Comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment

for Proposed Rajasthan Atomic Power Project
Units 7 & 8 at Rawatbhata Near Kota, Rajasthan
Sponsor
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai 400 094
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India)
May, 2005
FOREWORD
M/s Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) proposes
to set up additional two units of Pressurized. Water Reactors
(PHWRS) (RAPP 7 & 8) of 700 MWe capacity each at the site of
Rawatbhata Atomic Power Project, Rajasthan. Presently four PHWR
units (RAPS 1 to 4) are generating electricity and feeding to the
Northern Grid and two units RAPS 5 & 6 are under construction.
In order to assess the potential impacts arising out of the
proposed project activities, M/s NPCIL retained National
Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) to undertake
Environmental Impact Assessment studies for various environmental
components and to prepare an Environmental Management Plan for
minimizing the adverse impacts.
This report presents baseline data collected for three seasons
viz. summer 2003, post monsoon 2003 and winter 2003-04 for air,
noise, water, land, biological and socio-economic environmental
components including radiological parameters with a view to
identifying, predicting and evaluating the potential impacts due to
proposed activities. An Environmental Management Plan has also
been delineated in the report.
The cooperation and assistance rendered by the staff of NPCIL
in preparation of this report is gratefully acknowledged.
Nagpur (Sukumar Devotta)
May, 2005
Project Personnel
NEERI, Nagpur
Mr. Awatani, K. Ms. Lata, kumari Ms. Sunar, Rakhi
Ms. Ahuja, Rashmi Ms. Moharir, Ashwini Mr. Singh, Prabhat
Ms. Dongre, Rajashri Ms. Mukherjee, Deepali Ms. Sinha, Rashmi
Ms. Baby, Rani Ms. Malik, Ruchi Mr. Sarmokadam, Ganesh
Ms. Jain, Monika Ms. Mukherjee, Manisha Mr. Shukla, Parth
Ms. Sahasrabudhe, Sunila Mr. Mudaliar, Ratankumar Ms. Suple, D. Sonali
Mr. Ingle, Sourabh Ms. Mishra, Sandhya Mr. Satramwar, Sharad
Mr. Kumbhare, P. S. Mr. Pathak, S. K. Mr. Swamy, Aditya
Mr. Kamble, Rahul Mr. Pingale, A. Shrihari Ms. Mishra, Pawanrekha
Ms Kumbhare, Prabha Ms. Puntambekar, Smita
Secretarial Assistance
Mr. Dhawale, A.H. Mrs. Srinivasan, P.C.
Mr. Nair, P. Mr. Kale, S. G.
Project Leaders
Dr. Chaudhari, P. R. Dr. Ramteke, D. S.
Dr. Wate, S. R.
Project Co-ordinator
Dr. Devotta Sukumar
Director
Project Personnel-RAPS, Rawatbhata
NPCIL, Rawatbhata
Shri. Mittal, Subhash
(Site Director, RAPS 1 to 4)
Shri. C. P. Jhamb,
(Project Director RAPP 5 & 6)
Shri. K. M. Joshi,
SD, RAPS 1 & 2
Shri. P. K. Datta,
SD, RAPS 3 & 4
Dr. Verma, P. C.
(QIC, ESL, RAPS)
NPCIL, Head Quarter, Mumbai
Shri. Ramamirtham, B. Shri. Singh, S. K.
(A CE (HPE)) (Engineer (EM))
Engineer-in-Charge (EIA), NPCIL
Dr. Singh, Jitendra
Sr. Executive Director (Safety), NPCIL
Shri. Bajaj, S. S.
Contents
Item No.
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
1.4.9
1.4.10
1.4.11
1.4.12
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
Particulars
List of Plates and Figures
List of Tables
List of Annexures
Executive Summary
Introduction
Introduction
Project Setting
Salient Features of 700 MWe Design
Safety Approach
Protection Against Common Mode Incidents
Plant Description
General
Layout Considerations
Reactor System
Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System
Moderator System
Instrumentation and Control System
Reactivity Control Reactor Shutdown System
On Power Re-fuelling
Shut Down Cooling System
Emergency Core Cooling System
Reactor Auxiliary Systems
Containment
Services/Conventional Systems
Active Process Water System and Service Water System
Fire Water System
Turbine Generator System
Secondary System
Page No.
(viii)
(ix)
(xiii)
1-7
1.0-1.34
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.6
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.10
1.10
1.11
1.11
1.12
1.12
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.14
1.15
( i)
Item No.
1.5.5
1.5.6
1.6
1.6.1
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9.1
1.9.2
1.9.3
1.10
1.11
1.11.1
1.11.1.1
1.11.1.2
1.11.2
1.11.3
1.11.4
1.11.5
1.11.6
Chapter 2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
Particulars
Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) System
Electrical System
Safety Classification
Safety Classes
Seismic Classification
Quality Group Classification
Quality Assurance
Design
Manufacture, Construction, and Commissioning
Operation
Scope of EIA
Methodology for EIA
Air Environment
Data Collection
Baseline Background Radiation Data
Noise Environment
Water Environment
Land Environment
Biological Environment
Socio-economic Environment
Figure 1. 1- 1. 5
Table
Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of
Impacts
Air Environment
Design of Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
Locations
Micrometeorology
Reconnaissance
Ambient Air Quality Survey
Page No.
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.23
1.24
1.25
1.26
1.26
1.26
1.27
1.27
1.28
1.28
1.2 9-1.33
1.34
2.0 - 2.201
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3
(ii)
Item No.
2.1.5
2.1.5.1
2.1.5.2
2.1.5.3
2.1.5.4
2.1.6
2.1.7
2.1.7.1
2.1.7.2
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.5.1
2.3.5.2
2.3.5.3
2.3.5.4
2.3.5.5
2.3.6
Particulars
Baseline Status
Suspended Particulate matter (SPM)
Repirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPN)
Sulphur Dioxide (SO
2
)
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
Radiological Observations
Active Gases
General
Derived Discharge Limits
Figure 2 .1.1-2 .1.3
Tables 2 .1.1-2 .1.2 1
Noise Environment
Reconnaissance
Identification of Existing Sources of Noise
Measurement of Baseline Noise Levels in the Study Area
Figure 2.2.1
Tables 2.2.1 - 2.2.3
Water Environment
Reconnaissance Survey
Availability of Water Source
Drawal and Discharge
Geohydrology
Baseline Water Quality
Physico-chemcial Characteristics of Surface Water
Physico-chemcial Characteristics of Groundwater
Bacteriological Characteristics of Surface Water
Bacteriological Characteristics of Groundwater
Biological Quality of Fresh Water
Radioactivity in Water Environment
Page No.
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.8-2.10
2.11-2.41
2.42
2.42
2.42
2.43
2.44
2.45-2.47
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.49
2.50
2.51
2.51
2.51
2.52
2.52
2.52
2.54
(iii)
Item No.
2.3.7
2.3.8
2.3.9
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8
2.4.9
2.4.10
2.4.10.1
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.5.6
2.5.6.1
2.5.6.2
2.5.6.3
2.5.6.4
2.5.6.5
Particulars
Radio-Active Liquid Effluent Management
Thermal Pollution
Flood Analysis
Figure 2.3.1
Tables 2.3.1 - 2.3.29
Land Environment
Reconnaissance
Geology
Baseline Data
Physical Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Microbiological Characteristics
Radioactivity in Terrestrial Environment
Solid Wastes
Solid Waste Management
Land Use
Landuse Pattern Study Using Remote Sensing Data
Plant I - II
Figure 2.4.1 - 2.4.2
Tables 2 .4.1-2 .4.15
Biological Environment
Introduction
Study Area
Sampling Locations
Survey Methodology
Biodiversity in Study Area
Floristic Structure and Composition
Bhainsroadgarh
Jawahar Sagar
Borabas
Gandhi Sagar
Aklingpura
Page No.
2.54
2.56
2.56
2.57
2.58-2.84
2.85
2.85
2.86
2.87
2.87
2.87
2.88
2.89
2.89
2.92
2.92
2.92
2.98-2.99
2.100-2.101
2.102-2.116
2.117
2.117
2.117
2.117
2.118
2.119
2.120
2.120
2.121
2.122
2.123
2.124
(iv)
Item No.
2.5.6.6
2.5.6.7
2.5.7
2.5.8
2.5.8.1
2.5.8.2
2.5.8.3
2.5.9
2.5.9.1
2.5.10
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.2.1
2.6.2.2
2.6.2.3
2.6.2.4
2.6.2.5
2.6.3
2.6.3.1
2.6.3.2
Chapter 3
3.1
Particulars
Nalikheda
Padachar
Green Belt Exist in and Around Plant Area
Wildlife Sanctuaries Present in the Study Area
Darrah Sanctuary
Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary
Bhainsroadgarh Sanctuary
The Fauna
Vertebrates, Their Status, Distribution and Habitat of Major
Animals
Fishes
Figure 2.5.1
Table 2 .5 .1-2 .5 .16
Socio Economic Environment
Reconnaissance
Baseline Status
Demographic Structure
Infrastructure Resource Base
Economic Attributes
Health Status
Cultural and Aesthetic Attributes
Socio-economic Survey
Sampling Method
Quality of Life
Annexure - A
Annexure - B
Annexure - C
Annexure - D
Figure 2.6.1 - 2.6.2
Tables 2.6.1 - 2.6.6
Prediction of Impacts
Air Environment
Page No.
2.125
2.125
2.126
2.126
2.126
2.127
2.127
2.128
2.129
2.131
2.132
2.133-2.151
2.152
2.152
2.152
2.153
2.154
2.154
2.155
2.156
2.156
2.156
2.158
2.162
2.163
2.164
2.165
2.168-2.169
2.170-2.201
3.0-3.21
3.1
(v)
Item No.
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
Chapter 5
5.1
Particulars
Radioactive Pollution
Radiation Dose and Public Health
Occupational Exposure: Radiation Monitoring and Alarms
Emissions of Radioactivity
Micro Meteorology
Conventional Air Pollution
Figure 3.1.1-3.1.3
Table 3.1.1
Noise Environment
Identification of Sources of Noise in the Proposed Plant
Residential Areas
Commercial Area
Impact on Occupational Health
Water Environment
Impact of Radioactive Pollutants
Impact of Thermal Discharge on Water Quality
Compliance of NPP to MoEF Stipulation
Land Environment
Biological Environment
Socio-economic Environment
Tables 3.6.1 - 3.6.3
Environmental Impact Statement
Air Environment
Noise Environment
Water Environment
Land Environment
Biological Environment
Aesthetics
Socio-economic Environment
Sensitive Habitats
Environmental Management Plan
Earthquake Design Basis for Construction
Page No.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.6-3.8
3.9
3.11
3.11
3.11
3.11
3.12
3.12
3.13
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.15
3.16
3.19-3.21
4.0 - 4.4
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.3
4.3
4.4
4.4
5.0-5.38
5.1
( vi)
Item No.
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.4.1
5.3.4.2
5.3.5
5.3.5.1
5.3.5.2
5.3.5.3
5.4
5.5
5.5.1
5.5.1.1
5.5.1.2
5.5.1.3
5.5.1.4
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.2
5.5.3.3
5.5.4
5.5.5
5.5.6
Particulars
Table 5.1
Construction Phase
Operational Phase
Air Environment
Noise Environment
Water Environment
Table 5.3.1
Land Environment
Radioactive Solid Wastes
Township Solid Wastes
Biological Environment
Guidelines for Plantation
Species Selection
Biological Environment
Figure 5.1 - 5,2
Tables 5.2 - 5.6
Socio-economic Environment
Post Project Environmental Monitoring
Air Quality Monitoring Programme
Monitoring Parameters
Sampling Stations
Sampling Frequency
Air Quality Monitoring - Equipments Required
Noise Environment
Water Quality Monitoring
Sampling Frequency
Analysis Methodology
Monitoring Laboratory
Staff Requirement for Environmental Quality Monitoring
Budgetary Provisions for EMP
Radioactive Monitoring and Surveillance Programme
Figure 5.3 - 5.4
Bibliography
Page No.
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.5
5.5
5.7
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.20
5.22-5.23
5.24-5.29
5.30
5.32
5.32
5.32
5.32
5.32
5.32
5.34
5.34
5.34
5.34
5.34
5.35
5.35
5.36
5.37-5.38
1.4
(vii)
List of Plates and Figures
Item No. Particulars Page No.
Plate I False Color Composite Having 25 km Radius Distance 2.98
Plate II Landuse /Landcover Map Having 25 km Radius Distance 2.99
Figure 1.1 Location Map for Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPP) at 1.29
Rawatbhata
Figure 1.2 RAPP 7 & 8 Plant Layout 1.30
Figure 1.3 Study area for EIA Studies of RAPP, Rawatbhata 1.31
Figure 1.4 Exposure Pathways for Atmospheric Releases from NPP 1.32
Figure 1.5 Exposure Pathways for Releases by NPP to Aquatic 1.33
Environment
Figure 2.1.1 Sampling Locations for Air Environment 2.8
Figure 2.1.2 Windrose at Rawatbhata During October - November 2003 2.9
Figure 2.1.3 Annual Wind Rose at RAPS Site for the Year 2001 2.10
Figure 2.2.1 Sampling Locations for Noise Environment 2.44
Figure 2.3.1 Sampling Locations for Water Environment 2.57
Figure 2.4.1 Sampling Locations for Land Environment 2.100
Figure 2.4.2 Textural Diagram for Soil Composition 2.101
Figure 2.5.1 Sampling Locations for Biological Environment 2.132
Figure 2.6.1 Sampling Locations for Socio-economic Environment 2.168
Figure 2.6.2 Employment Pattern in the Study Area 2.169
Figure 3.1.1 Annual Gamma ISO Dose Curve Due to Argon - 4 1 and 3.6
FPNG
Figure 3.1.2 Total effective Dose at 1.6 km During 1997 to 2001 3.7
Figure 3.1.3 Dose to Members of the Public in Various Anualr Zones 3.8
During 2001
Figure 5.1 Green Belt Development Near the NPP Site 5.22
Figure 5.2 Section of Green Belt Development 50 m Away from Nuclear 5.23
Power Plant
Figure 5.3 Components of Post Project Environmental Monitoring 5.37
Programme for NPCIL
Figure 5.4 Recommended Organizational Set up for Environmental 5.38
Quality Monitoring (For Non-Radiological Parameters) for
NPCIL
(viii)
List of Tables
Table No. Title Page No.
1.1 Operational performance Detail of RAPS 2 - 4 1.34
2.1.1 Details of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations 2.11
(Summer 2003)
2.1.2 Ambient Air Quality Status (Summer 2003) 2.12
2.1.3 Ambient Air Quality Status (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.13
2.1.4 Ambient Air Quality Status (Winter Season 2003-2004) 2.15
2.1.5 Cumulative Percentile Values of SPM (Summer 2003) 2.17
2.1.6 Cumulative Percentile Values of SPM (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.18
2.1.7 Cumulative Percentile Values of SPM (Winter Season 2.20
2003-2004)
2.1.8 Cumulative Percentile Values of RSPM (Summer 2003) 2.22
2.1.9 Cumulative Percentile Values of RSPM (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.23
2.1.10 Cumulative Percentile Values of RSPM (Winter Season 2.25
2003-2004)
2.1.11 Cumulative Percentile Values of SO
2
(Summer 2003) 2.27
2.1.12 Cumulative Percentile Values of SO
2
(Post Monsoon 2003) 2.28
2.1.13 Cumulative Percentile Values of SO
2
(Winter Season 2.30
2003-2004)
2.1.14 Cumulative Percentile Values of NO
X
(Summer 2003) 2.32
2.1.15 Cumulative Percentile Values of NO
X
(Post Monsoon 2003) 2.33
2.1.16 Cumulative Percentile Values of NO
X
(Winter Season 2.35
2003-2004)
2.1.17 Concentration of H - 3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP 2.37
Environment During 1998
2.1.18 Concentration of H - 3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP 2.38
Environment During 1999
2.1.19 Concentration of H - 3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP 2.39
Environment During 2000
2.1.20 Concentration of H - 3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP 2.40
Environment During 200f
2.1.21 Concentration of H - 3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP 2.41
Environment During 2002
2.2.1 Ambient Noise Level (Summer 2003) 2.45
2.2.2 Ambient Noise Level at Rawatbhata (Summer 2003) 2.46
(ix)
Table No. Title Page No.
2.2.3 Noise Level at Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL), 2.47
Rawatbhata (Summer 2003)
2.3.1 Sampling Locations for Water Environment 2.58
2.3.2 Water Quality - Physical Parameters (Summer 2003) 2.59
2.3.3 Water Quality - Physical Parameters (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.60
2.3.4 Water Quality - Physical Parameters (Winter 2003-2004) 2.61
2.3.5 Water Quality - Inorganic Parameters (Summer 2003) 2.62
2.3.6 Water Quality - Inorganic Parameters (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.63
2.3.7 Water Quality - Inorganic Parameters (Winter 2003-2004) 2.64
2.3.8 Water Quality - Nutrients and Organic Parameters 2.65
(Summer 2003)
2.3.9 Water Quality - Nutrients and Organic Parameters 2.66
(Post Monsoon 2003)
2.3.10 Water Quality - Nutrients and Organic Parameters 2.67
(Winter 2003-2004)
2.3.11 Water Quality - Heavy Metals (Summer 2003) 2.68
2.3.12 Water Quality - Heavy Metals (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.69
2.3.13 Water Quality - Heavy Metals (Winter 2003-2004) 2.70
2.3.14 Water Quality - Bacteriology (Summer 2003) 2.71
2.3.15 Water Quality - Bacteriology (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.72
2.3.16 Water Quality - Bacteriology (Winter 2003) 2.73
2.3.17 Water Quality - Phytoplankton (Summer 2003) 2.74
2.3.18 Water Quality - Phytoplankton (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.75
2.3.19 Water Quality - Phytoplankton (Winter 2003-2004) 2.76
2.3.20 List of Species Identified (Phytoplanktons) 2.77
2.3.21 Water Quality - Zooplankton (Summer 2003) 2.78
2.3.22 Water Quality - Zooplankton (Post Monsoon 2003) 2.79
2.3.23 Water Quality - Zooplankton (Winter 2003-2004) 2.80
2.3.24 List of Species Identified (Zooplankton) 2.81
2.3.25 Quantity of Wastewater Generation (Unite wise) and its 2.81
Characterization
2.3.26 Specific Activity contained in Liquid Waste 2.81
(x)
Table No. Title Page No.
