Credit - Loan and Advance. Types of Credit.

Credit Department
CD Banking business primarily involves accepting deposits from the public and investing or lending the same
and thereby making profit out of it. However, lending money is not without risk and therefore banks make
loans and advances to farmers, traders, businessmen and industrialist against either tangible (land, building,
stock etc.) or intangible security. Even then, the banks run the risk of default in repayment. Therefore, the
banks follow cautious measures while lending money to others. This core function of a bank is performed by
the Credit Department of the bank. In this case, the relationship of bank and customer is that of the creditor
and debtor.

CREDIT (LOAN AND ADVANCE)

The profit of a commercial bank depends primarily on the utilization of its fund. But Bank cannot lend its
fund fully. As per Banking Company Act 1991 every banking company has to maintain a specified minimum
(presently 16%) of the total of its demand and time liabilities in the form of cash and approved securities
with Bangladesh Bank. This percentage or ratio is termed Statutory Liquid Ratio. Further every scheduled
bank has to maintain with Bangladesh Bank an average daily balance, the amount of which has not to be
less than a particular percentage (presently 4%) of the total of its demand and time liabilities. As such
Commercial Bank generally goes for short-term finance although a small portion of its total deposit is
invested as long term lending. Commercial banks allow different forms advance.

TYPES OF CREDIT OFFERED BY A BANK:

Banks usually offers following types of Credit (loans and advances):
? Cash Credit (Hypo).
? Cash Credit (Pledge).
? LTR
? Term Loan
? Lease Financing
? SOD
? Others

CASH CREDIT (HYPO):

Cash Credit or continuing credits are those that form continuous debits and credits up to a limit and have
and expiration date. A service charge that is effect an interest charge is normally made as a percentsage of
the value of purchases. These credits may be of the nature of pledged and /or hypothecated and banks
should report these in separate heads incorporated under the main head cash credit. A detailed explanation
of hypothecation is given below:

Under this arrangement a credit is sanctioned against hypothecation of the raw materials or finished goods.
The letter of hypothecation creates a charge against the goods in favor of the Bank but neither the
ownership nor its possession is passed on to it; only a right or interest in the goods is created in favor of the
Bank and the borrower binds himself to give possession of the goods to the bank when called upon to do so.
When the possession is handed over, the charge is converted into pledge. This type of facility is generally
given to the reputed borrowers of undoubted integrity.

CASH CREDIT (PLEDGE):

Under this arrangement a cash credit is sanctioned against pledge of goods or raw materials. By signing the
letter of pledge, the borrower surrenders the physical possession of the goods under the Banks effective
control as security for payment of Bank dues. The ownership of the goods, however, remains with the
borrower. The pledge creates an implied lien in favor of the Bank on the underlying merchandise. In the
event of failure of the borrower to honor his commitment the Bank can sell the goods for recovery of the
advance. No collateral security is normally asked for grant of such credit.

LOAN AGAINST TRUST RECEIPTS (LTR):

This is a loan facility up to a satisfactory limit to the traders / customers by a Bank against security of the
value of the imported merchandise. This item also includes loan against Trust Receipts.

TERM LOAN:

A Bank advance for a specific period repaid with interest under fixed schedules. The term loans may be as
follow:
Short Term: Up to and including 12 months.
Medium Term: More than 12 months up to and including 60 months.
Long Term: More than 60 months. [This item includes lease financing]

LEASE FINANCING:

An entrepreneur, under this Scheme, may avail of the lease facilities to procure industrial machinery
(without having to purchase it by down payment) with easy repayment schedule. The clients also get special
rebate in their income-tax payment under the scheme.

SECURED OVERDRAFTS (SOD):

A loan facility on a customer’s current account at a Bank permitting him to overdraw up to a certain agreed
limit for an agreed period. The terms of the loan are normally that it is repayable on demand or at the
expiration date of the agreement.

OTHERS:

Any loan that does not fall in any of the above facilities is considered as “other”. Blocked / Segregated
continuing credits (Pledge, Hypothecation or Overdraft) when re-scheduled by the Banks for payments over
a number of periods should also be reported against the head “other”.

Loan Against Trust Receipt (LATR)

This is a loan against a Trust Receipt provided to the client when the documents covering an import shipment are given
without payment. Under this system, the client will hold the goods of their sale proceeds in trust for the bank, until the loan
allowed against the Trust Receipt is fully paid.


Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk (HPSM)
Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk is a Special type of contract which has been developed through practice and
approved in sharia. Actually it is a Synthesis of three contracts:
 Shirkat
 Ijarah and
 Sale
These may be defined as follows:
SHIRKATUL MELK :
Shirkat means partnership. Melk means in ownership. When two or more persons supply equity, purchase asset
and own the same jointly and share the benefit as per agreement and loss proportion to their respective equity, the
contract is called Shirkatul Melk.
IJARAH :
The term Ijarah has been derived from the Arabic words Ajr (Ujrat) which means Consideration, Return, Wages or
Rent. This is really the exchange value or consideration, Return, Wages or Rent of service of an Asset. Ijarah has
been described as a contract between two parties, the lessor and lessee where the lessee (customer) enjoys or
reaps a Special service or benefit against a specified consideration or Rent from the Asset Owner by the Lessor
(bank). It is a lease agreement under which a certain asset is leased out by the lessor (bank) to a lessee (customer)
against specific rent or Rentals for a fixed period.
Related Terminologies or Elements of Ijarah :
 According to the majority of Islamic Scholars, General detailed elements of Ijarah are-.
o The wording: This includes offer and acceptance.
o Contracting parties : This includes a lessor, the owner of the property and a lessee, the party that benefits from the
use of property,
o Subject matter of the contract: This includes the rent and the benefit.
 The Lessor (Muajjir) - The individual or organization leases/rents out the property or service is called the lessor
(Muajjir).
 The Lessee (Mustajjir) – The individual or organization hires/takes the lease of the property or service against the
consideration / rent / wages / remuneration is called the lessee (Mustajjir).
 The Benefit (Maajur) – The service which is leased / rented out is called the Benefit (Maajur).
 The Rent (Ajir or Ujarat) – The consideration either in monetary terms or in quantity of goods fixed to be paid against
the benefit of the asset or service of the assets is called the rent or Ujrat or Ajir.
Sale:
This is a contract between a buyer and a seller under which the ownership of certain goods or asset is transferred
by seller to the buyer against agreed upon price paid / to be paid by the buyer. Thus, in Hire Purchase under
Shirkatul Melk mode both the Bank and the Client supply equity in equal or unequal proportion for purchase of an
asset like land, building, machinery, transports etc., purchase the asset with that equity money, own the same
jointly; share the benefit as per agreement and bear the loss in proportion to their respective equity. The share, part
or portion of the asset owned by the Bank is hired out to the Client partner for a fixed rent per unit of time for a fixed
period. Lastly the Bank sells and transfers the ownership of its share / part / portion to the Client against payment of
price fixed for that part either gradually part by part or in lump sum within the hire period or after the expiry of the
hire agreement.

Purpose:
Under this mode Bank may invest or supply equipment, goods, and retail products (such as car or House) on rental
basis.
 Features
 In case of Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk transaction the asset / property involved is jointly purchased by the
Hiree (Bank) and the Hirer (Client) with specified equity participation under a Shirkatul Melk Contract in which the
amount of equity and share in ownership of the asset of each partner (Hiree & Hirer ) are clearly mentioned.
 In Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Agreement, the exact ownership of both the Hiree (Bank) and Hirer (Client)
must be recognised. However, if the partners agree and wish that the asset purchased may be registered in the name
of any one of them, jointly or in the name of any third party, clearly mentioning the same in the Hire Purchase
Shirkatul Melk Agreement. However, in TBL, no third party registration shall be allowed.
 Rent can not be considered as price or part of price of the Asset.
 In the HPSM agreement Hiree does not sell or Hirer does not purchase the asset but they promise to sell and
purchase the same part by part only.
 The promise to transfer legal title by the Hiree and undertakings given by the Hirer to purchase ownership of the hired
asset upon payment part by part as per stipulations are effected only when it is actually done by a separate sale
contract.
 As the portion of the Bank is sold and transferred part-by-part, the rent will be reduced proportionately. As soon as
any part of Hiree’s (Bank’s) ownership of the asset is transferred to the Hirer (Client) that becomes the property of the
Hirer and hire contract for that share / part and entitlement for rent thereof lapses. However, for convenience & as
cost effective measure, legal transfer of ownership may be done once on full payment of share.
 In Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk Agreement, the Shirkatul Melk contract is effected from the day the equity of
both parties deposited and the asset is purchased and continues upto the day on which the full title of Hiree (Bank) is
transferred to the Hirer (Client).
 The hire contract becomes effective from the day on which the Hiree transfers the possession of the hired asset in
good order and useable condition to the Hirer.
 Ownership risk is borne by both the Hiree and Hirer in proportion to their retained ownership / equity.
 Under this agreement the role of Hirer is one that of a trustee, the hired asset being a trust property in his hands; he
will manage, maintain the asset in favour of the interest of the Hiree at his own cost (all costs including insurance &
legal expenses) as the exact subject of hirer except in cases of any accident due to any event entirely beyond control
of the hirer and natural calamity/disaster (acts of Allah) to be determined by the Bank after proper investigation within
the knowledge of the hirer. If the asset is damaged or destroyed due to mismanagement, corruption, negligence,
transgressions, default, etc. of the Hirer, he shall be responsible to compensate the Hiree (Bank) for that.
 The Hirer cannot, without obtaining prior written permission of the Hiree (Bank) make any changes in the exact item
of the hire, and / or remove it from its place of installation and transfer it to another location.
 Hire Purchase under Shirkatul Melk facilities may be for medium-term or long-term period which may be utilized for
the expansion of production and services, as well as housing activities. The duration of Hire Purchase under Shirkatul
Melk contract shall not exceed the useful life of the subject / asset of the transaction.
 If, for any reason, the hire contract is revoked prior to the transfer of full title of the asset to the Hirer, then the title of
the asset will be shared by both Hiree and Hirer – the Hirer will share that part of title which has been transferred to
him against payment and the Hiree will share the remaining part.
 The Hirer to secure the Bank (the Hiree) may pledge / hypothecate / mortgage his portion / part / share in the asset
(acquired / to be acquired) and or any other asset / property of his own / third party guarantor to the Bank to fulfill his
all liabilities / commitments including the accrued rental, if any.

