Intercept the incoming modulated signal

? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalRadio receiver is an electronic equipment w
hich pick -ups the desired signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the
carrier signal to get back the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? AmpliIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalfy selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
TRAPATT Diode Tutorial
- the TRAPATT diode is related to the IMPATT diode, but offers a higher level of
efficiency than an IMPATT.
IMPATT diode tutorial includes:
IMPATT diodes tutorial
Theory & operation
StrucRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desired
signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get back
the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selectIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signaled R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
ture & fabrication
TRAPATT diode
The TRAPATT or TRApped, Plasma Avalanche Triggered Transit diode belongs to the
same basic family as the IMPATT diode.
However the TRAPATT has a number of advantages and as a result it is used in a n
umber of applications.
Essentially the TRAPATT normally used as a microwave oscillator, but has the adv
antage of a greater level of efficiency - typically the DC to RF signal conversi
on efficiency may be in the region of . 20 to 60%.
TRAPATT basics
The TRAPATT diode is bIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalased around the initial concept of the IMPA
TT. However for the TRAPATT, the doping level between the junction and the anode
.
Typically the construction of the device consists of a p+ n n+, although where f
or higher power levels an n+ p p+ structure is better.
For operation the TRAPATT is excited using a current pulse which causes the elec
tric field to increase to a critical value where avalanche multiplication occurs
. At this point the field collapses locally due to the generated plasma.
The separatiRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desire
d signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get ba
ck the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulatIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signaled signal to get back original modulating s
ignal
? Amplify modulating
on and drift of the electrons and holes are then driven by a very much smaller f
ield. It virtually appears that they have been 'trapped' behind with a velocity
smaller than the saturation velocity. After the plasma spreads across the whole
active region, the holes and electrons begin to drift to the opposite terminals
and then the electric field begins to rise again.

Diagrammatic TRAPATT diode structure
The criterion for operation in TRAPATT operation is that the avalanche front adv
ances fasrer than the saturation velocity of the carriers. In general it exceeds
the saturation value by a factor of around three.
The TRAPATT mode does not depend upon the injection phase delay.
Although the TRAPATT diode provides a much higher level of efficiency than the I
MPATT, its major disadvantage is that the noise levels on the signal are even hi
gher than they are when using an IMPATT. A balance needs to be made according to
the application required.
IMPATT Operation & Theory
- the IMPATTRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desire
d signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get ba
ck the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulaIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalting
diode is very similarIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signal in basic structure to other forms of diode
, but as the theory shows, it uses avalanche transit time delays to provide a ne
gative resistance region.
IMPATT diodeRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desire
d signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get ba
ck the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? SeleRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desire
d signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get ba
ck the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulaIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalting
ct desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
tutorial includes:
IMPATRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desired
signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get back
the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept thIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signale incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
T diodes tutorial
Theory & operation
Structure & fabrication
TRAPATT diode
While much of the structure of the IMPATT diode is similar to a standard Schottk
y or PIN diode in its basic outline, the theory and method of operation are very
different.
The diode utRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desire
d signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get ba
ck the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desireIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signald signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
ilises avalanche breakdown combined with the transit times of the charge carrier
s to enable it to provide a negative resistance region and therefore act as an o
scillator.
As the nature of the avalanche breakdown is very noisy, and signals created by a
n IMPATT diode have high levels of phase noise.
IMPATT diode theory basics
Like any other diode, an IMPATT has a relatively standard IV characteristic. In
the forward direction it will conduct after it has reached the forward conductio
n point. In the reverse direction it will block current.
However at a certain voltage the diode will break down and current will flow in
the reverse direction.

Graphical representation of the IMPATT diode IV characteristic
The IMPATT diode is operated under reverse bias conditions. These are set so tha
t avalanche breakdown occurs. This occurs in the region very close to the P+ (i.
e. heavily doped P region). The electric field at the p-n junction is very high
because the voltage appears across a very narrow gap creating a high potential g
radient. Under these circumstances any carriers are accelerated very quickly.
As a resultRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desired
signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get bac
k the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept thIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signale incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
they collide with the crystal lattice and free other carriers. These newly free
d carriers are similarly accelerated and collide with the crystal lattice freein
g more carriers. This process gives rise to what is termed avalanche breakdown a
s the number of carriers multiplies very quickly. For this type of breakdown onl
y occurs when a certain voltage is applied to the junction. Below this the poten
tial does not accelerate the carriers sufficiently.
In terms of iRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desir
ed signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get b
ack the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
ts operation the IMPATT diode can be considered to consist of two areas, namely
the avalanche region or injection region, and secondly the drift region.
These two areas provide different functions. The avalanche or injection region c
reates the carriers which may be either holes of electrons, and the drift region
is where the carriers move across the diode taking a certain amount of time dep
endent upon its thickness.
The two types of carrier drift in opposite directions.
Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signal
Charge carrier movement within an IMPATT diode
IMPATT diode operation
Once the carriers have been generated the device relies on negative resistance t
o generate and sustain an oscillation. The effect does not occur in the device a
t DC, but instead, here it is an AC effect that is brought about by phase differ
ences that are seen at the frequency of operation. When an AC signal is applied
the current peaks are found to be 180° out of phase with the voltage. This results
from two delays which occur in the device: injection delay, and a transit time
delay as the current carriers migrate or drift across the device.