2.3.27 Concentration of H-3 in Water Samples Collected Around 2.82
RAPP Environment During 2002
2.3.28 Concentration of Sr- 89+90, I - 131 & Cs - 137 in Water 2.83
Samples Collected Around RAPP Environment during 2002
2.3.29 Concentration of H-3 in Well and Pond Water Samples 2.49
Collected Around RAPP Environment During 2002
2.4.1 Details of Soil Sampling Locations within the Study Area 2.102
2.4.2 Physical Characteristics of Soils Within Study Area (Summer 2.103
2003)
2.4.3 Chemical Characteristics of Soil-Water (1:1) Extract (Summer 2.104
2003)
2.4.4 Cation Exchange Capacity of Soil in Study Area 2.105
(Summer 2003)
2.4.5 Fertility Status of Soils in Study Area (Summer 2003) 2.106
2.4.6 Heavy Metals in Soil Samples (Summer 2003) 2.107
2.4.7 Microbiological Characteristics of Soil (Summer 2003) 2.108
2.4.8 Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples 2.109
Collected Around RAPP Environment During 1998
2.4.9 Concentration of Sr
89
*
90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples 2.110
Collected Around RAPP Environment During 1999
2.4.10 Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples 2.111
Collected Around RAPP Environment During 2000
2.4.11 Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples 2.112
Collected Around RAPP Environment During 2001
2.4.12 Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples 2.113
Collected Around RAPP Environment During 2002
Characterization of Radioactive Solid Waste at SWAMP RAPS 2.114
Landuse /Land Cover Classification System 2.115
Landuse/ Landcover 2.116
List of Sampling Locations for Biological Environment 2.133
Formulae for Analysing Phytosociological Characteristic of 2.134
Vegetation
List of Plant Species Recorded from Study Area 2.135
List of Family Members with Species Count 2.138
Simpson's Diversity Index of Plant Species in Study Area 2.139
Density of Plant Species in Study Area 2.139
(xi)
2.4.
2.4.
13
14
2.4.15
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5.
2.5.
2.5.
.1
.2
3
4
5
6
Table No. Title Page No.
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Bhainsroadgarh 2.140
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Jawahar Sagar 2.142
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Borabas 2.143
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Gandhi Sagar 2.145
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Aklingpura 2.146
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Nalikheda 2.147
Floristic Characteristic of Dominant Flora of Padachar 2.148
Details of Plantation carried out by RAPP 2.149
List of Fauna Present in the Study Area 2.150
Major Carps Percentage in Total Fish Production 2.151
Distance and Direction of the Villages Surveyed 2.170
Demographic Structure in the Study Area 2.171
Summery of Demographic Structure at a Glance 2.185
Socio-economic Profile of the Study Area Basic Amenities 2.186
Morbidity Status as Available in PHC at Bhaisrodgadh Period 2.200
January 2002 to December 2002
Quality of life Existing in the Villages Surveyed 2.201
Computed external Dose Due to Ar-41 and FPNG Release from 3.9
RAPS 1 to 4
3.6.1 Prediction of Qualitative Impacts on Socio-economic 3.19
Environment
3.6.2 Expected Change in Cumulative Quality of Life 3.20
3.6.3 Expected Change in Subjective Quality of Life 3.21
5.1 Summary of Impacts, Problems and Appropriate Management 5.2
Plan for their Mitigation
5.3.1 Details of Water Requirements/Waste Generation and Green 5.7
Belt in Respect to DAE Residential Colonies at Rawatbhata
5.2 Species of Plants Suggested for Greenbelt Development 5.24
5.3 Drought Resistant Species for Greenbelt Design within the NPP 5.25
Area
5.4 Species Selected for Plantation along the Road Side and 5.27
Township
5.5 List of Trees Having Peak Flowering Season 5.28
5.6 Pollution Attenuation Factor (Air) for Green Belt of Different 5.29
Widths
(xii)
2
2
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
I.5.7
!.5.8
I.5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
2.5.16
2
2
.6.1
.6.2
2.6.3
2.
2.
2.
3.
6.4
65
6.6
1.1
List of Annexures
Annexure Title Page No.
No.
I National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 1
II Indian Standards/Specifications for Drinking Water IS: 10500- 2
1991
III Noise Standards 9
IV Indian Standards for Industrial and Sewage Effluents 10
Discharge IS:2490-1982
Y Information About Various Nuclear Power Plants with Respect 13
to Environmental Requirement for Discharge of Condenser
Cooling Water System
(xiii)
Executive Summary
Executive Summary
M/s Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) has proposed to construct
additional two Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRS) (RAPP - 7 & 8) of 700 MWe
capacities each at the site of Rawatbhata Atomic Power Project, Rajasthan in the
adjoining area of the existing plant. Presently, four PHWR units (RAPS - 1 to 4) are
generating electricity and feeding to the Northern Grid and the units RAPP 5 & 6 are
under construction.
The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited retained National Environmental
Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) with a view to establish the baseline status with
respect to various environmental components viz. air, noise, water, land, biological and
socio-economic including parameters of human interest. The present Comprehensive
Environmental Impact Assessment (CEIA) report is based on environmental data
collected during three season i.e. summer 2003, post monsoon (2003) and winter (2003-
2004) seasons with a view to assess the present baseline environmental status, evaluate
and predict the potential impacts due to the proposed activities. An Environmental
Management Plan incorporating control measures has also been delineated in this report.
Project Setting
• The RAPS (Latitude 24°52'N and Longitude 75 °31 'E) is situated on the upstream
on right bank of Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) at a distance of 6 km from the dam, in
Begun Taluk of Chittorgarh district
• The study area of 25 km radial distance from RAPS consists of Chambal River
and its tributary, and lakes viz. Rana Pratap Sagar, Gandhi Sagar, Jawahar Sagar
and three sanctuaries.
Executive Summary
NEERI
Baseline Environmental Status
• Ambient air quality was observed to be good with respect to SO
2
and NOx.
However, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended
Particulate Matter (RSPM) were found to be slightly higher than the national
standards set up by CPCB.
• Among radionuclides, the only significant radionuclides that are likely to be
released are tritium, fission product noble gases (FPNG), radio iodines, and
activated particulates. The Geometric Mean (GM) values for gross alpha and beta
are 0.08 and 1.18 mBq/m
3
and were below detection limits in quarterly cumulative
samples analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The levels of activity for radiocesium
and radiostrontium in annual cumulative rainwater samples were below detection
limit.
• The noise levels were within the stipulated limits in residential areas and
commercial areas except slightly higher in commercial area in 5-10 km distance
around RAPP. The noise levels in infrastructural buildings were slightly higher
than the standards.
• The physico-chemical characteristics of surface water sources are within the
permissible limits for drinking water. The nutrients were observed to be within the
permissible limits. Heavy metals like iron, lead and chromium were found to be
higher than standards at some places in ground water.
• The ground water samples collected from study area showed high mineral content
and pH ranging from 6.5-8.5. The inorganic constituents in groundwater
(hardness, chlorides, sulphates) were observed to be lower than the Indian
standards for drinking water in most of the samples collected. Few water samples
also showed higher levels of heavy metals in them.
• All the surface water samples showed contamination of water, while 40% of
groundwater samples were found to be contaminated as evident from presence of
faecal coliforms. Plankton population in surface water showed slightly polluted
water or 0- mesotrophic quality of water.
• Most of the surface and ground water samples showed the activity of Sr
8990
, I
131
,
and Cs
137
below detectable limits.
• The project would be adopting cooling towers thus there will not be the problem of
thermal pollution in Rana Pratap Sagar receiving the cooling water discharge
Executive Summary
NEERI
• Waste management centralized facility (WMCF) is planned to cater to the
management of solid and liquid waste of RAPP 1 to 8
• The values of radioactivity recorded in air, water, soil and dietary items are much
below the permissible limits
• The results of environmental surveillance programme, 2002 show that the doses
received even by a hypothetical man staying at fence post (1.6 km) is 37.1 uSv
which is less than 4% of the dose limit of 1000uSv per year prescribed by
AERB/ICRP
• Flood analysis indicate that discharge capacity of Rana Pratap Sagar is less than
probable maximum flood. Hence, the guidelines issued by Govt. of Madhya
Pradesh in the Operation Manual of upstream Gandhisagar dam should be strictly
followed
• Soils are microbiologically active but cultivation of crops is very much restricted
due to shallow soils with stones and their poor productivity
• Good biodiversity of flora and fauna is recorded in the forests and sanctuaries in
study area.
• Population density is less in study area. The main occupation of local people is
agriculture. Infrastructure facility with respect to safe drinking water,
communication and employment opportunities are poor. The average QoL index
values are low i.e. 0.51-0.53
Assessment of Impacts
• Conventional pollutants are given out in air and water from the township area viz.
dust, sewage and solid waste. Presently treated sewage is discharged in nallah
which is contaminating water bodies. Solid waste needs treatment and recycling
to protect environment
• The noise levels in study area are below stipulated limits
• Most of the surface and ground water samples, air, soil and dietary items showed
the activity of cesium and strontium far below detectable limit. Therefore, there is
no radiological hazard through various routes
• The wildlife sanctuaries especially Bhainsroadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary is greatly
affected by increasing anthropogenic and grazing activity. Five tree species and
Executive Summary
NEERI
six faunal species from the study area are included under rare, threatened,
endangered, vulnerable and intermediate category
• Quality of life (QoL) is poor due to poor infrastructure facilities.
Prediction of impacts
• The RAPP requires development of water source for its running. The site falls in
seismic zone II and development of reservoir may pose threat with respect to
seismic activity
• Flood level in Rana Pratap Sagar at maximum rainfall may be hazardous to RAPS
and RAPP
• Radiological pollution through various routes due to the expansion programme
would be higher than the present level
• Radiological hazard during operation or accident conditions
• Increasing anthropogenic activity would lead to more production of dust pollution
in study area
• Increasing population with the increase in industrial activity will lead to
contamination of environment due to disposal of wastewater effluents and solid
waste, threatening ecology and public health
• Unless and until some preventive measures are undertaken, increasing population
of man and cattle may affect the biodiversity of flora and fauna in environmentally
sensitive sanctuaries and forest area
• Discharge of heated coolant water will be responsible for thermal pollution which
would be detrimental to aquatic flora and fauna in Rana Pratap Sagar
• Radioactive liquid discharge in environment without proper treatment may affect
aquatic flora and fauna
• Soil may be exposed to radionuclides fallout from atmosphere; disposal of
hazardous radioactive waste would pose a threat to flora and fauna
• The geographical features would be altered due to construction activity of RAPP
Executive Summary
NEERI
Environmental Management Plan
Salient features of environment management plan are given in Table 1 and are
discussed below in brief.
• Due consideration should be given to water retaining structures such as water
reservoirs to account for induced seismicity and the consequences of dam failure
on the safety of RAPP
• Considering the flood level of Chambal River of Rana Pratap Sagar at maximum
rainfall, the guidelines issued by Govt. of Madhya Pradesh for the operation of
upstream Gandhisagar dam should be followed strictly and selection of proper
elevation to RAPP 7 & 8 to keep maximum possible safety margin
• Radiological emissions from stacks would be reduced by adoption of proper
technology and compliance to the limits set by ICRP and AERB.
• Proper planning for safety approach and protection against common mode
incidents
• Development of good quality roads and afforestation measures as a social welfare
measure would reduce dust pollution
• Air emissions from solid waste dumping site would be reduced by using improved
technology of composting and vermiculture with added benefit of recycling and
reuse of produced manure for green belt development.
• The domestic sewage would be treated in proper effluent treatment plant and the
stabilized effluent would be utilized for irrigation of green belt, parks and gardens
• The green belt development around plant site and township and natural
vegetation in exclusion zone and sterilized zone (5 km radial distance area) would
act as sink not only for radionuclides in air but also for conventional air pollutants,
and would be effective in reducing the noise levels produced during the operation
of the plant
• There are 3 wild life sanctuaries in the study area which are rich in biodiversity.
These sanctuaries especially Bhainsroadgarh is affected by anthropogenic
activity. Thus these sanctuaries need protection from anthropogenic impact and
conservation measures to improve wildlife habitat viz. afforestation and habitat
improvement
Executive Summary
NEERI
• The impact of thermal discharge would be minimized by compliance to
permissible limits set by MoEF by adopting cooling towers for condenser cooling
water discharge
• Adoption of proper disposal of radioactive waste: The radioactive liquid waste
would be collected in holding tanks and will be processed further to separate
water and highly concentrated radioactivity residue. Highly concentrated (up to
800 g/l) residue would be solidified through cementation and sent for interim
storage in solid waste depositary
• The green belt development and plantations at plant site and township would
enhance the aesthetic value of the area
• Socio-economic aspect is the important issue in the development of NPP project.
The negative feelings of local people, if any, arisen due to propaganda by anti
nuclear lobby should be mitigated by giving proper information to public and
educating them about the benefits, and to create awareness about nuclear power
plant and safety measures. The quality of life in surrounding villages can be
improved by providing various welfare measures and recreational facilities and job
opportunities to local people
• Guidelines and recommendations are given in the report for post project
environmental monitoring of air, noise, water and radionuclides around the RAPP
area.
Executive Summary
NEERI
Table 1
Summary of Impacts, Problems and Appropriate Manag ement Plan for th eir
Mitig ation
Environmental
Component
Impacts and Problems Inputs : Management Plan for Mitigation of Impact
Earthquake Design
Basis for
construction
Flooding of RAPS
Air Environment
The site falls in seismic zone II
Flood level at maximum rainfall may be
hazardous to nuclear power plant
Radiological emissions from stacks
Radiological hazard
accident conditions
during operation or
Air emissions from solid waste dumping site
Dust pollution pose threat to arblic health
and wildlife
Noise Environment Marginal problems
Water Environment
Land Environment
Biological
Environment
Pollution due to discharge of domestic
wastewater from township
Discharge of heated water to Rana Pratap
Sagar would affect aquatic flora and fauna
Radioactive liquid discharge in environment
may affect aquatic flora and fauna
Soil may be exposed to radionuclides due
to fall out from atmosphere
Disposal of hazardous solid radioactive
waste
Accidental release of radionuclids would be
hazardous to terrestrial ecosystem and
human being
Exposure of flora and fauna to radionuclids
through different routes
Ecologically
sensitive Areas
Rare and
endangered
species of flora and
fauna
Aesthetics
Socioeconomic
Environment
RAPP is present very near to three wildlife
sanctuaries
Deterioration of wildlife habitat
Topographical features will be altered due
to construction activity of RAPP
Beneficial effects outweighs adverse effects
on socio-economic environment
Due consideration should be given to the water retaining structure such
as reservoirs built around RAPP to account for induced seismicity and
the consequences of dam failure units on the safety of present and
proposed Nuclear Power Plant
The elevation from MSL of different units should be decided on the
basis of flood analysis
Appropriate technological measures to meet the limits set by ICRP and
AERB with respect to existing and proposed units.
Development of green belt around nuclear power plant and township
and natural vegetation growth in exclusive zone (within 2 km radial
distance) and sterilizing zone (2 km to 5 km radial distance area) to act
as sink for pollutants
Proper planning for safety approach and protection against common
mode incidents
Adoption of improved treatment, recycling and reuse technology viz.
composting, vermicomposting etc.
Proper stabilization and maintenance of roads; Development of green
belt to reduce dust pollution
Development of green belt would reduce the noise levels in surrounding
area
Development of effluent treatment plant (ETP) and reuse of effluent for
irrigation in parks and green belts
Compliance with permissible limits set by MoEF by adoption of cooling
towers would be helpful in reducing thermal pollution.
Specific treatment of radioactive liquid waste to reduce its volume and
containment and secured deposition of concentrated nuclear waste
Compliance to air quality standards related to radioactivity (ICRP and
AERB)
Adoption of appropriate treatment to reduce the volume of radioactive
waste and containment and secured deposition of concentrated
radioactive waste
Proper planning should be ready to handle emergency situations; such
planning is already implemented for existing units of RAPS 1 to 4
Compliance to radiological standards for air and water;
containment and secured deposition of radioactive waste
treatment,
Development of green belt around RAPP and natural vegetation in
exclusive zone and sterilizing zone (5 km radial distance area around
NPP) would act as sink for radionuclids as well as conventional air
pollutants
Compliance with regulation (ICRP, AERB & MoEF)
Protection of sanctuaries from anthropogenic actives
Protection of wildlife habitat in wildlife sanctuaries and improvement in
their status with respect to food, feed and shelter.
There will be improvement in the aesthetic quality of water, air and land
environment
Quality of Life (QoL) would be improved due to increase in job
opportunities and improved facilities related to transport,
communication, medical, education, electricity and water supply.
Chapter 1
Introduction
Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Introduction
It is proposed to construct two pressurized heavy water Reactors (PHWRs)
(RAPP-7 & 8) of 700 MWe capacity each at Rawatbhata Atomic Power Project site in the
adjoining area of the existing plant. The site is situated on the right bank of the Rana
Pratap Sagar (RPS), upstream of the RPS dam, at a radial distance of 6 km from the
dam. The nearest village to the site is Tamlav. The site lies within the property limits of
the existing Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP) in Begun taluk of Chittorgarh
district. The approximate latitude and longitude of the site are as follows :
Latitude : 24°52
1
N
Longitude : 75°37' E
The existing Rajasthan Atomic Power Station consists of four units as detailed
below:
Present Capacity Commencement of Commercial operation
RAPS - 1 1 x 100 MWe PHWR December 1973
RAPS-2 1 x 200 MWe PHWR April 1981
RAPS - 3&4 2 x 220 MWe PHWR June /December 2000
All these units are generating electricity and feeding to the Northern Grid. At
present RAPS-5, 6 (2X220 MWe - PHWR) project is under construction. The operational
performance details of RAPS 2-4 is presented in Table 1.1.
The nearest thermal power station is at Kota, about 65 km away from site, with an
installed capacity of 850 MWe consisting of 2 x 110 MWe and 3 x 210 MWe units. The
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
nearest hydro-electric power station is at RPS dam, with a total installed generating
capacity of 172 MWe (4 x 43 MWe).
Jaipur, the State capital, is about 300 km by road from the site. Coal for Kota
thermal power station is supplied by Nowrazabad coalfields in M.P. at a distance of about
700 km (by broad gauge rail cum road route) from the site. The general location map of
the site is shown in Figure 1.1.
This site had earlier been cleared from safety angle by AERB and environmental
angle by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) for additional 4 x 500 MWe PHWR
units over and above the existing four units (RAPS - 1 to 4). Subsequently, capacity of
RAPP - 5 & 6 was changed to 2 x 220 MWe instead of 2 x 500 MWe PHWRs and
necessary clearances from MoEF and AERB were obtained. Present report is for
evaluating setting up of additional 2 x 700 MWe PHWRs (RAPP - 7 & 8) instead of 2 x
500 MWe PHWRs. The total power potential of RAPP site is projected at 2580 MWe after
such addition.