Bai-muajjal
The term ‘Bai-Muajjal’ has been derived from Arabic words ﻊﻴﺒ and ﻝﺟﺍ (Bai’un and Ajalun). The word ﺒﻴﻊ means purchase and sale and
the word ﺍﺟﻝ means a fixed time or a fixed period. " Bai-Muajjal " means sale for which payment is made at a future fixed date or
within a fixed period. In short, it is a sale on Credit
Bai-Muajjal may be defined as a contract between a Buyer and a Seller under which the Seller sells certain specific goods permissible
under Islamic Shari‘ah and Law of the land) to the Buyer at an agreed fixed price payable at a fixed future date in lump sum or within a
fixed period by fixed instalments. The seller may also sell the goods purchased by him as per order and specification of the Buyer.
In this Bank, Bai-Muajjal is treated as a contract between the Bank and the Client under which the Bank sells the goods, purchased as per
order and specification of the Client, to the client at an agreed price payable at any fixed future date in lump sum or within a fixed period
by fixed instalments.
Thus it is a Credit sale of goods by which ownership of the goods is transferred by the Bank to the Client but the payment of sale price
by the Client is deferred for a fixed period.
It may be noted here that in case of Bai-Muajjal, the Islamic Bank is a financier to the Client not in the sense that the Bank finances the
purchase of goods by the Client, rather it is a financier by deferring the receipt of the sale price of goods, it sells to the Client. If the
Bank does not purchase the goods or does not make any purchase agreement with seller, but only makes payment of any goods directly
purchased and received by the Client from the seller under Bai-Muajjal Agreement, that will be a remittance/payment of the amount on
behalf of the Client, which shall be nothing but a loan to the Client and any excess on this amount shall be nothing but Interest (Riba).
Therefore, purchase of goods by the Bank should be for and on behalf of the Bank and the payment of price of goods by the Bank must
be made for and on behalf of the Bank. If in any way the payment of price of goods is turned into a payment for and on behalf of the
Client or it is paid to the Client, any excess on it will be Riba
Feature
 It is permissible for the Client to offer an order to purchase by the Bank particular goods deciding its specification and committing
himself to buy the same from the Bank on Bai-Muajjal i.e. deferred payment sale at fixed price.
 It is permissible to make the promise binding upon the Client to purchase from the Bank, that is, he is to either satisfy the promise or to
indemnify the damages caused by breaking the promise without excuse.
 It is permissible to take cash / collateral security to Guarantee the implementation of the promise or to indemnify the damages.
 It is also permissible to document the debt resulting from Bai-Muajjal by a Guarantor, or a mortgage. or both like any other debt.
Mortgage / Guarantee / Cash security may be obtained prior to the signing of the Agreement or at the time of signing the Agreement.
 Stock and availability of goods is a basic condition for signing a Bai-Muajjal Agreement, Therefore, the Bank must purchase the goods
as per specification of the Client to acquire ownership of the same before signing the Bai-Muajjal Agreement with the Client.
 After purchase of goods the Bank must bear the risk of goods until those are actually delivered to the Client.
 The Bank must deliver the specified Goods to the Client on specified date and at specified place of delivery as per Contract.
 The Bank may sell the goods at a higher price than the purchase price to earn profit.
 The price once fixed as per agreement and deferred can not be further increased.
 The Bank may sell the goods at one agreed price which will include both the cost price and the profit. Unlike Bai-Murabaha, the Bank
may not disclose the cost price and the profit mark-up separately to the Client.