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CONTENTS
List of figures and Tables ii
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 History of Body Armors 1
1.2 Composites as Body Armor 2
1.3 Ballistic Performance of Composites 3
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 4
2.1 Analytical Models 4
2.2 Numerical models 6
3. MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES 7
4. PROBLEM FORMULATION 7
4.1 Analytical Model 7
5. NUMERICAL STUDY AND VALIDATION 13
5.1 Problem Definition 13
5.2 Results and Validation 15
6. DETERMINATION OF INPUT PARAMETERS 17
6.1 Fabrication of Composite Laminates 17
6.2 Micromechanical Properties 17
6.2.1 Numerical Study 17
6.2.2 Experimental Study 19
7. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 21
7.1 Conclusions 21
7.2 Future Work 21
8. REFERENCES 22
APPENDIX A. Analytical Model 24
A1. Strain Expression 24
A2. Linear variation of strain in secondary yarns 26
A3. Strain variation along thickness direction 27







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List of Figures
Figure No. Title Page No.
Fig. 1.1 (a) Riveted mail and plate coat zirah bagtar, (b) Plate armour for
Henry II of France (1555 A.D.) with elaborate ornamental embossing.
2
Fig. 1.2 (a) A sixteenth-century knight with a horse in full barding, (b) 100%
DuPont™ Kevlar® armor panels.
3
Fig. 1.3 Penetration into compliant laminates (a) with shear plug formation
and (b) with compaction and spring-back.
4
Fig. 4.1 Configuration of a yarn/fiber before and after transverse impact: (a)
before impact; (b)–(d) after impact.
9
Fig. 4.2 Cone formation during ballistic impact on the back face of the
composite target.
10
Fig. 5.1 A six layer composite laminate and flat end projectile. 13
Fig. 5.2 Stress strain curve of woven fabric E-glass/epoxy composite under
tensile loading.
14
Fig. 5.3 Comparision between energy absorbed by different mechanisms at
V0=158 m/s Naik and Shrirao (2004) vs. Current Study.
15
Fig. 5.4 (a) Projectile kinetic energy variation with yarn width and (b) Energy
absorbed in secondary yarn deformation variation with yarn width, at
V0=158 m/s.
16
Fig. 5.5 (a)Cone kinetic energy variation with yarn width and (b) Projectile
displacement variation with yarn width, at V0=158 m/s.
16
Fig. 6.1 (a) Specimens, (b) Extensometer, (c) Zwick/Roell Material Testing
Machine, (d) Fractured specimen, and (e) Enlarged view- fractured
specimen.
20
Fig. A.1 A rod subjected to tensile loading. 24
Fig. A.2 (a) Deformed position of fibre at any particular time ti, (b) Chord
Length of projectile at any distance from diameter of projectile.
25
Fig. A.3 Modelling of energy absorbed due to deformation of secondary yarns. 26
Fig. A.4 Side view of the composite laminate of thickness h. 27

List of Tables
Table No. Title Page No.
Table 5.1 Geometrical & material parameters (Naik and Shrirao, 2004). 14
Table 6.1 Micromechanical properties of woven E-glass and polypropylene. 18