The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited retained National Environmental
Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur with a view to establish the baseline
status with respect to various environmental components viz. air, noise, water, land,
biological and socio-economic including parameters of human interest and to evaluate
and predict the potential impacts due to the proposed activities. Environmental data
collected during summer (2003), post monsoon (2003), and winter (2003-2004) seasons
are analyzed and presented in the form of Comprehensive Environmental Impact
Assessment (CEIA) with a view to assess the present baseline environmental status, An
Environmental Management Plan incorporating control measures has also been
delineated in this CEIA report.
1.2 Project Setting
The land required for locating buildings and structures of additional four units of
PHWRs (RAPP - 5 to 8) has already been acquired, fenced and is in the control of the
station authorities. This is adequate to locate 2 x 220 MWe (RAPP - 5 & 6) and 2 x 700
MWe PHWR (RAPP - 7 & 8). Additional land for exclusion zone, where no public
habitation exists up to 1.6 km radius from the proposed layout of Unit 8 (Centre line of the
Reactor Building of RAPP - 8) admeasuring 326.81 ha of forestland has already been
released by Rajasthan State Government. The legal status of the land will remain
1.2
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
unchanged and project has borne the cost of afforestation of the area as per the
government order. This area will be allowed to be fenced.
The ground elevation gradually rises away from the reservoir, with elevation
varying from + 345 m to + 410 m. The grade level for RAPP - 3 & 4 has been fixed at
+384 m which is safe against flooding. The area for additional units is south east of the
existing units along the banks of the RPS. The grade elevation for RAPP - 5 & 6 is fixed
at 392.7 m. The same elevation as for RAPP - 5 & 6 or above as per topography will hold
good for the proposed additional units. Based on the topography, a grade level of 400 m.
appears probable. This could be fixed at the design stage based on techno-economic
considerations. There are three nullahs in this area. Suitable site drainage scheme by
providing cut off drains and diverting the flows to nearby major nullahs needs to be
engineered and implemented. This is feasible. Significant leveling of the area is required.
The land around the site is barren with little topsoil. Agriculture and fishing are
carried out on very small scale within 10 km radius of the site. An area of about 120 ha,
around 6 km away from the site has been identified and acquired as an extension of the
existing housing colony. The land for colony is partly private patta land and partly
government land. There is no forestland in the colony area. As there is no resident
population in the exclusion zone mentioned above, the problem of rehabilitation of
population does not arise.
The area is sparsely populated with the average population distribution of 60
persons/sq km in the 30 km radial distance of RAPP. There is negligible population within
5 km radial distance from RAPP. Even upto 15 km the total population is only 60,000 as
per 1991 census and majority of this, about 36,000 is in NNW sector, comprising mainly
of Rawatbhata (Bhabha Nagar) at about 6 km from RAPP. The population in the 5 to 10
km zone consists mostly of workers living in nearby townships and also the villagers.
Gaseous emissions are discharged through tall stacks. The main components of
these gaseous emissions are Ar-41 (Specially for RAPS 1 & 2), FPNG and tritium and
micro quantities of fission products. The main radionuclide in liquid effluent is tritium with
micro quantities of fission and activation products.
Keeping in view the dry climate at the Rawatbhata site, a solar evaporation facility
has been in operation since 1979 for the slow evaporation of liquid effluents, thereby
concentrating fission and activation products and reducing their discharge in the lake
1.3
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
1.3 Salient Features of 700 MWe Design
The reactor size and the design features of 700 MWe units are essentially same
as that 540 MWe TAPP 3 & 4 units, except that partial boiling of the coolant, limited to
about 3% at the coolant channel exit has been allowed. This limit on exit quality is
consistent with the later version of PHWRs operating satisfactorily elsewhere in the world.
The process systems have been suitably modified, over, that of 540 MWe design, for
extracting the enhanced power produced in the core. Similar to TAPP 3 & 4, the reactor
power is controlled using lonization Chambers at low power (less than 15%) and through
signal derived from SPNDs (Slow Power Neutron Detectors) in the power range (higher
than 15% FP). Both signals are used in the range 5-15% FP. For the purpose of control
of bulk and zonal power, the core is divided into 14 zones, 42 SPNDs are provided 3 in
each zone, for measurement of zonal and bulk power. The flux mapping system is used
for correcting zonal power estimates derived from ZCDs. Bulk power estimates are
corrected using selected channel temperature and flow measurements made on the
primary side, upto 87% FP. Above this the secondary side measurements are used to
verify the thermal output of the core. Double containment, as used now in all Indian
PHWRs, has been provided, to contain the radioactive nuclides. The primary pressure
and temperature at the Reactor headers are also nearly the same as that of TAPP 3 & 4,
though bigger size pressuriser, and higher capacity Secondary system and auxiliary
systems are involved.
Some of the salient differences from TAPP 3 & 4 units are as follows:
> 2-4% boiling allowed in coolant channels
> About 6°C higher primary coolant temperatures viz. 266°C at Reactor inlet and
310°C at outlet header
> Higher size pressuriser
> Enhanced capacity steam generator with modified process parameters,
> Reduced number of pumps (i.e. 3 x 50%) in the moderator system
> Higher capacity Turbine, generator, and condenser
1.4
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
> Appropriate modifications/capacity increase in Reactor Process Systems, Reactor
Auxiliary Systems, Secondary System Process Water and Cooling Water System,
and Electrical System
> Improved and compact plant layout with better segregation
1.3.1 Safety Approach
The objective of nuclear safety is the protection of the plant personnel, public and
the environment from radiological hazards, during operation as well as under accident
conditions by incorporating and maintaining effective defenses against such hazard by
adopting the concept of defense in depth. This concept implies a series of consecutive
physical barriers in the path of release of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances
into the environment, and redundancy in equipment and control and other complex
engineering and managerial measures for protecting these barriers and maintaining their
effectiveness. In addition there are engineering safety features such as Emergency Core
Cooling System, Pressure Suppression System, Radionuclide clean-up system etc. to
take care of the accident situations.
The plant configuration is aimed to ensure that the radiation impact on the plant
personnel, general public and the environment during operation, under anticipated
operation occurrences, and design basis accidents does not exceed the exposure limits
set forth by AERB as well as the risk from beyond design basis accidents is minimized.
1.3.2 Protection Ag ainst Common Mode Incidents
There are a number of postulated single events, which, if not protected against,
could lead to widespread damage of station equipment. These initiating events are
referred to as common mode incidents and can be caused by a common external event,
failure of a common process or a common environment.
The general philosophy to limit the consequences of these common mode
incidents requires that the following capabilities must be maintained.
1. The capability to shut down the reactor
2. The capability to ensure that the reactor remains shut down
3. The capability to remove decay heat from the reactor
1.5
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
4. The capability to monitor the status of the nuclear steam supply system
It is also a requirement that systems, other than the reactor systems, containing
significant amounts of radionuclides, e.g. the irradiated fuel bays, not be unacceptably
damaged.
In providing the protection against postulated common mode incidents, two
groups of systems have been identified such that each group can meet the required
capabilities. In general, systems in each group are sufficiently separated or hardened
such that no common mode incident can cause the loss of any of the required
capabilities.
The two-group approach is primarily designed to provide an acceptable level of
protection for a set of very low probability events of known or unknown origin. With this in
mind, an attempt has been made to provide the greatest practical degree of separation of
those systems necessary to meet the required capabilities. To meet this target of greatest
practical separation in a clear and thorough manner, the number of systems in each
group have been minimized.
Group 1 systems include the SDS#1 ECCS, SG cooling and shutdown cooling
system, main control center and their associated services
Group 2 systems include SDS#2 containment system, decay heat removal by
injecting fire water to SGs/moderator cooling, emergency control room, emergency
service water system and emergency power supply system.
1.4 Plant Description
1.4.1 General
The plant (Figure 1.2) is accommodated in an area of approximately 700 m x 700
m. The two reactor buildings are of 56 m outside diameter and are situated at 100 m
centre-to-centre distance. For each reactor, a reactor auxiliary building (RAB) is provided
adjacent to the reactor building and accommodates vapour recovery system and other
Reactor Auxiliary systems such as end-shield / calandria vault cooling systems etc. Each
unit has been provided with two Natural Draught Cooling Towers (NDCTs) for condenser
cooling and an IDCT for safety related loads. Each unit will have its own emergency
control room, emergency power DG sets and fuel oil day tank, SUT, UT, GT, SABS,
1.6
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
turbine buildings, and CCW pump house. An emergency make up water pond catering to
7 days requirement is also provided for the twin unit plant.
The Service Building, Spent Fuel Storage Bay, Safety Related Pump House,
Stack with Radiation Monitor room, Waste Management Facility, D
2
O Upgrading Plant,
F/M Maintenance facility, CW Intake Structure, CW Discharge Channel, Switchyard, O &
M Ware house, Administrative Building and Technical Building etc, are common to both
units. Physical separation and redundancy have been provided between the safety
related systems.
1.4.2 Lay out Considerations
Following basic philosophy has been adopted
> Compact layout with due consideration to accessibility, maintainability, and ease
of construction, operation and maintenance
> Avoid turbine missile zone for locating buildings structures important to safety
> Personnel movement (walking) required to perform various activities are
minimized by suitably locating various facilities
> Locations are so chosen as to facilitate reduction in operating personnel
> Minimize tunnels to ease maintenance
> Facilitate routing of major underground piping and cabling within the building,
largely eliminating underground trenches
> Seismic class of equipment is housed in seismic class structures. Consistent with
this philosophy, Reactor Building (RB), Control Building (CB), Reactor Auxiliary
Building (RAB), and Station Auxiliary Buildings (SABs) are designed for Safe
Shutdown Earthquake (SSE).
1.4.3 R eactor Sy stem
The reactor is of pressurized heavy water type using heavy water as moderator,
and heavy water as coolant and natural uranium dioxide as fuel with zircaloy - 4 as a
cladding material. The reactor consists of integral assembly of calandria vessel holds D
2
O
1.7
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
moderator and Reflector. The reactor is having 392 coolant channel assemblies.
37element zircaloy claded natural uranium dioxide (UO
2
) fuel bundles (10.24 cm dia x
49.5 cm long) are contained in pressure tubes (coolant tubes), which are made of
Ziroconium - 2.5% Niobium Alloy. Though the basic fuel is UO
2
, some Thorium/Depleted
fuel bundles may be used in fresh core for initial flux flattening in order to operate at
higher power level even before equilibrium is attained. The pressure tubes are arranged
in a square lattice of 286 mm pitch. At each end, pressure tubes are rolled to AISI 403
(Modified) stainless steel end fittings, which penetrate the end shields and extend into the
fuelling machine vaults so as to facilitate on line re-fueling. Feeders are connected to the
end fittings by means of high-pressure couplings for transport of coolant to the reactor
headers. The pressure tube, calandria, end fittings, fuel bundles, and the contained heavy
water coolant together constitute the coolant channel. Around each coolant tube, a
concentric calandria tube, which is rolled into the end shield lattice tube, has been
provided with an annular gap. Each coolant channel is supported by the end shield at the
end fitting location and also supported partially by the surrounding calandria tubes
through 4 nos. garter springs installed in the annulus between pressure tube and
Calandria tube. Carbon dioxide gas filled in this gap serves as thermal insulation between
the high temperature primary coolant and low temperature moderator. This annulus gas
forms part of an advance sensing system regarding pressure tube leak. Axial shielding to
the coolant channel is provided by removable shield plugs fitted in the end fittings on
either end. At the face of each end fitting, a seal plug is installed which serves as a leak
tight mechanical joint and can be removed during refuelling operations.
1.4.4 Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System
The high-pressure high temperature primary heat transport (PHT) system extracts
heat from the fuel bundle and transports to the steam generators, which generate steam
to run the turbo-generator and produce electricity. The PHT main system is essentially
two independent pressurized heavy water (D
2
O) coolant closed loop circuits circulating
coolant through the coolant channels containing fuel bundles, the outlet feeders, the
outlet reactor header, the steam generators, the circulating pumps, the inlet reactor
header, the inlet feeders and back into the coolant channels. Partial boiling up to 4% at
coolant channel exit is permitted to extract more heat (i.e. 2162 MWth) from the reactor
core to produce about 700 MWe instead of 540 MWe. The channel flows are matched
with the time averaged channel power pattern and Primary main circuit pressure is
1.8
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
controlled at Reactor Outlet header at a pressure corresponding to saturation pressure at
310 °C. The pH and dissolved gases are kept under control in the Primary circuit.
The PHT system includes a pressuriser and a feed and bleed system for pressure
and inventory control and pressure relief system to protect the system pressure boundary
from over pressurization. It also includes coolant purification system; high pressure heavy
water supply system for fueling machines, shutdown cooling system to remove decay
heat from the fuel, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and Inventory Addition and
Recovery System (IARS) to maintain core cooling following a loss of coolant Accident
(LOCA) or collecting and putting back small leakages back to PHT through purification;
and a leakage collection system to collect, contain and transfer the collected heavy water
and to provide venting and draining facility to the equipment.
Salient Features of the System
Ensures coolant circulation to remove core heat under all anticipated
circumstances. Core cooling is ensured by
> PHT main circulating loop coolant flow under normal operation
> Primary circulating pump (PCP) flywheel inertia maintains adequate coolant
circulation during short period of non-availability of normal power to PCPs and
delay in establishing diesel driven emergency power
> Shutdown cooling circuit pumps and heat exchangers ensure cooling during
shutdown condition
> Thermo-syphon flow ensure cooling during station blackout condition
> Emergency injection from H
2
O accumulators in the initial phase of loss of coolant
accident (LOCA) followed by long term core cooling phase using suppression pool
water re-circulation
PHT system is well instrumented to monitor and control inventory, temperature,
pressure and chemistry of the coolant. The associated control and protection system is
designed with adequate margin and redundancy to ensure that the safe limits of pressure
boundary are not exceeded under any operational states.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
1.4.5 Moderator System
The purpose of heavy water moderator is to maintain criticality in the reactor core
by slowing down the high-energy neutrons to low energy thermal neutrons where
probability for fission capture is higher. The bulk of the space in the calandria i.e. the
space available between the calandria tubes is filled with heavy water moderator, which is
continuously circulated with the help of two out of three moderator pumps. Heavy water
sued as moderator inside calandria gets heated up due to neutron moderation and
capture, attenuation of gamma radiation, as well as due to transfer of heat from reactor
components in contact (total 123 MW). The moderator temperature is controlled at about
80 °C at the outlet of calandria by passing it through the two numbers of tube and shell
type moderator heat exchangers.
1.4.6 Instrumentation and Control Sy stem
It encompasses monitoring and control of various plant parameters. For protection
systems, principle of redundancy, diversity, testability and maintainability are given prime
consideration. A high degree of automation is aimed at promoting reliability. The safety
systems are designed to conform to fail safe criteria. All visual indication and controls,
which may be required for operator's intervention during operation, are located in a single
main control room. The protection systems are triplicated, the protection functions being
achieved by 2 out of 3 logic. Each channel is totally independent of other channels with
separate sensors, signal processing instruments and power supplies. This arrangement
also facilitates on power testing of equipments of the triplicated channels. In cases where
the complexity of the system is likely to reduce reliability, as in channel temperature
monitoring system, only two channels are used with a coincident logic of 2 out of 2. The
instrumentation for the control and protection systems is kept separate and independent
of each other. An extensive operator information system is provided. CRT displays are
used for information display and alarm parameter signal on control panels. Also, a limited
number of dedicated, hard wired window annunciations are provided on control room
panels to cover certain essential alarms. A separate control room is provided, for the
unlikely situation of inhabitability of main control room, to enable safe shutdown of the
reactor and to maintain it in a prolonged sub critical state.
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NEER1 Chapter 1: Introduction
1.4.7 Reactivity Control Reactor Shutdown System
Reactor control devices are required to regulate the reactor power, to control
neutron flux tilt and for the reactor start up process. These functions are achieved by
Liquid Zone Control (LZC) system, (light water absorber in 14 liquid zone control
compartments), 4 Control Rods (in 2 banks) and 17 Adjuster Rods (in 8 banks).
Automatic Liquid Poison Addition System (ALPAS) is provided to supplement the
regulating system, with controlled addition of boron poison into the moderator. Boron
concentration in moderator is also used for long-term reactivity control. Two fast acting
independent shutdown systems are provided as part of the protective system. Both these
have adequate capability to suppress any fast reactivity transient under various operating
and accident conditions and to maintain reactor in sub critical condition for long-term
shutdown. Shut Down System#1 (SDS-1) contains 28 Shut off Rods (Cadmium
sandwiched in SS), which are dropped into the core when system is activated. Control
Rods, which are normally parked outside the core, are also dropped along with shut off
rods. Shut down system #2 (SDS-2) provides fast injection of liquid poison (Gadolinium
Nitrate solution) directly into the moderator. SDS-1 activation is the preferred mode of
reactor shutdown, from economic considerations due to poison outage and gadolimium
poison removal requirements, Set points for SDS-2 actuation are kept at a higher level
normally compared to SDS-1. Some set points are same for SDS - 1 & 2.
1.4.8 On Power Re-fuelling
Two fuelling machines (F/Ms) operating in conjunction at the two ends of the
reactor are provided to carry out on power fuelling. On power fuelling is a characteristic
feature of Indian PHWR and is required on a regular basis mainly in view of the use of
natural uranium fuel. New fuel bundles are inserted by one of the F/Ms at one end of the
reactor while the other machine at the other end receives the spent fuel bundles. Bi-
directional fuelling in adjacent channels along the direction of flow is adopted to smoothen
axial neutron flux pattern. By using F/M and fuel transfer equipments, spent fuel bundles
are shifted to a shuttle which slides inside a transport tube laid from Reactor Building to
the inspection bay in the spent fuel building. Creating a hydraulic differential pressure
across the shuttle causes this movement. The discharge fuel if required, may be
inspected in the inspection bay for any damage before being transferred to the trays in
the storage bay. The necessary inspection facility is provided. Spent fuel is stored under
water in the trays for sufficient time period before it is transferred out of the Station.
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NEER1 Chapter 1: Introduction
1.4.9 Shut Down Cooling System
Shutdown cooling system is used for cooling the system below 150 °C to about
55°C to facilitate maintenance.
Under planned shutdown of the reactor, PHT is cooled down with the help of
steam generators by controlled discharge of steam through steam dump discharge valves
on the secondary side of SG. After the PHT system temperature comes to 150 °C, S/D
system is valved-in to cool the system further to about 55 °C. Two single stage centrifugal
pumps along with two heat exchangers provide cooling in each loop. Elevation wise, the
location of the steam generators in relation to the reactor core is so chosen that during
class IV power failure and consequent coasting down of the main circulating pumps, heat
removal would be possible by thermo-syphoning. This phase of the heat removal plays an
important role in bringing down the temperature of the PHT system consequent to a class
IV failure to temperatures where shut down cooling can be valved-in.