IMPATT diode voltage & current waveforms
The voltage applied to the IMPATT diode has a mean value where it is on the verg
e of avalanche breakdown. The voltage varies as a sine wave, but the generation
of carriers does not occur in unison with the voltage variations. It might be ex
pected that it would occur at the peak voltage. This arises because the generati
on of carriers is not only a function of the electric field but also the number
of carriers already in existence.
As the electriRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desi
red signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get
back the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
c field increases soIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signal does the number of carriers. Then even aft
er the field has reached its peak the number of carriers still continues to grow
as a result of the number of carriers already in existence. This continues unti
l the field falls to below a critical value when the number of carriers starts t
o fall. As a result of this effect there is a phase lag so that the current is a
bout 90° behind the voltage. This is known as the injection phase delay.
When the electrons move across the N+ region an external current is seen, and th
is occurs in peaks, resulting in a repetitive waveform.
IMPATT circuits
IMPATT diodes are generally used at frequencies above around 3 GHz. It is found
that when a tuned circuit is applied along with a voltage around the breakdown v
oltage to the IMPATT, and oscillation will occur.
Compared to other devices that use negative resistance and are available for ope
ration at these frequencies, the IMPATT is able to produce much higher levels of
power. Typically figures of ten or more watts may be obtained, dependent upon t
he device.
One of the main drawbacks of the IMPATT diode in its operation is the generation
of high levels of phase noise as a result of the avalanche breakdown mechanism.
It is found the devices based around Gallium Arsenide technology are much bette
r than those using Silicon. This results from the much closer ionisation coeffic
ients for holes and electrons.
By Ian Poole
BARITT Diode Tutorial
- the BARITT diode or Barrier Injection Transit Time diode has many similarities
with the IMPATT and is used in specialist microwave RF signal applications but
with lower noise.
BARITT diode tutorial includes:
BARITT diode tutorial
See also: Other types of diodes
The BARITT diode or Barrier Injection Transit Time diode, bears many similaritie
s to the more widely used IMPATT diode.
Like the more familiar IMPATT diode, the BARITT is used in microwave signal gene
ration, often in applications including burglar alarms and the like, where it ca
n easily produce a simple microwave signal with a relatively low noise level.
Radio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desired signal, re
ject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get back the origi
nal modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
BARITT basics
The BARITT is very similar, in many respects to the IMPATT, but the main differe
nce is that the BARITT diode uses thermionic emission rather than avalanche mult
iplication.
One of the advantages of using this form of emission is that the process is far
less noisy and as a result the BARITT does not suffer from the same noise levels
as does the IMPATT.
Essentially the BARITT diode consists of two back to back diodes. When a potenti
al is applied across the device, most of the potential drop occurs across the re
verse biased diode.
If the voltage is thIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalen increased until the edges of the depleti
on region meet, then a condition known as punch through occurs.

Graphical representation of the BARITT diode IV characteristic
It can be seen within the diagram that the punch through voltages, Vpt are diffe
rent for the two directions. This difference results from asymmetry in the two j
unctions and can be controlled during the manufacture stages of the diode. They
can be made to be different or almost the same.
Radio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups the desired signal, r
eject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal to get back the orig
inal modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desiredRadio receiver is an electronic equipment which pick -ups
the desired signal, reject the unwanted signal and demodulate the carrier signal
to get back the original modulating signal.
Function of Radio Receivers
? Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify seleIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulatingIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulatingIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalIntercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F Intercept the incoming modulated signal
? Select desired signal and reject unwanted signals
? Amplify selected R.F signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signalsignal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original
modulating signal
? Amplify modulating frequency signal frequency signal frequency signalcted R.F
signal
? Detect modulated signal to get back original modulating signal
? Amplify modulating
Graphical representation of the BARITT diode voltage and current waveforms
After a charge is injected, it travels to the substrate with the saturation velo
city.
As seen from the diagram, it can be seen that the injection current is in phase
with the RF voltage waveform. This results in a non-ideal current waveform situa
tion which flows in the positive resistance region and therefore losses are high
er in the BARITT than in an IMPATT.
The terminal current pulse width is determined by the transit time which is L/vs
at (Where the electrodes are spaced L apart and vsat is the saturation velocity)
. This constitutes around three quarters of the cycle.
In view of the physical restraints of the BARITT diode, the power capability dec
reases approximately as the square of the frequency because higher frequencies r
equire a smaller separation between the electrodes and this in turn limits the v
oltages that can be used.Also the efficiency falls away with increasing frequenc
y. For low frequency operation it may be around 5% or a little more.