[130]
International observers view it as a "talk
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shop",
[131]
which implies that the organisation is "big on words but small on action".
[132][133]
However, leaders such
as the Philippines' Foreign Affairs Secretary, Alberto Romulo, said it "is a workshop not a talk shop".
[134]
Others
have also expressed similar sentiment.
[135]
Head of the International Institute of Strategic Studies – Asia, Tim Huxley cites the diverse political systems present
in the grouping, including many young states, as a barrier to far-reaching cooperation outside the economic sphere.
He also asserts that in the absence of an external threat to rally against with the end of the Cold War, ASEAN has
begun to be less successful at restraining its members and resolving border disputes such as those between Burma
and Thailand and Indonesia and Malaysia.
[136]
During the 12th ASEAN Summit in Cebu, several activist groups staged anti-globalisation protests.
[137]
According
to these communist activists, the agenda of economic integration would negatively affect industries in the Philippines
and would cause thousands of Filipinos to lose their jobs.
[138]
ASEAN competitions
SEA Games
ASEAN University Games
ASEAN School Games
ASEAN Para Games
ASEAN Football Championship
Miss ASEAN
See also
ASEAN–India Commemorative Summit
ASEAN-India Car Rally 2012
ASEAN Common Time
ASEAN Exchanges
ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR)
Asia Pacific Forum
ASEAN kecil
Asian Monetary Unit
Chiang Mai Initiative
Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia
List of ASEAN countries by GDP (nominal)
Mekong-Ganga Cooperation
Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation
Blue card system, the ASEAN motor insurance scheme.
ASEAN Foundation
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
Literature
ASEAN Community in Figures (ACIF) 2012
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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations 29/36
(http://www.asean.org/images/2013/resources/publication/2013_ACIF_2012%20Mar.pdf), Jakarta:
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 2012, ISBN 978-602-7643-22-2
Acharya, Amitav (2009), Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the
problem of regional order (2nd ed.), Abingdon Oxon/New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-41428-9
Collins, Allan (2013), Building a People-oriented Security Community the ASEAN Way, Abingdon
Oxon/New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-46052-1
Fry, Gerald W. (2008), The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, New York: Chelsea House,
ISBN 978-0-7910-9609-3
Lee, Yoong Yoong, ed. (2011), ASEAN Matters! Reflecting on the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, ISBN 978-981-4335-06-5
Haacke, Jürgen; Morada, Noel M., eds. (2010), Cooperative Security in the Asia-Pacific: The ASEAN
Regional Forum, Abingdon Oxon/New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-46052-1
Severino, Rodolfo (2008), ASEAN, Singapore: ISEAS Publications, ISBN 978-981-230-750-7
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External links
1/15/14 Association of Southeast Asian Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations 36/36
Organisation
ASEAN Secretariat (http://www.asean.org/), retrieved 13 March 2007.
ASEAN Regional Forum (http://www.aseanregionalforum.org/), retrieved 13 March 2007.
BBC Country Profile/Asean (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/country_profiles/4114415.stm),
retrieved 13 March 2007.
Summits
14th ASEAN Summit (http://www.14thaseansummit.org)
13th ASEAN Summit (http://www.13thaseansummit.org.sg) official site. Retrieved 16 September 2007.
12th ASEAN Summit (http://www.12thaseansummit.org.ph), retrieved 13 March 2007.
11th ASEAN Summit (official site) (http://www.11thaseansummit.org.my/) 12–14 December 2005 in Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved 13 March 2007.
ASEAN organisations
ASEAN's official directory of ASEAN organisations (http://www.asean.org/99.htm)
ASEAN Architect (http://www.act.or.th/asean_architect/index.html)
ASEAN Law Association (http://www.aseanlawassociation.org/)
ASEAN Ports Association (http://www.aseanports.com/)
US-ASEAN Business Council (http://www.us-asean.org/)
ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (http://www.asean-cn.org/)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations&oldid=590748930"
Categories: Association of Southeast Asian Nations Supranational unions Supraorganizations
United Nations General Assembly observers Organizations established in 1967
Ramon Magsaysay Award winners
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