1.4.10 Emergency Core Cooling System
In the event of a loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), as a consequence of rupture in
primary coolant system pressure boundary, the cooling of the fuel is ensured by utilizing
ECCS, a high pressure light water coolant injection system followed by long term re-
circulation from suppression pool. Passive equipments like light water accumulators,
pressurized by N
2
accumulator have been provided for high-pressure coolant injection.
Subsequently, emergency core cooling pumps are used to re-circulate the suppression
pool water through the core and remove decay heat. Decay heat is picked up by the re-
circulating water and is removed by passing the hot water through the plate type heat
exchangers. The system has been designed to ensure safety under various postulated
conditions involving different break sizes and locations.
1.4.11 R eactor Auxiliary Sy stems
> Reactor Vault Cooling System
Calandria is submerged inside a pool of water contained in the calandria vault.
The function of water is two fold, one to provide shielding around the calandria and
secondly to cool down the vault walls which serve as a biological shield. The heat
generated in the vault water and the concrete vault walls is removed by circulating the
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
vault water through heat exchangers SS Line. The peak concrete temperature in the
calandria vault during worst scenario is expected to be around 55 °C.
> End Shield Cooling System
At each end of rector, steel balls filled end shields are used as radiation shield to
limit the radiation dose in the F/M vaults. The volume of circulating water in the end shield
and the steel balls are arranged in such a ratio that they provide adequate shielding
against neutrons and gamma rays. The recirculating water removes the heat generated in
the end shields.
1.4.12 Containment
Double containment philosophy has been followed. The containment system
consists of an (Primary) inner containment enveloped by (secondary) an outer
containment. The annulus between the inner and outer containments is kept at a slightly
negative pressure with respect to the atmosphere so as to minimize ground level activity
releases to the environment during an accident condition.
The containment serves basically three functions
1) Provide an envelope around the structure housing supporting calandria, end
shields, reactivity mechanisms, PHT and moderator systems, fuelling system, and
various associated systems
2) Provide shielding, and also to permit access to equipment within the containment
building under reactor operating/shutdown conditions
3) It forms the last barrier in the path of radioactivity release to the environment
following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The leak tightness integrity of the
containment is therefore important. The peak containment pressure following a
double ended break in the main steam line (MSLB is higher than that resulting
from LOCA). Containment structural design is therefore, based on MSLB and the
leakage integrity specifications are based on LOCA
4) The primary containment is of pre-stressed concrete and the outer (secondary)
containment is of reinforced concrete.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
5) During normal operation of the plant the primary and secondary containments
remain at a small negative pressure.
1.5 Services/Conventional Systems
1.5.1 Active Process Water System and Service Water System
The heat from different reactor process heat exchangers is transferred to a closed
loop active Process Water System. The plate type heat exchangers located in the
basement of reactor auxiliary building cools the active process water. The heat is
transferred here to SW (Service water) system, which in turn transfers it to IDCT. This
system is safety related and the equipment pertaining to these systems are qualified for
SSE. Service water system also absorbs heat from non-active water system and transfers
this heat to IDCT.
1.5.2 Fire Water Sy stem
The main plant area is provided with extensive hydrant and sprinkler systems for
minimizing the consequences of any fire hazard. Automatic sprinkler type protection is
provided for all transformers and non-automatic sprinkler systems for main oil tank,
turbine oil tank and associated lubricating oil piping. In door and out door hydrants
located suitably will provide fire protection within and around the plant buildings.
In case of process water failure, fire water supply will be provided as back up to
process water to meet, among other things, reactor core cooling requirements. Under
extreme emergencies (station black out etc.) also, firewater will be available through
diesel driven pumps.
1.5.3 Turbine Generator Sy stem
The valve wide open rating of Turbine Generator is 695 MWe with 0.25% wet
steam flow of 3840 T/hr at 41.8 kg/cm
2
, before the emergency stop valves (ESV), and a
condenser pressure of 70 mm hg. The Turbo-generator output may vary from 710 MWe
to an assured minimum of 690 MWe depending on the ambient condition.
The steam pressure in steam generator is 43.5 kg/cm
2
(g). The steam is delivered
to double flow H.P. turbine from steam generators via two sets of ESV (emergency stop
valve) and governor valves.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
After expansion in HP cylinder, steam exhausts to the moisture separator-reheater
wherein wetness is reduced and further reheated in bled steam reheater and live steam
reheater sections. Subsequently steam enters the 2 nos. of LP double flow turbines and
exhausts to their respective surface condensers cooled by condenser cooling water.
Steam is extracted from suitable stages of HP and LP turbine to provide regenerative
feed heating to about 180 °C.
1.5.4 Secondary System
The main function of secondary system is to provide heat sink for the heat
transported from the reactor core by primary coolant under various operating conditions.
Secondary system consists of steam generator (4 Nos.) HP and LP turbines, condenser,
condenser extraction pumps (CEPs), LP heaters, deaerator and storage tank, boiler feed
pumps (BFPs), feed pumps auxiliary boiler feed pumps (ABRPs), HP heaters, etc.
The design pressure of steam system is 51 kg/sq. cm (g). The steam pressure in
the steam generators is controlled at about 43.5 kg/sq cm (g) at full power. High-pressure
transients may be expected due to sudden loss of demand of steam or by malfunctioning
of emergency stop valves (ESV). In such events, the pressure on the secondary side is
limited within the permissible value by using the following devices.
1. Steam dump valves (SDVs) which discharge the steam into the main condenser
2. Atmospheric steam discharge valves (ASDVs), which will be actuated to relieve
the steam to the atmosphere when required e.g. loss of condenser vacuum,
turbine trip etc.
3. Relief valves (RVs) which are provided as means of ultimate safety to the steam
generators and secondary side steam lines.
1.5.5 Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) System
A re-circulating type CCW system incorporating a Natural Draught Cooling Tower
(NDCT) has been adopted. The natural draught, hyperbolic cooling tower has been
designed for cooling 175000 Cu.m./hr of re-circulated water from 40 °C to 32°C.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
1.5.6 Electrical System
Various auxiliaries (i.e. various electrical loads) of the power station are provided
with power supply from off-site and on-site sources. The off site power supply is derived
from 400 KV and 220 KV switchyards. The switchyard structures and equipment are
designated as codal category.
Start up transformers (SUTs) are connected to 220 KV switchyard. These are
used to derive start up power for the station generally. Turbo-generators (TGs) are
connected to 400 KV switchyard through generator transformer. Unit transformers (UTs)
are connected to the LV side of GTs and serve as an alternate off site source of power.
When a shutdown has to be taken up on TG, it is isolated by means of generator circuit
breaker (GCB) and UTs will continue to be available. The number of transmission lines
connected to the switchyard is such that a double circuit line break and maintenance
outages of bus breakers etc will not impair the off site power supply availability.
The station auxiliary power supply system is classified into four classes depending
on the reliability requirements. These are:
Class 1 system : 220V DC control power supplies from batteries
Class 2 system : 415 V AC 3 phase system
Class 3 system : 6.6 KV and 415 V 3 phase system
Class 4 system : 6.6 KV and 415 V 3 phase system
Class 1 system (based on batteries) is most reliable. It is used for the supply of
control power to circuit breakers, diesel engine control schematics, turbine control
schematics, static excitation for turbo-generator, control schemes for diesel driven fire
fighting pumps etc.
Class 2 power supply is derived from uninterruptible power supply system
comprising of rectifier, inverter and a dedicated battery bank. The battery bank is capable
of feeding inverter loads for a period of at least 30 minutes after the failure of AC supply
to the rectifier. Major loads on Class 2 include FM supply pumps, emergency lights, seal
oil pump and flushing oil pump.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
Class 3 power supply is connected to emergency diesel generators to provide
power supply in the event the class 4 power has failed. Diesel generator sets are
designed to provide power automatically to the class 3 bus whenever class 4 has failed.
Loads connected to the class 3 supply can tolerate short interruptions in power supply.
The class 3 power can be restored within two minutes after the loss of class 4.
The capacity of each on-site emergency diesel generator is 3400 kW. Four nos of 50%
diesel generator (DG) are provided for each unit.
Major loads connected to class 3 power supply are primary feed pumps, power
and control UPS, moderator circulating pumps, ECCS pumps, air compressors, auxiliary
boiler feed pumps, shut down cooling pumps and process water pumps.
Class 4 power supply is derived from 400kV and 220 kV switchyards through
start-up transformer and from the turbo-generator unit transformer. The capacity of SUT
is 80 MVA. There are two Nos of UTs each rated 40 MVA per unit. Either SUT or two UTs
are capable of supplying the entire station load. Loads connected to this system can
tolerate prolonged power supply interruption.
Electrical power supply system is grouped into two independent divisions. One of
the divisions is connected to startup transformer and the other to the unit transformers.
The capacity of each group, their location and routing of the cables are such that common
mode failures are minimized. The electrical power supply systems catering to all safety
related loads are designed to meet the requirement of single failure criterion.
1.6 Safety Classification
To ensure adequate safety to the public and plant site personnel, the plant design
meets following general safety requirements.
> The capability for safe shutdown of the reactor and maintaining it in the safe shut
down condition during and after all operational states and postulated accident
conditions.
> The capability to remove residual heat from the core after reactor shut down, and
during and after all operational states and postulated accident conditions and
maintain a coolable geometry.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
> The capability to reduce the potential for the release of radioactive materials and
ensure that releases are within the prescribed limits during and after all
operational states and postulated accident conditions.
> To meet these requirements, systems, components and structures have to
perform certain safety functions. These safety functions include those necessary
to prevent accident conditions as well as those necessary to mitigate the
consequence of accident.
The relative importance of the safety function determines the safety class of the
systems, components and structures performing the safety function.
1.6.1 Safety Classes
Based on the above methodology, the following four different safety classes
(Class 1, 2, 3 & 4) are generally considered appropriate in view of the design codes and
standards in vogue.
Safety Class 1:
Safety class 1 incorporates those safety functions, which are necessary to prevent
the release of substantial fraction of the core fission product inventory to the
containment/environment.
Safety Class 2:
Safety class 2 incorporates those safety functions necessary to mitigate the
consequence of an accident, which would otherwise lead to the release of substantial
fraction of core fission product inventory to the environment.
Safety class 2 also includes those safety functions necessary to prevent
anticipated operational occurrences from leading to accident conditions; and those safety
functions whose failure under certain plant condition may result in severe consequences
e.g. failure of residual heat removal system.
Safety Class 3:
Safety class 3 incorporates those safety functions, which perform a support role to
safety functions in safety classes 1, 2 and 3. It also includes:
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
> Those safety function necessary to prevent radiation exposure to the public or site
personnel from exceeding relevant acceptable limits from sources outside reactor
coolant system.
> Those safety functions associated with reactivity control on a slower time scale
than the reactivity control functions in safety classes 1 and 2.
> Those safety functions associated with decay heat removal from spent fuel
outside reactor coolant system.
Safety Class 4:
Safety class 4 incorporates all those safety functions, which do not fall within
safety classes 1, 2 or 3.
Non-Nuclear Service (NNS)
This class includes all other systems, which are not associated with any of the
safety functions.
1.7 Seismic Classification
To meet the requirement given in the previous section, a three tier (or level)
system has been adopted for the seismic classification of systems, components,
instruments and structures, i.e.
(i) Safe Shut Down Earthquake (SSE) category,
(ii) Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) category and
(iii) General (Codal) category.
SSE Category:
SSE category incorporates all systems, components instruments and structures
conforming to safety classes 1, 2 and 3 and shall be designed for the maximum seismic
ground motion potential at site (i.e. SSE) obtained through appropriate seismic
evaluations based on regional and local geology, seismology and soil characteristics.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
SSE category corresponds to Category S2 of IAEA safety guide 50-SG-S1. The
equipment and systems that are required to be qualified for SSE are classified as seismic
category - 1.
OBE Category
All systems, components, instruments and structures which are to remain
functional for continued operation of the plant without undue risk fall under OBE category
and the design basis shall be a lower level seismic ground motion than SSE which may
reasonably be expected during the plant life. A seismic event, exceeding OBE level,
would require a shut down of the plant and carrying out a detailed inspection of the entire
plant. OBE category corresponds to category S1 of IAEA safety guide 50-SG-S1. The
equipment and systems that are required to be qualified for OBE are classified as seismic
category -2.
General (Codal) Category
This category incorporates those systems, structures, instruments and
components, the failure of which would not cause undue radiological risk and includes all
systems, components, instruments and structures which are not included in SSE or OBE
category. The seismic design basis shall be that prescribed by the relevant Indian
standards (IS-1893, year 1984). The equipment and systems that are required to be
qualified for Codal requirements are classified as seismic category - 3.
1.8 Quality Group Classification
Quality class of systems, components and structures generally corresponds to
their respective safety class (i.e. quality class 1, 2, 3 & 4 corresponds to safety class 1, 2,
3 & 4 respectively).
Quality class 1 shall meet the highest quality requirements. Quality class 2, 3 & 4
are of progressively lower quality requirements. Quality class 4 will also include other
systems, structures and components of the plant, which do not fall under any on the
safety classes.
A few examples of the requirements of quality classes are as under:
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
> Pressure retaining components of quality classes 1, 2 and 3 shall meet the
requirements of ASME B and PV code, section III sub section NB, NC and ND
respectively.
> Pressure retaining components of quality class 4 (Safety class 4) may be
designed as per ASME Section VII Division 1
> Components supports under quality class 1, 2, & 3 shall meet the design
requirements of ASME section III, sub section NF
> Electronic components used in class 1 and 2 I & C systems are of MIL grade. The
I & C equipment and components are also subjected to qualification tests
including ageing and seismic tests as required.
> For the purpose of performance qualification, the class EA electrical equipment
are divided into three categories, depending on the location inside or outside the
containment and LOCA service. The qualification is done by type tests on
equipment components /materials and further analysis wherever application.
Quality assurance is carried out as per AERB safety code AERB/SC/QA.
1.9 Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance in design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and
operation is enforced in order to accomplish high level of safety and reliability.
1.9.1 Design
The design adopts the concept of "Defense in depth" which incorporates
successive and mutually reinforcing echelons of equipment and systems provided to
ensure high reliability. The single failure criteria have been uniformly adopted in the
design of safety related systems, which ensures desired function of all safety related
systems even in case of a single component failure. The principle is extended further in
critical areas to systems as a whole. For example, there are two independent shut down
systems (Shut Down Systems #1 and Shut Down Systems #2). These SDSs get actuated
on independent trip parameters. The design provides multiple barriers against radioactive
releases. Dual failure events are postulated and evaluated to ensure no undue risk of
radiation hazards to public.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
Due consideration is given to avoid common cause failures in the safety systems.
Principle of independence and redundancy are adopted in the design to achieve the
required reliability targets.
IAEA safety guides form the basis of Quality Assurance in design. To ensure
quality, safety related systems, structures and components are first classified into
different safety classes (in line with international practice) based on the relative
importance of their safety function. Each class of structures, systems and components
are then designed with the help of codes and standards relevant to their safety class.
Safety related equipment, components and structures are generally designed as per
ASME Sec III whereas Electrical and instrumentation systems are designed to meet the
IEEE standards.
All design and analysis is carried out through well established practices and using
validated softwares, where ever necessary. Validation of softwares are normally done
through benchmark problems, comparison of results using different softwares,
international exercises etc. The designs are reviewed within the group and also subjected
to independent reviews depending on their importance.
Safety related design and analysis reports are further reviewed by the Design
Safety Committee before their submission to AERB.
1.9.2 Manufacture, Construction, and Commissioning
During the fabrication/construction of various components, stage inspection and
quality control are carried out by the manufactures as per the procedures and
requirements laid down in the NPCIL specifications. NPCIL quality Surveillance
Engineers or the authorized outside third party AQ agencies oversee the Quality of
product under manufacture. For this the QS engineer ensures that the appropriate
procedures are followed during fabrication, by carrying out stage inspection as well as
random checks. After completion of the manufacture, the quality surveillance engineer
issues shipping release after getting fully satisfied with the product. Vital equipment may
be repeat tested to check their operational capability in simulated experimental set ups.
At the construction site, field engineering cell operates independently as a
representative of the design office to overview various construction activities to ensure
that the design intents are fully met. Apart from the FE personnel, at the construction site,
quality surveillance engineers also work to ensure the quality of construction.
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
During the commissioning, proper functioning of al systems and equipments are
ensured through written down procedures.
1.9.3 Operation
Engineers and operators undergo special training in plant operation and
radiological safety. They are qualified from time to time to ensure the requisite level of
expertise is maintained. Written procedures duly cleared by competent authority are also
made available to the operating staff. Technical specifications for operation approved by
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board are adhered to during operation. A strict control on
operating conditions and periodic in service inspection of safety related components of
the plant ensure the health of the safety related systems. Appropriate corrective actions
are taken on the basis of in service inspections. The plant operation and maintenance
staff is also exposed to current operational practices and trends during plant peer reviews
by international bodies life WANO.
1.10 Scope of EIA
The scope of the study includes detailed characterization of status of environment
in an area of 25 km radius around the proposed RAPP 7 & 8 units. The basis for 30 km
radius for the study zone is MoEF's recommendation that there should not be any major
urban centre with population of more than one lakh within 30 km area. In addition within
10 km radius, there should not be any population centre with more than 10,000
population. The size of the study zone is primarily based on topographic considerations.
The Scope of the Study Includes
i. To assess existing environmental status covering major environmental
components viz. air, noise, water, land, biological, socio-economic and health
aspects.
ii. To identify potential impacts on various environmental components during pre-
construction and operational phases of the project
iii. To predict significant impacts through identification, calibration and validation of
appropriate mathematical / simulation models
iv. To evaluate impacts of the project through appropriate evaluation techniques
v. To prepare an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) outlining control strategies
to be adopted for minimizing adverse impacts
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
vi. To delineate post construction environment quality monitoring programme to be
pursued by Nuclear Power Corporation
vii. To assess the risk incorporating structural safety subject to seismic activity
1.11 Methodology for EIA
The nature of impacts due to nuclear power plant operations on surrounding
environment is different from conventional industrial projects, since NPP does not release
conventional air pollutants e.g. SO
2>
NO
X
and SPM. The releases from nuclear power
plant at Rawatbhata to air and water environment are primarily radioactive isotopes.
However, the impacts during construction phase of the nuclear power plant would be
similar to any other industrial project during construction phase. The sources of
radioactivity in NPP arise from the production of radioactive fission products and certain
activation products formed by neutron irradiation of reactor materials including coolant
and moderator. The atmospheric discharges at RAPP nuclear power plant are mainly
FPNG, Iodine (I
131
) and mixture of long-lived nuclides. The nature of effects of radiological
pollution on biological environment would be different from that for conventional
pollutants. Unlike for chemical pollutants where biological effects depend both on
concentration and duration of exposure, the effect of radiation dose depends on total
cumulative dosage. So, short-term peaks, which are treated as very important in
conventional pollutants, have no significance in radioactive pollution. Extreme care is
taken at every stage viz. in site selection, during construction, commissioning and
operational phases of the nuclear power plant to keep the radioactive releases within
internationally acceptable limits and limits prescribed by AERB.
While siting nuclear power plants, three areas are defined as exclusion zone,
sterilised zone and monitoring zone. Exclusion zone extends upto 1.6 km, which will be
under the exclusive control of the power station where no public habitation is allowed.
Any existing population within the exclusion zone has, therefore, to be rehabilitated. The
sterilised zone is the annulus between 1.6 km and 5 km radius from the reactors where
natural growth is permitted but new expansion of activities, which lead to enhance
population growth, are not permitted. 5 to 30 km zone is the monitoring zone and is
monitored for radioactive levels. The areas under plant zone, exclusion zone and
sterilised zone for the RAPP Project are shown in Figure 1.3. The exclusion radius for the
purpose of calculating the doses to the public is 1.6 km. A circular area covering 25 km
radial distance from the centre of the project site at Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Plant was
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NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
identified as an impact zone (Figure 1.3) for Comprehensive Environmental Impact
Assessment (CEIA) purpose.
Even though the radiological pollution is a major factor to be considered in
environmental impact assessment of nuclear power project, the impacts of conventional
pollutants were also studied within the impact zone. The Comprehensive EIA of proposed
additional units 7 and 8 at Rawatbhata project site was carried out through
reconnaissance survey, and assessment of baseline status during three seasons
including identification and prediction of impacts under each environmental component
viz. air, noise, water, land, biological and socio-economic environment including
radiological parameters. The work carried out is briefly reported below and has been
discussed in detail in subsequent sections.
1.11.1 Air Environment
The source of atmospheric radioactive releases from the nuclear power plant
during normal operation will be ventilation air passing through the stacks. The ventilation
air of reactor building and reactor auxiliary building will be passed through High Efficiency
Particulate Absolute (HEPA) filters and iodine filters (activated charcoal filters) before
sending it to the stack. The nuclear reactor based on PHWR technology is expected to
generate radionuclides in the form of FPNG (Fission Product Noble Gases), radio iodine
(I
131
) and long-lived nuclides. The radioactive nuclides released into atmosphere will
undergo the dispersion and dilution process in the atmosphere like any other
conventional air pollutants before reaching the receptors. Their impact on human body
and other biological systems will depend upon the time integrated cumulative radiation
dose from the different radio-isotopes. The impact of atmospheric releases on people and
other biological life is given below:
> First of all, the released radioactive isotopes will be dispersed and diluted in the
atmosphere by atmospheric diffusion process. The dispersed radioactive clouds
lead to external dose due to Beta ((3) and Gamma (y) radiations and internal dose
due to inhalation of the air containing radionuclides.
> The dispersed particulates can dry deposit on surface soil and vegetation, leading
to direct external beta and gamma doses and ingestion (internal) dose by
consumption of vegetables from affected zone and through cow milk route
1.25
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
> Soil contamination leading to contamination of agricultural products by uptake
from soil and leading to internal dose due to ingestion
> Rainfall can deposit the radioactive particulates on soil and contaminate water
which leads to internal dose by drinking this water
The inter-relationships of these different exposure pathways in air route have
been depicted in Figure 1.4 & 1.5.
1.11.1.1 Data Collection
Site Related
The details related to topography of project site, general climatological conditions
and processes involved in nuclear power generation, were collected through
reconnaissance survey. The micro-meteorological data was collected by installing a
weather station at site. In addition, the micrometeorological data recorded by ESL
(BARC), Rawatbhata have also been used for characterising atmospheric dispersion
conditions within the impact zone.
Baseline Data - Conventional Air Pollutants
Different conventional air pollution parameters viz. Suspended Particulate Matter
(SPM), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), Sulfur Dioxide (SO
2
), and
Oxides of Nitrogen (NO
X
) were identified to assess prevailing status of ambient air quality
within the impact zone. The baseline status of these parameters was monitored during
three seasons at the selected sampling stations within the impact zone.
1.11.1.2 Baseline Background Radiation Data
Data related to present Radiation in and around the proposed nuclear power plant
site at selected sampling locations as monitored by BARC and other agencies was
obtained from NPCIL and incorporated in the report.
1.11.2 Noise Environment
Noise often defined as unwanted sound interferes with speech communication,
causes annoyance, distracts a person from work, and disturbs sleep, thus, deteriorating
quality of human environment. Noise pollution survey has, therefore, been carried to
assess the impact of the project on the acoustic environment.
1.26
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
Noise levels were measured around the proposed site of the plant, present
reactors of NPP, and in several human settlements around the plant using precision
sound level meter (Model 2230, Bruel and Kjaer, Denmark).
1.11.3 Water E nv ironment
Information on water resources (ground and surface water) was collected. The
parameters of prime importance were selected under physical, chemical inorganic,
chemical organic and nutrient groups including heavy metals. Samples were collected at
different locations for assessing surface water and groundwater quality. Baseline data for
bacteriological parameters was also collected. The analysis data on ground water and
surface waters as collected by NPCIL authorities was also made use of.
The aquatic discharges from the proposed NPP will be in the form of low level
liquid effluent in condenser cooling water discharge, which will involve radioactive
parameters such as gross beta, gamma activity. These discharges are through the
average volume of excess water, including laundry water.
Similar to atmospheric releases, the nuclear power plant does generate liquid
wastes to which the people, biological life and other systems get exposed and as a result
of exposure, may get affected. Possible exposure pathways for releases from NPP to
aquatic environment are depicted in Figure 1.5. In case of Rawatbhata plant, liquid
radioactive wastes will be stored for decay, concentrated by evaporation and solidified by
vitrification and treated as solid wastes.
Sources of radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes were identified from the
proposed nuclear power plant. The quantity and characteristics of these wastes were
anticipated by collecting data from NPCIL. Based on the information available, treatment
schemes as suggested in the project report of NPP, Rawatbhata for the safe disposal of
these wastes in environment were reviewed critically.
1.11.4 Land E nv ironment
A reconnaissance survey was conducted by field visits to the nuclear power plant
site and the surrounding areas. Soil samples were collected from different locations for
determining characteristics of soils in the study area. The existing land-use pattern within
the study area was studied from the available data and information.
1.27
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
As regards the solid wastes, information on expected quantities of solid wastes to
be generated, their types, mode of collection, transportation and disposal methods was
obtained from NPCIL and was reviewed critically from the view point of their safe
disposal.
1.11.5 Biolog ical E nv ironment
For biological environment, baseline data on flora and fauna within the study area
was collected. Water samples from aquatic environment were collected for determining
biological characteristics such as phytoplankton and zooplankton. Information was also
collected about availability of common animals at various places around the project site.
Scientific data on terrestrial fauna was also collected around the project site.
1.11.6 Socio-economic E nv ironment
Baseline information was collected within the study area of 25 km radius around
the project. Data on the demographic pattern, population density per hectare, educational
facilities, agriculture, income, fuel, medical facilities, health status, transport and
entertainment centers were collected for surrounding villages and analysed. Information
related to health and safety aspects as also infrastructural facilities to be provided,
number of workers to be employed etc. was obtained from NPCIL. The data and
information collected was used to determine the quality of life indices in the region based
on which strategies were formulated for achieving further improvement in quality of life
indices in the study area.
1.28
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
P U N J A B
HARYANA
RAJASTHAN ATOMIC
POWER STATION ":;
MUMBAI
PUNE
Figure 1.1 : Location Map for Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP) at
Rawatbhata
1.29
to
o
Reactor Building
Reactor Auxiliary Building
Station Auxiliary Building-A
Service Building
Spent Fuel Storage Bay
Control Building
Station Auxiliary Building-A
Induced Draft Cooling
Tower
Waste Management
Building
Workshop
Stack Monitoring Room
D2O Upgrading Plant
Safety Related Pump
House
Turbine Building
CCW Pump House
DM Water Plant
Natural Draft Cooling
Tower
Switch Yard
Emergency Water Storage
Tank
Fire Water Pump House
Transformer Area
Stack
Technical Building
Access Building
Figure 1.2 : RAPP- 7 & 8 Plant Layout
o
I
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
n'sd
LESEMD .
SAMPLW5 LOCATIONS 1 \ ,2,3 . . . . . >
TAR HOAO
EARTHERN ROAO
g^3 RANA PRATAP SAGAR
Figure 1.3 : Study Area for EIA Studies of RAPP, Rawatbhata
1.31
NEERI Chapter 1: Introduction
Atmospheric
Release
Atmospheric
Dispersion
Deposition
on Land
Resuspension
External
Dose
Food
Contamination
Ingestion
Dose
Cloud
P y Dose
Inhalation
Dose
Population
Distribution
and Habits
Agricultural
Production
Data
Collective
Dose
Figure 1.4 : Exposure Pathways for Atmospheric Releases from NPP
1.32
NEERI
Chapter 1: Introduction
Water
Treatment
Drinking Water
Agricultural and
Aquatic Food
Production
Liquid Releases
Low level liquid waste
Dispersion
Water
Irrigation
Terrestrial
Food Stuff
Ingestion
High level liquid waste
Bio
Accumulation
Internal Dose
Population
Distribution and
Habitats
Collective
Dose
Sedimentation
Sediment
Concentration
Other Aquatic
Environmental
Utilization
> Boating
> Fishing
> Swimming etc.
External
Radiation
Figure 1.5 : Exposure Pathways for releases by NPP to Aquatic Environment
1.33
NEERI
Chapter 1: Introduction
Tabl e 1.1
Oper at i onal Per f or mance Detai l of R APS 2 - 4
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Date of Commercial
Operation
Date of Commercial Operation
Total electricity generated till
date (in million units)
Performance in 2004-05
electricity generated (in million
units)
Performance in 2004-05
capacity factor
Total electricity produced by
RAPS 2,3 & 4 (in million units)
till date
R APS- 2
01.04.1981
24802
1321
75
39018
R APS- 3
01.06.2000
7413
1470
76
RAPS - 4
23.12.2000
6803
1649
86
1.34
Chapter 2
Jjaseline Environmental Status and
Identification of Impacts
Chapter 2
Jjaseline Environmental Status and
Identification of Impacts
2.1 Air Environment
Assessment of impacts on air environment and feed back on EMP requires
information on existing ambient air quality status. The baseline studies for air environment
include identification of specific air pollutants due to proposed project and measuring their
levels in ambient air in the study area prior to implementation of the project. The data
required to assess the status can be collected, analysed and evaluated through a well-
designed air quality monitoring network.
2.1.1 Design of Network for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Locations
The following criteria were taken into account while designing the ambient air
quality monitoring network :
> Topography of the study area
> Representation of regional background
> Populated and sensitive areas
> Representation of valid cross sectional distribution in downwind direction
> Prediction of maximum ground level concentrations and distances of their likely
occurrence under prevailing meteorological conditions.
The locations for ambient air quality survey are shown in Fig. 2.1.1 and
Table 2.1.1
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.1.2 Micrometeorology
The microrneteorological conditions at the proposed site regulate the transport
and diffusion of air pollutants released in atmosphere. The principal meteorological
variables are horizontal convective transport (average wind speed and direction), vertical
convective transport (atmospheric stability, mixing height) and topography of the area.
The meteorological data was provided by Environmental Survey Laboratory under BARC
at Rawatbhata.
The wind rose diagram (Figure 2.1.2) have been prepared on the basis of
meteorological data collected during post monsoon season similarly, annual wind rose at
RAPS site is given in Figure. 2.1.3. The most dominant wind direction was observed from
NE and ENE to SW and SSW & during post monsoon and from N to S and from SW,
SSW to NE and NNE on annual average basis. The most dominant wind speed was
12-29 km/h.
Meteorological station of Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) of BARC at
Rawatbhata has been in operation from 1964 in Phase II. Later this became functional at
the plant site from 1978. The meteorological conditions at Rawatbhata are summarized
below.
> Maximum of maximum daily temperature
> Minimum of minimum daily temperature
> Maximum of maximum daily relative humidity
> Minimum of minimum daily relative humidity
> Average ambient temperature
> Average ambient temperature (1990-99)
> Rainfall data yearly (1964-99)
47.8 °C (May 98)
3.9 °C (Jan 1967)
100%
5%
27.5 °C (1978-98)
-6.7 °C (Jan 91)
47.8 °C (May 98)
Max 1273.5 mm1976
Min 442.8 mm 1998
Average 831.1 mm
Wind Data (1991-99)
Average Calms
Wind Speed
Wind Check
Affected Direction
7 m Height
25.2
Q-35
P-30
R-8.9
N-111.8
WSW-8.9
WSW-7.2
S
ENE
ENE
9 m Height
5.9
Q-33.6
R-29.3
S-15.1
WSW-8.9
SW-8.2
N-7.5
ENE
NE
S
120 m Height
5.9
R-29.4
Q-29.0
S-19.0
WSW-8.4
W-7.7
Nw-7.0
ENE
E
SE
2.2
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
> P : 3 to 5 km/hr; Q : 6 to 11 km/hr; R : 12 to 19 km/hr; S : 20 to 29 km/hr.
> Prominent wind direction :
7 m : N (11.8%)
9 m : WSW (8.9%) Sparsely populated area
120 m : WSW (8.4%) Sparsely populated area
2.1.3 Reconnaissance
The plant site has typical topographical character as RAPP is located at the foot-
hills of slopes forming the catchment area of Maharana Pratap Lake. Two sides are
covered by undulating hilly terrain. As such the area has no other industrial activity
except Heavy Water Plant (HWP) located about 0.7 km from RAPP. Other major regional
characteristics include low level commercial, residential and transport activities forming
well distributed area sources.
The prime objectives of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) in the study area
is to establish the existing background levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM),
Respirable Particulate Matter (RPM), Sulphur Dioxide (SO
2
), Oxides of Nitrogen (NO
X
).
The ambient air quality in the study area is expected to be governed by regional
emissions and micrometeorology. The sampling locations were selected during
reconnaissance based on network siting criteria as detailed above. An area of 25 km
radius from the project site was delineated as study area in case of air quality impact
assessment study. Twenty nine sampling locations were identified within 0 - 25 km
distance from the proposed expansion site. The ambient air quality monitoring locations
are shown in Fig. 2.1.1 and details of these locations are described in Table 2.1.1. The
ambient air quality monitoring was carried out during summer 2003, post monsoon 2003,
and winter 2003-2004 seasons.
2.1.4 Ambient Air Quality Survey
The air quality moitoring was carried out for a total of 29 Ambient Air Quality
Monitoring (AAQM) locations for the three seasons viz. Summer (2003), Post monsoon
(2003) and Winter seasons (2003-2004). At all these sampling locations, SPM, SO
2
, NOx
were monitored on 24 hourly basis to enable the comparision with standards of Central
Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
The values of concentration of various pollutants at all the sampling locations
were processed for different statistical parameters like arithmatic mean, standard
2.3
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
deviation, minimum concentration, maximum concentration and various percentile values.
The existing baseline levels with respect to SPM, RSPM, SO
2
, NOx expressed in terms of
various statistical parameters are presented in Tables 2.1.2-2.1.16.
2.1.5 Baseline Status
There are no industrial activities existing within the impact zone. Air quality
monitoring was carried out for 19 stations in summer season and 26 stations in Post-
monsoon and winter seasons as it was felt necessary to add more AAQM stations after
the completion of air quality monitoring studies in summer season.
2.1.5.1 Suspended Particulate Matter ( SPM)
Average SPM concentration (ug/m
3
) in the study area during summer, post-
monsoon and winter seasons varied from 31-171, 115-250 and 115-252 respectively with
minimum and maximum concentrations ranging from 13, 63, 45 and 583, 287, 301
respectively (Tables 2.1.2-2.1.4). The maximum concentration was recorded at Jagpura
(9 km from plant site) in summer season, which was due to local anthrogenic activity in
that area. The 98
th
percentile values (ug/m
3
) of 24 hourly SPM at all these locations
(Tables 2.1.5-2.1.7) ranged from 54-223, 135-283, and 138-296 for summer, post-
monsoon and winter season respectively. The values at some places are higher than
CPCB limit of 200 ug/m
3
(Annexure I) for residential, rural and mixed use area being
38.5% of sampling stations in winter season, 21% in summer seasons and 11.5% in post
monsoon season. The higher SPM concentrations are primarily due to natural dust
getting air borne due to human activity and blowing wind.
2.1.5.2 Repirable Suspended Particulate Matter ( RSPN)
Average RSPM concentration (ug/m
3
) in summer, post-monsoon and winter
seasons varied in the range of 18-88, 41-90 and 41-91 respectively (Tables 2.1.2-2.1.4).
The 98
th
percentile values (ug/m
3
) ranged from 31-126, 48-102 and 50-106
respectively(Tables 2.1.8-2.1.10). The 98
th
percentile values were below the CPCB
standard (100ug/m
3
) for residential and rural area (Annexure I) at most of places except
Baroliya in post-monsoon & winter seasons, and at Charbhuja, Chainpura, Khatikheda
square, & Aklingpura in summer season.
2.1.5.3 Sulphur Dioxide (SO
2
)
The average concentrations (ug/m
3
) of Sulphur-di-oxide in summer, post-monsoon
and winter seasons varied in the range of 3-8, 3-9 and 3-9 respectively
(Tables 2.1.2-2.1.4). The 98
th
percentile values (ug/m
3
) (Tables 2.1.11-2.1.13) in these
2.4
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
seasons were observed to vary from 4-8, 5-12 and 6-15 respectively which were below
the AAQM standard set up by CPCB (80 ug/m
3
) for residential and rural area.
2.1.5.4 Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)
The average concentration (ug/m
3
) of NOx varied in the range of 3-7, 4-10 and 5-
11 in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons respectively (Tables 2.1.2-2.1.4) while
the 98
th
percentile values (ug/m
3
) ranged from BD-9, 7-14 and 9-15 (Tables 2.1.14-
2.1.16). The 98
th
percentile values were observed to be below national standard set up by
CPCB of 80 ug/m
3
.
2.1.6 Radiological Observations
At RAPP site, Ar-41, FPNG Tritium, Iodine and particulates are released through
93 m stack at RAPP 1&2, and 100 m stack at RAPP 3&4 to the environment. Following
release, Ar-41 and FPNG undergo atmospheric diffusion and dispersion under prevailing
meteorological conditions, resulting in possible external exposures to members of public.
Observations were made on Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and long lived
gross alpha and beta activities. The GM values for gross alpha and beta are 0.08 and
1.18 mBq/m
3
and radiocesium was below detection limit in quarterly cumulative samples
analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The average value of SPM obtained during this year
was 179.0 ug/m
3
.
Air Tritium in air at sixteen locations was monitored by condensing the air
moisture. The results are given in Table 2.1.17 to 2.1.21 for the period from 1998 to
2002. At fence post the annual GM value varied from 0.3 to 6.8 Bq/m
3
during this period.
Rainwater samples collected by ESL were analyzed for H-3 content. Monthly
rainfall constituted a sample. The tritium activity ranged from 22-131 Bq/I in 1998,
19.3-116 Bq/I in 1999, 19-53 Bq/I in 2000, BDL-23 Bq/I in 2001 and BDL to 91 Bq/I
in 2002.
Annual cumulative rainwater sample was analyzed for radiocesium and
radiostrontium during 1998 to 2002. The levels of activity for radiocesium and
radiostrontium were below detection limit.
2.1.7 Activ e Gases
2.1.7.1 General
For minimum environmental impact, the releases of airborne radioactive materials
from the plant would be maintained at lowest possible levels. The only significant
2.5
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
radionuclides that are likely to be released are tritium, fission product noble gases
(FPNG), radio-iodines and activated particulate. The experience at NAPS, KAPS, KGS 1
and 2, RAPP 3 and 4 (which also have water cooled vaults) shows that occasional Ar-41
generation and release occurs from the annular system. The limits of releases of the
radionuclides into environment and the monitoring system arrangements for these
radionuclides are given in the following sections.
2.1.7.2 Derived Discharge Limits
The airborne effluent generated during the normal operating' conditions of the
reactor will be discharged to the environment through a tall (100 m) stack after filtration
through pre-filters and high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filters having filtration
efficiency of better than 99.9% for particulate matter of 0.5 u size. The exhaust flow rate
from each of the reactor buildings is 17,200 m
3
/hr and from the service building about
3,47,970 m
3
/hr. The dilution of the released activity takes place by atmospheric dispersal,
radioactive decay and the cloud depletion factors, such as, rain out, dry deposition etc.
before it reaches the ground level.
For the calculation of the Discharge Limits (DLs) of activities of the radionuclides
released from the stack, the following important modes of exposure levels are
considered.
i) External whole body gamma exposures from the plume of active inert gases. The
exposure from submersion in the radioactive cloud and the radiation from the
overhead plume is considered and the dose due to the main sector and two
adjacent side sectors on either side of main sector are also considered.
ii) Internal exposure due to intake of radionuclides through inhalation and ingestion
for I - 131, H - 3 and particulates.
The Discharge Limit (DL) for stack discharge is arrived at by using the following
equation.
Ca Happ
DL = x x8. 64x10
4
Bq/ d
XIQ HL
Where Ca = Derived air concentration for the radionuclide applicable to the
public, derived for the critical pathways of exposure (Bq/m)
X/Q = The annual average atmospheric dilution factor at the exclusion
distance of 1600 m (s/m
3
)
2.6
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Happ = The apportionment for air route for the particular radio nuclide (in mSv)
per year
HL = Effective Dose Limit (EDL) for members of public (1 mSv/year)
Using the micro meteorological data the external ground level plume gamma dose
for unit release of Air - 41 and FPNG are computed for all the 16 sectors and various
distances. Annual dose at exclusion distance of 1.6 km was computed as 85.14 mSv/y
per TBq/s (315 mrem/year per Ci/s) for FPNG and 241.4 mSv/y per TBq/s (893
mrem/year Ci/s) for Air-41. For a dose apportionment of 5 mrem/year and 3 mrem/year
for FPNG and Ar - 41, the release values worked out as 50.7 TBq/day (1370 Ci/day) and
10.8 TBq (291 Ci/day) respectively.
H- 3 - 41.2 TBq/d (1112 Ci/d)
1-131 - 1.4 GBq/d (38 mCi/d)
Particulates - 1.0 GBq/d (27 mCi/d)
FPNG - 50.7 TBq/d (1370 Ci/d)
Ar -41 - 10.8 TBq/d (291 Ci/d)
The above authorized limits are to be considered as annual averaged values/
year. The actual releases may fluctuate over some range and these fluctuations can be
accommodated by stipulating the peak discharge values for operational transients. In
general, activity releases upto 10 times the above values can be allowed occasionally, for
short periods, provided the annual averages do not exceed the authorized limits as given
above.
It must be borne in mind that the above release limits have been arrived at by
employing a number of approximations and conservative assumptions and are subject to
limitations of knowledge and information in the field of atmospheric diffusion, food habits,
environmental transport processes of radionuclides, physiological, dosimeter parameters,
etc. It is therefore necessary that a regular environmental monitoring programme is
carried out to establish that the radiological burden to the environment around the site is
being maintained well below the stipulated limits.
2.7
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
?5°25' 75°45' 75°50'
KHATIKKEpA
KHATIKHEDA SOJftRE
N
LEGEND:
» SAMPLING LOCATIONS ( I , Z ,3 )
TAR ROAD
E AR THE R N ROAD
E z : 3 RANA PRATAP SA6AR
Figure 2.1.1 : Sampling Locations for Air Environment
2.8
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
4-69%
5-6% 1 \
96%
16-4%
1420%
H 15 79%
00-2 4 Hr*
Scote
0 3% 6% 9% 12% !5%
1-5 6-10 11-20 20
Fig. 2.1.2: Windrose at Rawatbhata During October - November 2003
2.9
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
CAtM »"•
[ 1 1 I I I I I I I I
O I 2 » 4 f t « 7 « » I O
•CALK
8l-«< «X-*O Ka/kr
Figure 2.1.3 : Annual Wind Rose at RAPS Site for the Year 2001
2.10
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.1
Details of Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations
(Summer 2003)
or.
Kin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Sampling Location
Met Lab (Plant site)
Baroliya
Saddal dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar guest house)
Charbhuja
Chainpura (Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jarjhani
Khatikheda
Khatikheda Square
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Dholai
Badodiya
Mandensara
Jaora
Aklingpura
Shripura
Mohna
Renkhera
Ganeshpura
Kundaliya
Nalikheda
Borabas
Nagani
Borav
Height Above
Ground Level
(m)
4
5
3
3
6
3
6
3
6
6
5
6
3
4
5
5
5
4
5
7
5
6
6
5
5
4
5
4
5
Bearing
Appro Aerial
Distance in (km)
With Respect to Plant Site
~
NNW
NNW
E
NNW
N
W
ENE
NNW
NNW
ENE
ESE
ESE
NNW
E
SSE
ESE
W
N
ESE
NW
SE
SE
WSW
W
W
NNE
W
WNW
-
4.4
5
5.5
5.5
7
7
7.5
7.5
9
10
10
11.5
11.5
11.5
12.0
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
15.0
15.7
16.0
16.0
18.0
19.5
20.0
24.0
25.5
l . W
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit: |jg/m
3
Sr.
i i
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
~7
1
8
Q
i)
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Note :
BDL •
bampiing Location
Met Lab (Plant site)
Saddal dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
Charbhuja
Chainpura
(Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Khatikheda Square
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Mandensara
Aklingpura
Shripura
Nalikheda
Borav
Values in parenthesis
Table 2.1.2
Ambient Air Quality Status
(Summer 2003)
SPM RSPM
Average ± Standard
156 ±15
(129-175)
31 ±14
(18-54)
109 + 22
(73-133)
123 ±16
(102-146)
104 ±79
(27-211)
105 ±79
(32 - 230)
85 ±11
(72-100)
87 ±8
(81 -98)
171 ±207
(37- 583)
85 ±54
(27-161)
96 ±60
(13-184)
103 ±87
(22 - 223)
97 ±12
(86-117)
99 ± 10
(88-112)
82 ±36
(14-115)
117 + 57
(55 - 208)
133 ±40
(74-180)
87 ± 8
(77-100)
96 ±9
(87-113)
indicate the range
88 ±8
(72 - 98)
18 ±8
(10-31)
61 ±12
(41-71)
69 ±8
(58 - 82)
59 ±45
(15-119)
60 ±45
(18-120)
48 ±6
(41 - 56)
50 + 4
(46 - 55)
47 ±5
(40 - 53)
48 ±30
(15-91)
54 ±34
(7-104)
58 ±49
(13-125)
55 ±6
(49 - 66)
56 ±6
(50 - 63)
47 ±20
(8 - 65)
66 ±32
(31-117)
74 ±22
(42-101)
49 ±4
(4 3 - 56)
54 ±5
(50 - 64)
Average: 24 hrly.
so
2
NO
X
Deviation (Range)
4±1
(3-6)
BDL
6±1
(3-7)
8± 1
(6-8)
6 ±0.7
(5-7)
5 + 2
(3-7)
6 ±2
(5-7)
4 ±0.4
(3-4)
3 ±0.4
(3-4)
6±1
(4-7)
4 ±0.2
(3-4)
4± 1
(4-7)
3 + 0.2
(3-4)
6 ±2
(3-8)
3 ±0.3
(3-4)
4 ±0.7
(3-4)
5 ±2
(4-7)
3 ±0.2
(3-4)
5 ±1
(3-6)
5±2
(3-7)
BDL
6±1
(4-7)
7 + 0.2
(8-9)
6±2
(4-8)
7 ±2
(3-9)
7 ±1
(5-7)
7 + 0.8
(6-7)
6 ±1
(4-7)
6 + 2
(3-7)
6±1
(4-7)
6±1
(3-7)
6±2
(4-7)
6 + 2
(3-8)
6 ±2
(4-8)
5 ±2
(3-8)
6 ±2
(3-8)
3 ±0.3
(3-4)
6 + 1
(4-7)
112
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.3
Ambient Air Quality Status
(Post Monsoon, 2003)
Jnit:
Sr.
No
[jg/m
3
Sampling Location
SPM RSPM
Average ± Standard
Average : 24 hrly.
SO
2
NO
X
Deviation (Range)
4
5
6
7
8
1
NPCIL Plant Site
Badoliya
Saddle dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
Chainpura
Deepura
Sentab
9 Jagpura
10 Jharjhani
11
Khatikheda
12 Bhaisrodgarh
1 3
Dholai
14 Badodiya
15 Mandesara
16 Jaora
17 Eklingpura
18 Shripura
144 ± 32
( 75- 183)
250 ± 24
(212-287)
140 ±13
(114-161 )
132 ± 18
(95 -155)
148±33
(98-197)
160 ±22
(117-193)
128 ±29
( 78- 165)
119 + 20
( 87- 152)
140 ± 24
(97-186)
115 ± 31
( 67- 172)
128 ±21
(89-163)
125 ±26
(96-176)
153 ±22
( 114-197)
156 ±18
(131-187)
129 ±9
( 112-143)
163 ±28
( 119 -210)
125±25
( 63- 159)
148 ±27
(98- 194)
52 ±12
(27 - 66 )
90 ±8
( 76- 103)
51 ±5
( 41- 59)
47 ±6
( 34 - 56 )
53 ±12
( 35- 71 )
58 ±8
(42 - 69 )
46 ±10
(2 8 - 59)
43 ±7
(31-55)
50 ±9
( 35 - 67 )
41 ±11
(24 - 62 )
46 ±7
(32 - 59 )
45 ±9
( 35 - 63 )
55 ±8
( 41- 71)
56 ±7
(47 - 67)
46 ±3
(40-51 )
59 ± 10
(43 - 76 )
45 ±10
( 2 3 - 57 )
53 ±10
( 35 - 70 )
9 ±1
( 7 - 1 1 )
7 ±2
( 3 - 9 )
5 ±2
( 3- 10)
7 ±2
( 3 - 1 1 )
8 ±2
( 5 - 1 2 )
5±2
( 3 - 9 )
9 ±2
( 7 - 1 2 )
7±1
( 5 - 9 )
7±1
( 5 - 9 )
7±2
(5-11)
7±2
(3-11)
4± 1
(3-6)
7±1
(5-10)
8±2
(6-11)
3± 1
(3-5)
6±2
(3-11)
8±2
(6-12)
5±2
(3-9)
10± 1
(8-11)
10 ± 3
(4-14)
8±2
(4-12)
7±2
(3-12)
6±2
(3-9)
6±1
(4-9)
10 ± 1
(7-12)
8± 1
(5-11)
8±2
(5-11)
8±1
(7-10)
9±2
(5-13)
7±2
(3-12)
9±2
(5-13)
8±2
(5-13)
5±1
(3-7)
7 + 3
(4-13)
7±2
(4-11)
9±3
(4-12)
2. 13
NfcbWI
Sr.
No
Sampling Location
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
SPM RSPM SO
2
NO
X
Average ± Standard Deviation (Range)
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Mohna
Renkhera
Ganeshpura
Kundaliya
Nalikheda
Borabas
Nagani
Borav
128 ± 22
( 96- 163)
132 ± 23
(98-181 )
127 ±15
( 108- 150)
132 ±12
( 114- 151 )
134 ±18
( 1 0 8 - 1 6 5 )
163 ±30
(112-211 )
156 ±30
( 112-201 )
119 ± 13
( 89- 135)
46 ±8
35 - 59 )
48 ±8
35 - 65 )
46 ±6
39 - 54 )
48 + 4
41 - 54 )
48 ±6
39 - 59 )
59 ±11
40 - 76 )
56 ± 11
40 - 72 )
43 ±5
32 - 49 )
8±2
( 5 - 1 0 )
8±2
( 5 - 1 2 )
4 ±2
( 3 - 8 )
5±2
( 3 - 10)
4 ±1
( 3 - 6 )
6 ±2
( 3- 11)
4 ±1
( 3 - 7 )
5 ±2
( 3 - 1 1 )
6±2
( 4 - 1 1 )
8±1
( 6 - 1 0 )
7±3
( 3- 12)
8±3
( 4- 13)
6 + 2
( 3 - 9 )
7±3
(4-12)
5±1
( 3 - 8 )
4±2
( 3- 8)
2.14
NEERi Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.4
Ambient Air Quality Status
(Winter Season 2003-2004)
Unit:
Sr.
No
Mg/nr
Sampling Location SPM
Average
RSPM
± Standard
Average : 24
SO
2
Deviation (Range)
hrly.
NO
X
1 NPCIL Plant Site
2 Baroliya
3 Saddle dam
4 Tamlao
5 Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
6 Chainpura
7 Deepura
8 Sentab
9 Jagpura
10 Jharjhani
11 Khatikheda
12 Bhaisrodgarh
13 Dholai
14 Barodiya
15 Mandesara
147 ± 29
( 79- 210)
252 ± 26
(215-301)
141 ±15
(118-165)
134 ± 15
( 98 - 160)
149±! 37
(103-207)
161 ±36
(124-252)
129 ±41
( 69- 215)
120 ±24
(86-156)
141 ±32
(101 -201 )
115 ± 42
( 45 - 200 )
129 ± 34
( 91- 220)
126 ±26
(85-186)
154 ±28
( 119-210)
157 ±14
( 144-198)
129 ±16
(112- 162)
53 ±11
(28 - 76 )
91 ±9
(77-108)
51 ±5
(42 - 59)
48 ±6
( 35 - 58 )
54 ± 13
( 37 - 75 )
58 ±13
(46 - 90)
46 ±15
( 25 - 77)
43 ±9
( 31 - 56)
51 ±12
( 36 - 72 )
41 ± 15
( 1 6 - 7 2 )
46 ±12
( 33 - 79 )
45 ±9
(31-67)
55 ±10
(43 -76)
57 ±5
( 5 2 - 7 1 )
47 ±6
(40 - 58)
10 ±2
( 8 - 1 2 )
8 ±5
(3-14)
5±3
(3-11)
7±2
( 5- 12)
9 ±3
( 6- 15)
6±4
(3-13)
10±2
( 8- 13)
8± 1
( 5- 10)
8± 1
( 6 - 1 1 )
8±2
( 6 - 1 4 )
8±2
( 6 - 1 1 )
5±2
(3-10)
8±1
( 6 - 1 0 )
9±2
( 7 - 1 3 )
3±1
(3-7)
11±2
( 9 - 1 3 )
11 ±4
(4-15)
9±4
(3-14)
8±2
( 3 - 1 3 )
7±2
( 3 - 1 0 )
6±4
(3-13)
11 ±2
( 8- 14)
9±3
( 6 - 1 5 )
8±2
( 6 - 1 2 )
10 ± 1
( 8- 12)
9±2
( 6 - 1 5 )
8 ±3
(3-14)
10 ± 2
( 7 - 1 5 )
9 ±2
( 5 - 1 5 )
5±3
( 3- 13)
2.15
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Sampling Location
Jaora
Eklingpura
Shripura
Mohna
Rainkheda
Ganeshpura
Kundaliya
Naiikheda
Borabas
Nagani
Borav
SPM RSPM
Average ± Standard
164 ±35
(118 -210)
127+ 30
(67-170)
149 ±31
(100-195)
128+ 25
(90-176)
133 ± 26
(101-97)
128 ± 13
(112-152)
134 ± 13
(115-153)
135 ±24
(115-178)
164 ±45
(108-259)
157 ±35
(120-239)
120± 15
(90-139)
59 ±13
(42 - 76)
46+11
( 24- 61 )
54 ±11
(36 - 70)
46 ±9
(32 - 63)
48 ±9
( 36- 71 )
46 ±5
(40 - 55)
48 ±5
(41 - 55)
48 ±9
(41 -64)
59 ±16
(39 - 93)
57 ±13
(43 - 86)
43 ±6
(32 - 50)
SO
2
Deviation (Range)
7 ±4
(3-14)
9 ±2
( 7- 15)
6 ±3
(3-14)
8 ±3
( 3- 13)
9 ±3
( 6- 14)
5 ±3
(3-14)
6 ±4
(3-12)
4 ±4
(3-14)
7 ±4
(3-14)
5 ±2
( 3 - 9 )
6 ±3
(3-12)
NO
X
8 ±3
(5-14)
7 ±2
( 3- 12)
10±4
(3-15)
6 ±4
( 3- 14)
9 ±2
( 7- 11)
8 ±4
(3-15)
9 ±5
(3-16)
6 ±5
(3-14)
8 ±4
(3-13)
6 ±2
(3-9)
5 + 2
(3-9)
2.16
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Table 2.1.5
Cumulative Percentile Values
(Summer 2003)
Mg/m
3
Sampling Location
Met Lab (Plant site)
Saddal dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
Charbhuja
Chainpura (Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Khatikheda Square
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Mandensara
Aklingpura
Shripura
Nalikheda
Borav
Min
128
17
73
102
27
33
72
81
72
27
13
22
86
88
14
55
74
77
87
of SPM
Average:
Cumulative Percentile
10% 25% 50% 75% 98%
141
20
80
108
32
34
75
81
74
34
18
28
87
90
47
73
96
79
88
150
21
99
115
40
40
77
82
78
44
61
31
89
92
81
94
116
83
90
157
23
115
121
53
91
82
85
82
61
104
62
95
95
88
101
147
86
95
165
43
122
132
150
148
89
90
88
130
125
177
101
107
101
127
147
89
99
174
54
132
145
208
223
99
97
94
159
178
220
116
112
114
201
177
99
111
24 hrly
Max
175
54
133
146
211
231
100
98
94
162
184
223
117
112
115
208
180
100
113
2.17
NEERI Chapter 2 Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Uni t:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
ug/m
3
Sampling
Location
NPCIL Plant
Site
Baroliya
Saddle dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest
House)
Chainpura
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Bhainsrodgarh
Dholai
Badodiya
Mandesara
Jaora
Eklingpura
Shripura
Mohna
Renkhera
Table 2.1.6
Cumulative Percentile Values
(Post Monsoon 2003)
lUlin
IVIm
75
212
114
95
98
117
78
87
97
67
89
96
114
131
112
119
63
98
96
98
Cumulative Percentile
10%
98
220
126
116
112
135
89
93
104
87
99
98
130
138
118
126
98
123
101
106
25%
136
232
134
121
119
152
110
102
132
92
118
111
143
145
121
143
104
135
111
119
50%
150
253
140
130
149
157
131
127
144
110
131
115
150
149
128
154
134
144
125
129
of SPM
75%
165
266
146
148
176
176
151
131
150
129
139
133
157
176
135
163
143
166
139
144
Average :
95%
180
278
158
154
196
190
165
148
170
168
155
172
191
184
142
180
158
190
160
171
98%
182
283
160
155
197
192
165
151
180
170
160
174
195
186
143
207
159
192
162
177
24 hrly
Ma v
•VI d A
183
287
161
155
197
193
165
152
186
172
163
176
197
187
143
210
159
194
163
181
2.18
NhbRI
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Location
IWlin
ivnn
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status
Cumulative Percentile
10% 25% 50% 75%
and Identification
95% 98%
of impacts
M a y
IVIdA
21 Ganeshpura
22 Kundaliya
23 Nallikheda
24 Borabas
25 Nagani
26 Borav
108 109 113 124 142 147 149 150
114 118 123 133 139 149 150 151
108 115 122 130 150 159 163 165
112 132 140 164 180 206 209 211
112 123 132 156 180 199 200 201
89 99 113 122 127 134 135 135
2. 19
NEERI Chapter 2. Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.7
Cumulative Percentile Values of SPM
(Winter Season 2003-2004)
Unit: |jg/m
3
Average : 24 hrly
Sr. Sampling Cumulative Percentile
No. Location
M i n M a x
10% 25% 50% 75% 95% 98%
1 NPCIL Plant Site 79 127 132 150 158 187 201 210
2 Baroliya 215 223 242 252 258 287 296 301
3 Saddle dam 118 121 126 147 153 161 163 165
4 Tamlao 98 124 125 135 145 155 158 160
Rawatbhata
5 (Mewar Guest
103 106 112 151 181 196 203 207
House)
6 Chainpura 124 128 138 150 185 217 238 252
7 Deepura 69 81 103 124 160 185 203 215
8 Sentab 86 96 102 114 144 153 155 156
9 Jagpura 101 105 111 140 155 191 197 201
10 Jharjhani 45 76 96 105 132 193 197 200
11 Khatikheda 91 99 105 119 149 178 203 220
12 Bhainsrodgarh 85 94 111 124 140 177 177 186
13 Dholai 119 122 135 149 163 202 207 210
14 Badodiya 144 147 149 153 160 180 191 198
15 Mandesara 112 112 121 124 136 157 160 162
16 Jaora 118 124 135 154 198 210 210 210
17 Eklingpura 67 90 119 126 143 165 168 170
2. 20
NEERI
Sr. Sampling
No. Location
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Cumulative Percentile
Min
10% 25% 50% 75% 95% 98%
Max
18 Shripura
19 Mohna
20 Renkhera
21 Ganeshpura
22 Kundaliya
23 Nalikheda
24 Borabas
25 Nagani
26 Borav
100 119 121 151 175 190 193 195
90 96 109 129 148 162 170 176
101 107 114 128 148 170 186 197
112 117 120 122 136 148 150 152
115 120 126 132 145 152 153 153
115 116 117 125 153 168 174 178
108 120 130 160 195 237 250 259
120 123 127 150 171 213 229 239
90 98 116 120 133 138 138 139
2.21
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Cumulative
ug/m
3
Sampling Location
Met Lab (Plant site)
Saddal dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
Charbhuja
Chainpura (Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Khatikheda Square
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Mandensara
Aklingpura
Shripura
Nalikheda
Borav
Table 2.1.8
Percentile Values
(Summer 2003)
Min
72
10
41
58
15
18
41
46
40
15
7
13
49
50
8
31
42
43
50
10%
79
11
45
61
18
19
42
46
42
19
10
16
50
51
28
41
54
45
50
of RSPM
Average
Cumulative Percentile
25% 50% 75%
85
12
55
65
23
23
43
46
44
25
34
18
52
52
49
53
82
47
51
88
13
65
67
30
51
46
49
46
34
58
35
54
54
51
57
86
48
54
92
24
68
73
85
83
50
52
49
73
70
100
57
61
56
71
85
50
55
: 24 hrly
98%
98
30
74
81
117
126
56
55
53
89
100
124
65
63
65
113
100
56
63
Max
98
31
75
82
119
130
56
55
53
91
104
125
66
63
65
117
101
56
64
2.22
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Table 2.1.9
Cumulative Percentile Values *
(Post Monsoon 2003)
ug/m
3
Sampling
Location
NPCIL Plant
Site
Baroliya
Saddle dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest
House)
Chainpura
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Bhainsrodgarh
Dholai
Badodiya
Mandesara
Jaora
Eklingpura
Shripura
Mohna
Renkhera
M i n
nflin
27
76
41
34
35
42
28
31
35
24
32
35
41
47
40
43
23
35
35
35
10%
35
79
45
42
40
49
32
33
38
31
35
35
47
50
42
45
35
44
36
38
of R SPM
i
Average : 24
Cumulative Percentile
25%
49
84
48
43
43
55
40
37
48
33
42
40
51
52
44
51
37
49
40
43
50%
54
91
50
47
54
57
47
46
52
40
47
41
54
54
46
59
48
52
45
46
75%
59
96
52
53
C
O

C
O
C
O

C
O
54
47
54
46
50
48
57
63
49
65
51
60
50
52
95%
65
100
59
55
71
68
59
53
61
61
56
62
69
66
51
73
57
68
58
61
98%
65
102
59
56
71
69
59
54
65
61
57
63
70
67
51
75
57
69
58
64
hrly
M a y
IVIdA
66
103
59
56
71
69
59
55
67
62
59
63
71
67
51
76
57
70
59
65
2.23
NEERI
Sr. Sampling
No. Location
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Min
Cumulative Percentile
10% 25% 50% 75% 95% 98%
Max
21 Ganeshpura
22 Kundaliya
23 Nalikheda
24 Borabas
25 Nagani
26 Borav
39 39
41
39
40 48
40 44
32 36
41
43 44
41 44
50
48
41
44 51
48 50
47 54
59 65
56 65
53
54
57
74
72
54 54
44 46 48
54
59
75
72
48
54
59
76
72
49
2. 24
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.10
Cumulative Percentile Values of RSPM
(Winter Season 2003-2004)
Unit :
Sr.
No.
ug/m
3
Sampling
Location
Min
Cumulative
10% 25%
Percentile
50% 75%
Average
95%
: 24 hrly
n/iax
98%
1 NPCIL Plant Site 28 46 48 54 57 67 72 76
2 Baroliya
3 Saddle dam
4 Tamlao
Rawatbhata
5 (Mewar Guest
House)
6 Chainpura
7 Deepura
8 Sentab
9 Jagpura
10 Jharjhani
11 Khatikheda
12 Bhainsrodgarh
13 Dholai
14 Badodiya
15 Mandesara
16 Jaora
17 Eklingpura
77 80 87 91 93 103 106 108
43 44 45 52 55 58 59 59
35 44 45 48 52 56 57
31 35 37 41
43 44 49 54 59 73
58
37 38 40 54 65 71 73 75
45 46 50 54 67 78 86 91
25 29 37 44 57 67 73 77
52 55 56 56
36 38 40 50 56 67 71 72
16 27 34 38 47 69 71 72
33 36 38 43 53 64 73 79
31 34 40 45 50 64 64 67
74 76
52 53 54 55 58 65 69 71
40 40 44 44 49 57 58 58
42 45 48 55 71 76 76 76
24 32 43 45 51 60 61
61
2. 25
NEERI
ST. Sampling
No. Location
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Cumulative Percentile
Min
10% 25% 50% 75% 95% 98%
Max
18 Shripura
19 Mohna
20 Renkhera
21 Ganeshpura
22 Kundaliya
23 Nalikheda
24 Borabas
25 Nagani
26 Borav
36 43 43 54 63 68 69 70
32 35 39 46 53 58 61 63
36 38 41 46 53 61 67 71
40 43 43 44 49 53 54 55
41 43 45 48 52 55 55 55
41 42 42 45 55 60 63 64
39 43 47 58 70 85 90 93
43 44 46 54 61 77 82 86
32 35 41 43 48 50 50 50
2. 26
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.11
Cumulative Percentile Values of SO
2
(Summer 2003)
Unit:
Sr.
No.
ug/m
3
Sampling Location Min
10%
Average:
Cumulative Percentiie
25% 50% 75% 98%
24 hrly
Max
1 Met Lab (Plant site)
2 Saddal dam
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
Charbhuja
Chainpura (Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Khatikheda Square
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Mandensara
Aklingpura
Shripura
Nalikheda
Borav
3
6
5
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
4
7
6
3
4
3
3
4
3
4
3
4
3
3
5
3
4
6
C
O

C
D
4
5
3
3
5
3
4
3
5
3
3
4
3
5
7
8
7
4
7
4
3
6
4
4
3
6
4
4
5
3
5
7
8
7
5
7
4
4
7
4
4
4
7
4
4
6
3
6
7
8
7
7
7
4
4
7
4
7
4
8
4
4
7
4
6
7
8
7
7
7
4
4
7
4
7
4
8
4
4
7
4
6
*Below detectable level
2.27
NEERi Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
: ug/m
3
Sampling
Location
NPCIL Plant
Site
Baroliya
Saddle dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest
House)
Chainpura
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Bhaisrodgarh
Dholai
Badodiya
Mandesara
Jaora
Eklingpura
Shripura
Mohna
Renkhera
Table 2.1.12
Cumulative Percentile Values
(Post Monsoon 2003)
Mi n
iviin
7
3
3
3
5
3
7
5
5
5
3
3
5
6
3
3
6
3
5
5
101
8
4
3
6
C
O

C
O
7
6
5
6
4
3
6
7
3
3
6
3
5
6
Cumulative
% 25%
8
5
3
6
7
4
8
6
6
6
6
3
6
7
3
4
7
3
7
7
50%
9
7
4
8
8
5
9
7
7
8
7
4
7
8
3
5
9
5
8
8
of SO
2
Average:
Percentile
75%
10
8
5
8
10
6
10
8
8
8
9
5
8
9
4
7
9
6
9
9
95%
10
9
8
10
11
9
11
9
8
10
10
6
9
11
4
10
11
8
9
11
24 hrly
98%
11
9
9
11
12
9
12
9
9
11
11
6
10
11
5
11
12
9
10
12
lUlav
•VI a A
11
9
10
11
12
9
12
9
9
11
11
6
10
11
5
11
12
9
10
12
2.28
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
Sampling
Location
Ganeshpura
Kundaliya
Nalikheda
Borabas
Nagani
Borav
Ulin
nni n ~
3
3
3
3
3
3
10%
3
3
3
3
3
3
25
(
3
4
3
4
4
4
Cumulative
% 50%
4
5
4
6
5
5
Percentile
75%
4
7
4
8
5
7
95%
7
9
6
9
6
9
98%
8
10
6
10
7
10
Ma v
IVIdX
8
10
6
11
7
11
2.29
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.13
Cumulative Percentile Values of SO
2
(Winter Season 2003-2004)
Unit:
Sr.
No.
ng/m
Sampling
Location Min
10%
Cumulative
25% 50%
Average
Percentile
75% 95%
:24
98%
hrly
- Max
1 NPCIL Plant Site 8 8 9 10 12 12 12 12
2 Baroliya 3 3 3 7 12 13 14 14
3 Saddle dam 3 3 3 3 7 11 11 11
4 Tamlao 5 5 6 7 9 11 12 12
Rawatbhata
5 (MewarGuest 6 6 7 9 11 14 15 15
House)
6 Chainpura 3 3 3 3 6 13 13 13
7 Deepura 8 8 9 10 11 12 13 13
8 Sentab 5 7 8 9 10 10 10 10
9 Jagpura 6 7 7 7 9 10 11 11
10 Jharjhani 6 6 7 7 9 13 13 14
11 Khatikheda 6 6 7 9 9 10 11 11
12 Bhaisrodgarh 3 3 3 5 7 9 9 1 0
13 Dholai 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 10
14 Badodiya 7 7 7 9 10 13 13 13
15 Mandesara 3 3 3 3 3 5 6 7
16 Jaora 3 3 4 6 7 14 14 14
2.30
NtbRI
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Location Min
Chapter 2:
10%
Baseline Environmental Status and Identification
Cumulative Percentile
25% 50% 75% 95% 98%
of impacts
- Max
17 Eklingpura
18 Shripura
19 Mohna
20 Renkhera
21 Ganeshpura
22 Kundaliya
23 Nalikheda
24 Borabas
25 Nagani
26 Borav
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
8
3
4
4
3
3
6
4
4
11
11
13 14
11 13
12 12
15
11 13 14
10 12 12 13
11 13 14 14
14
12
11 13 14
13 14 14
11 12 12
2. 31
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Table 2.1.14
Cumulative Percentile Values
(Summer 2003)
pg/m
3
Sampling Location
Met Lab (Plant site)
Charbhuja
Saddal dam
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest House)
Tamlao
Chainpura (Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Khatikheda Square
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Mandensara
Aklingpura
Shripura
Nalikheda
Borav
Min
3
4
*
7
4
3
5
6
4
3
4
3
4
3
4
4
4
3
4
10%
3
5
*
7
6
5
6
6
5
5
4
5
4
4
5
4
5
3
5
of NO,
Average:
Cumulative Percentile
25%
4
6
*
7
6
7
7
7
6
7
5
6
5
6
6
5
7
3
6
50%
5
7
*
7
7
8
7
7
6
7
6
7
7
7
7
5
7
4
7
75%
6
7
*
7
7
9
8
7
7
7
6
7
7
7
7
6
7
4
7
98%
7
7
*
8
7
9
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
.7
7
4
7
24 hrly.
- Max
7
8
*
8
7
9
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
7
4
7
*Below detectable level
2.32
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Unit:
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
ug/m
3
Sampling
Location
NPCIL Plant
Site
Baroliya
Saddle dam
Tamlao
Rawatbhata
(Mewar Guest
House)
Chainpura
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Bhaisrodgarh
Dholai
Badodiya
Mandesara
Jaora
Eklingpura
Shripura
Mohna
Renkhera
Table 2.1.15
Cumulative Percentile Values
(Post Monsoon 2003)
Mi n
nnin
8
4
4
3
3
4
7
5
5
7
5
3
C
J
l
5
3
4
4
4
4
6
10%
8
7
5
6
4
5
8
7
6
7
6
6
7
6
4
4
5
6
4
7
Cumulative
25%
9
9
8
6
5
6
9
8
7
8
7
6
9
7
4
C
J
l
5
7
4
8
50%
9
11
9
7
6
6
10
8
8
8
8
7
9
8
5
7
7
8
6
9
of NOx
Average :
Percentile
75%
11
12
9
7
8
6
11
9
9
9
10
9
10
9
5
8
8
11
6
9
95%
11
14
11
10
9
8
11
10
10
10
12
11
12
12
6
11
9
12
9
10
98%
11
14
12
11
9
9
12
11
11
10
13
11
13
13
7
12
10
12
10
10
24 hrly
M a y
IwlaX
11
14
12
12
9
9
12
11
11
10
13
12
13
13
7
13
11
12
11
10
2.33
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
Sampling
Location
Ganeshpura
Kundaliya
Nalikheda
Borabas
Nagani
Borav
iviin
3
4
3
4
3
3
10%
5
5
4
5
4
3
25'
6
6
5
5
4
3
Cumulative
Vo 50%
7
7
7
6
5
4
Percentiie
75%
9
10
7
9
6
5
95%
11
12
8
11
7
7
98%
12
13
9
12
8
8
M a v
IVIaX
12
13
9
12
8
8
2.34
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.16
Cumulative Percentile Values of NOx
(Winter Season 2003-2004)
Unit: |
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
ug/m
Sampling
Location
NPCIL Plant Site
Baroliya
Saddle dam
T^rmkrt
Min •
wi n
9
4
3
3
10%
9
5
4
5
Cumulative
25%
10
10
6
6
50%
10
12
11
8
Average: 24
Percentile
75%
11
14
12
9
95%
12
15
13
12
98%
13
15
14
12
hrly
M a y
13
15
14
13
Rawatbhata
5 (Mewar Guest 3 4 5 7 8 9 1 0 1 0
House)
6 Chainpura 3 3 3 5 10 12 13 13
7
Deepura 8 8 9 11 12 13 14 14
8
S e n t a b
6 6 7 8 11 14 15 15
9
Jagpura 6 6 7 8 10 12 12 12
10 Jharjhani 8 8 8 10 10 11 12 12
11 Khatikheda 6 7 8 9 11 13 14 15
12 Bhaisrodgarh 3 5 7 8 9 13 13 14
13
D n o l a i
7 7 9 10 12 14 15 15
1 4
Badodiya 5 7 8 9 10 13 14 15
15 Mandesara 3 3 3 3 5 11 12 13
16 Jaora 5 5 5 7 8 13 14 14
1 7
Eklingpura 3 5 7 7 9 10 11 12
18 Shripura 3 6 7 10 12 14 15 15
1 9
Mohna 3 3 4 5 8 13 14 14
2 0
Renkhera
7 7 7 9
10 11 H 11
2.35
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
Sampling
Location
Ganeshpura
Kundaliya
Nalikheda
Borabas
Nagani
Borav
Min -
iviin
3
3
3
3
3
3
10%
3
3
3
4
3
3
Cumulative
25%
4
3
3
5
4
3
50%
7
8
3
9
5
3
Percentile
75%
11
14
11
10
7
6
95%
14
15
14
13
8
8
98%
14
16
14
13
9
9
M a v
IVmA
15
16
14
13
9
9
2.36
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.17
Concentration of H-3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP
Environment During 1998
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Location
(Distance from Stack)
RAPP First Barrier (1.6 km)
Phase 1 (2.5 km)
Tamlao (5 km)
Saddle Dam (5 km)
Bhaba Nagar (6 km)
Vikram Nagar (6 km)
Baheliya (8 km)
Chainpura (8 km)
Baroli(IOkm)
Jharjhani (10 km)
Barodiya (12 km)
Bhainsroadgarh (13 km)
Mandesara (13 km)
Aklingpura (13 km)
Shripura (15 km)
Barkheda (18 km)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km)
No. of
Samples
Total
49
43
41
25
46
44
2
22
27
23
22
28
23
19
25
4
8
BDL
4
4
16
9
9
9
0
4
10
12
13
11
11
6
12
0
7
Max.
Bq/cu.m.
282.0
166.2
78.0
55.4
23.1
25.4
2.4
10.0
10.0
15.9
3.2
18.3
37.8
5.0
56.1
4.0
3.2
GM
Bq/cu. m.
5.3
5.4
1.7
1.9
2.1
1.8
-
1.0
1.1
0.9
0.7
1.5
1.2
1.0
1.0
1.2
0.5
GSD
5.8
4.8
4.6
5.0
3.5
3.2
-
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.1
3.3
3.6
2.3
3.1
2.4
1.6
2.37
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.18
Concentration of H-3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP
Environment During 1999
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Location
(Distance from Stack)
RAPP First Barrier (1.6 km)
Phase 1 (2.5 km)
Tamlao (5 km)
Saddle Dam (5 km)
Bhaba Nagar (6 km)
Vikram Nagar (6 km)
Baheliya (8 km)
Chainpura (8 km)
Baroli (10 km)
Jharjhani (10 km)
Barodiya (12 km)
Bhainsroadgarh (13 km)
Mandesara (13 km)
Aklingpura (13 km)
Shripura (15 km)
Barkheda (18 km)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km)
No of
Samples
Total
48
44
37
23
49
42
3
23
21
25
25
22
24
22
20
3
11
BDL
4
4
10
10
13
10
1
13
11
17
15
9
17
13
12
2
5
Max.
Bq/cu.m.
509.0
112.0
17.0
17.0
61.0
56.8
2.4
6.0
20.6
14.4
11.4
7.9
3.4
6.0
8.0
6.5
4.5
GM
Bq/cu. m.
4.8
5.4
1.1
1.1
2.2
1.9
1.9
0.9
0.7
1.1
0.6
0.7
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.8
GSD
4.9
4.9
2.5
3.0
4.3
3.7
2.5
2.0
3.1
2.0
2.2
2.6
1.7
2.4
2.7
6.1
1.9
2.38
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.19
Concentration of H-3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP
Environment During 2000
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Location
(Distance from Stack)
RAPP First Barrier (1.6 km)
Phase 1 (2.5 km)
Tamlao (5 km)
Saddle Dam (5 km)
Bhaba Nagar (6 km)
Vikram Nagar (6 km)
Baheliya (8 km)
Chainpura (8 km)
Baroli (10 km)
Jharjhani (10 km)
Barodiya (12 km)
Bhainsroadgarh (13 km)
Mandesara (13 km)
Aklingpura (13 km)
Shripura (15 km)
Barkheda (18 km)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km)
No. of
Samples
Total
45
45
43
18
47
44
3
17
25
22
22
25
18
20
23
3
10
BDL
3
6
12
12
13
8
1
10
9
9
7
8
7
8
9
1
3
Max.
Bq/cu.m.
68.9
86.1
28.7
5.1
56.6
17.7
1.6
6.0
8.2
13.4
28.8
83.3
7.6
53.3
15.9
3.5
9.6
GM
Bq/cu. m.
6.8
4.1
1.3
0.6
1.2
1.4
0.7
0.7
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.1
0.8
1.0
0.9
1.1
1.2
GSD
4.0
4.5
3.2
1.9
3.1
2.7
2.1
2.1
2.5
2.6
2.8
3.2
2.1
2.9
2.5
3.1
3.2
2.39
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.20
Concentration of H-3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP
Environment During 2001
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Location
(Distance from Stack)
RAPP First Barrier (1.6 km)
Phase 1 (2.5 km)
Tamlao (5 km)
Bhaba Nagar (6 km)
Vikram Nagar (6 km)
Baheliya (8 km)
Chainpura (8 km)
Baroli (10 km)
Jharjhani (10 km)
Barodiya (12 km)
Bhainsroadgarh (13 km)
Mandesara (13 km)
Aklingpura (13 km)
Shripura (15 km)
Barkheda (18 km)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km)
No.of
Samples
Total
29
31
24
26
26
4
21
24
23
23
23
14
14
12
4
11
BDL
27
4
10
9
9
3
19
11
12
13
10
11
7
8
1
9
Max.
Bq/cu.m.
195.3
103.0
12.4
18.6
166.0
1.4
1.0
6.4
13.5
24.0
5.6
1.9
1.4
1.9
3.0
4.1
GM
Bq/cu. m.
6.7
5.0
0.8
1.2
1.2
-
-
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.3
0.4
0.3
1.0
-
GSD
6.7
7.2
3.9
4.9
5.9
-
-
3.1
3.4
3.0
2.7
1.7
2.1
2.0
3.1
-
2.40
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.1.21
Concentration of H-3 in Air Samples Collected Around RAPP Environment
During 2002
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Location
(Distance from Stack)
RAPP First Barrier (1.6 km)
Phase 1 (2.5 km)
Tamlao (5 km)
Bhaba Nagar (6 km)
Vikram Nagar (6 km)
Baheliya (8 km)
Chainpura (8 km)
Baroli(IOkm)
Jharjhani (10 km)
Barodiya (12 km)
Bhainsroadgarh (13 km)
Mandesara (13 km)
Aklingpura(13 km)
Shripura (15 km)
Barkheda (18 km)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km)
No. of
Samples
Total
25
27
25
25
24
4
23
23
23
23
24
14
12
11
4
12
BDL
3
6
13
5
11
2
14
11
12
10
9
6
8
6
3
7
Max.
Bq/cu.m.
49.5
95.0
27.3
15.4
2.4
2.5
2.8
30.0
15.2
6.5
9.9
2.3
1.2
4.1
2.9
3.3
GM
Bq/cu. m.
4.3
2.9
0.7
0.9
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.3
0.6

0.4
GSD
5.6
6.4
4.1
2.9
2.5
2.9
2.1
3.7
3.5
2.9
3.4
2.5
1.7
3.2

2.4
BDL: Below detectable limit
2.41
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.2 Noise Environment
The objective of the survey of noise pollution in and around the power plants and
surrounding villages is to assess the impact of noise that will be generated by the plants 1
to 8 and also the incremental impact of the plants 7 and 8 on the human settlements
within 25 km from the plants. At present plants 1, 2, 3 and 4 are operating and
construction of plants 5 and 6 is in progress. The studies were carried in the following
steps.
> Reconnaissance survey
> Identification of existing sources of noise
> Measurement of baseline noise levels in the site, neighboring villages and
localities
2.2.1 R econnaissance
Noise environment study has been carried out through reconnaissance followed
by field observations to identify the major activities contributing the ambient noise levels
within the study area, and to assess the prevailing community noise exposure to serve as
background noise prior to implementation of the proposed expansion plan. The noise is
mainly contributed from vehicular movement. However there is no major industry, except
heavy water plant, close to the plant site. Total 21 locations were identified for noise
monitoring so as to have fair representation of various activities within the impact zone of
25 km radius; 3 locations in plant site; 8 locations in Rawatbhata village and 9 locations in
Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL), Rawatbhata.
2.2.2 Identification of Existing Sources of Noise
The main sources of noise in the nuclear power plants are 1) turbines 2) air
compressors 3) liquid nitrogen compressors 4) ventilation inlets 5) diesel generators 6)
pump houses 7) chillers 8) vents 9) transportations activities. Present volume of traffic is
not very high. About 250 heavy vehicle trips and 300 light vehicle trips generate
insignificant noise in the area.
2.42
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.2.3 Measurement of Baseline Noise Levels in the Study Area
Noise levels (A-Weighted) in and outside the existing plant premises, villages and
localities within the study area were measured using a precision microprocessor based
digital sound level meter. The noise monitoring locations along with the data on observed
noise levels are depicted in Fig 2.2.1 and presented in Table 2.2.1 to 2.2.3.
The noise levels within 5 km radius area around the NPP varied from 59.3 dBA to
90.2 dBA. In commercial and residential areas, the noise levels varied between 53.2 dBA
to 83.4 dBA within 5-10 km area and between 59.1 dBA to 70.9 dBA within
10-25 km area. The noise levels in infrastructural facility buildings ranged from 76.5 dBA
to 83.3 dBA.
2.43
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2 5° 5
73°25" 75° 45
75°5O'
N
LEGEND:
• SAMPLING LOCATIONS T 1,2,3 .)
TAR ROAD
E AR THE R N ROAD
' - a RAN A PRATAP SAGAR
Figure 2.2.1 : Sampling Locations for Noise Environment
2.44
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.2.1
Ambient Noise Level Measuraed During Day Time
(Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
Location
Within 5 km
1
2
3
4
Near Reactor 1
Near water supply
Near magnetic gate
Saddle dam
Above 5 km and within 10 km
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Tamlao
Mewar Guest House
(Rawatbhata)
Charbhuja
Chainpura (Anandpura)
Deepura
Sentab
Jagpura
Khatikheda sq.
Jharjhani
Khatikheda
Above 10 km and within 25
Bhainsroadgarh
Barodiya
Mandesara
Aklingpura
Shripura
Nalikheda
Borav
Type of
Location
I
I
I
R
R
R
C
R
R
R
R
C
R
R
km
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Bearing
-
-
-
WNW
E
NNW
N
W
ENE
NNW
NNW
ESE
ENE
ESE
NNW
E
W
ESE
NW
W
WNW
App. Aerial
distance in km
with respect to
Plant Site
-
-
-
5
5.5
5.5
7
7
7.5
7.5
9
9.5
10
10
11.5
11.5
13
13.5
16
19.5
25.5
Noise level
(dBA)
90.2
69.9
73.1
59.3
63.2
62.3
83.4
67.3
53.2
63.2
61.8
69.5
64.1
64.9
70.9
62.4
59.1
62.6
64.2
68.2
62.4
= Industrial; R = Residential; C = Commercial; S = Silence
2.45
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.2.2
Ambient Noise Level at Rawatbhata in Residential, Commercial and Silence
Zones Measured During Day Time (Summer 2003)
c M~ i ^^-.+ «^
T
y P
e
°f Noise Level
S r N o
-
L o c a t l o n
Location (dBA)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Anuchaya*colony
Anukiran colony
Chetan market
RPS colony
Saddle dam forest
RAPP guest house
Heavy water colony (Anuasha colony)
RAPP hospital
R
R
C
R
S
R
R
S
75.2
64.8
79.7
67.3
40.6
59.2
67.1
60.5
R = Residential; C = Commercial; S = Silence
2.46
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.2.3
Noise Level at Environmental Survey Laboratory ( ESL) , Rawatbhata
Measured During Day Time
(Summer 2003)
Sr. No. Location
1. Outside ESL
2. At corridor
3. Inside the lab (1
st
room)
4. Inside the lab (2
nd
room)
5. Inside the tritium room (with AC on)
6. Officers cabin (without AC and Fan)
7. Officer cabin (with AC and Fan on)
8. Officers cabin (with two AC and two Fans on)
9. Officers cabin (without AC and two Fans on)
Noise Level
(dBA)
76
80
81
83
81
78
78.
80.
79.
.5
.0
.2
.3
.5
.1
,8
.5
5
2.47
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.3 Water Environment
The site for RAPP units 7 & 8 is located about 8 km upstream of the existing Rana
Pratap Sagar (RPS) dam, on the right bank of RPS reservoir. The drinking water supply
in general in the villages falling under study area is obtained from the handpumps and
wells, whereas RPS provides domestic water to quite limited towns such as Rawatbhata,
Vikramnagar, Bhabhanagar and Bhainsroadgarh etc. which are located immediately
downstream of the plant site. Jawahar Sagar is about 22 km downstream of Rana Pratap
Sagar (RPS). At Jawahar Sagar, located in between RPS and Kota Barrage, water use is
mainly for power generation. Water at Rana Pratap Sagar is also used for irrigation
through a canal at right bank. The capacity of canal is 1400 m
3
/hr (14 cusecs) and an
average supply of 1100 - 1200 m
3
/hr (11 to 12 cusecs) is maintained throughout Rabi
crop. The major use for irrigation starts at Kota barrage about 48 km downstream along
the river. Two major canals take off from Kota Barrage, right canal with a head discharge
of 1.88 m
3
/sec, (6656 cusecs) and left canal 42.5 m
3
/sec (1500 cusecs). In addition,
utilization for industrial use amounts to 4.25 m
3
/sec, (150 cusecs) at Kota. From Rana
Pratap Sagar, a small right bank canal takes off. Being a small capacity canal, use for
irrigation is quite limited. The unconfined ground water table in the area is replenished
only during the monsoon by rainwater. Since the surrounding regions to the reservoir
slope steeply upwards, the water from reservoir does not contribute towards the
replenishment of the ground water table near the surface.
2.3.1 R econnaissance Surv ey
A reconnaissance survey with the objective to determine the baseline water
quality in terms of conventional, biological and radioactive pollutants was undertaken.
During the survey total 23 water samples containing surface and ground water within 25
km radius of proposed site were collected and analyzed for conventional parameters
related with physico-chemical and biological quality. Previous five years records on
radioactive pollutants were, however collected from Health Physics Division, Bhabha
Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai and used for analysis in this report.
2.3.2 Availability of Water Source
The source of cooling water is the Rana Pratap Sagar. The gross storage capacity
of the Rana Pratap Sagar at full reservoir level (RFL) of + 352.06 m is 2987.6 Mm
3
(102.3
TMCft) and the storage corresponding to minimum draw down level (M.D.D.L)
2.48
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
of + 342.9 m is 1332 Mm
3
(47 TMCft). Rana Pratap Sagar is a balancing reservoir, which
receives flows from upstream Gandhisagar dam.
Closed loop system of cooling with cooling towers has been adopted for the RAPS
units 3 & 4. RAPS 5 & 6 units also adopt the same type of cooling system. The proposed
additional units (RAPP- 7 & 8) will also have closed loop system of cooling with natural
draught cooling towers (NDCT) and induced draught cooling towers (IDCT) for condenser
cooling and process cooling respectively.
The drawal requirement for additional 2 x 700 MWe PHWR plant is 4.5 m
3
/sec
(160 cusecs) based on adopting closed loop system of cooling with cooling towers out of
which 50-60% will be on consumptive use basis. The drawal for RAPS 3&4 is about 0.85
m
3
/sec. (30 cusecs), which adopts closed loop system of cooling with cooling towers.
RAPS 1 & 2 plant adopts once through cooling system. The requirement of RAPS 1 & 2 is
110 m
3
/hr (1.1 cusecs) on consumptive use basis mainly for domestic use. The existing
colonies require 300 m
3
/hr (3 cusecs) of water. The total drawal requirement for
RAPS -3 to 8 including consumptive use for RAPP 1 & 2 works out to about 8.07 nrVsec
(285 cusecs). Out of this, consumptive use is estimated at about 4.22 m
3
/sec (150
cusecs). RPS reservoir is used for supplying drinking water at RPS colonies (5.5 MGD),
Jawahar Sagar supplying drinking water (about 0.5 MGD) and Kota barrage (18 MGD).
Jawahar Sagar is abnout 22 km downstream of RPS. RPS water is also used for irrigation
through a canal at right bank. The capacity of canal is 1400 m
3
/hr (14 cusecs) and an
average supply of 1100-1200 m
3
/hr (11 to 12 cusecs) is maintained for rabi crop
(November, December, January). The major use for irrigation starts at Kota barrage abut
48 km downstream along the river. Two major canals take off from Kota barrage, right
canal with a head discharge of 118.5 m
3
/sec (16656 cusecs) and left canal 42.5 m
3
/sec
(1500 cusecs). In addition, utilization for industrial use amounts to 4.25 m
3
/sec (150
cusecs) at Kota. Government of Rajasthan had earlier assured to supply 11.33 m
3
/sec
(400 cusecs) with 6.8 m
3
/sec (240 cusecs) as consumptive use. The commitment of water
for the proposed expansion has been reaffirmed from Rajasthan State Government.
These quantities will be adequate for 2 x 1000 MWe LWRs or 2 x 500 MWe FBRs as
well as for 2 x 700 MWe PHWRs.
2.3.3 Drawal and Discharge
Condenser cooling water system for RAPS 1 & 2 is based on once through
cooling system. An intake channel of about 295 m length in the reservoir has been
constructed upto RAPS 1 & 2 pump house. For RAPS 3 & 4, the cooling system is based
2.49
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
on closed loop system with cooling towers and therefore the make up water requirement
is much smaller. The same intake channel of RAPS 1 & 2 serves the requirement of
drawal of water from the lake for RAPS 3 & 4. At the RAPS 1 & 2 pump house, additional
two pumps each of 3000 m
3
/hour have been provided to draw the water requirement of
RAPS 3 & 4 out of which one is standby. For the units under construction RAPS 5&6,
closed loop system with NDCT for condenser cooling and IDCT for process cooling is
adopted. For the additional units RAPP 7 & 8 closed loop system with NDCT for
condenser cooling and IDCT for process cooling is proposed to be adopted. Based on a
grade elevation of 400m the maximum pumping had about 57 m. This could be optimized
at the design stage. In the case of additional units, one alternative could be to construct a
separate intake channel from the lake and pump house considering that it is away from
the existing units. The length of intake channels is expected to be about 400 m.
Possibility of utilizing the intake system of RAPS 1 & 2 for drawal of water for the
additional units 7&8 and conveying water by pipelines along the shore to the new units
(since the quantity of water to be drawn is on the basis of closed loop system) exists.
Discharge channel for the new units could be suitably engineered or connected with the
discharges for RAPS 1 & 2. However, these arrangements could be finalized at the
design stage.
The existing units RAPS 3 & 4 adopt NDCT for condenser cooling and IDCT for
process cooling. The design wet bulb temperature adopted for NDCT and IDCT of the
existing units are 26.6 °C. Taking into account the operating experience of the existing
units and historical data on the wet bulb temperatures, the design wet bulb temperatures
for the NDCT/IDCT of the proposed expansion need to be optimized for maximizing the
continuous power output.
2.3.4 Geohydrology
Ground water occurs under unconfined water table conditions and depth of water
table is greater than 5 m. With the dip of the strata also being towards the lake, the water
table is not shallow in the high ground in the site area. Proximity to the reservoir results in
the water table rising up but the slope of the ground water is towards the lake.
Geohydrological conditions do not pose any problem at this site.
In RAPS 1 & 2 area where plant grade level is about 362 m, general water table
was about 5 m below the grade level. In RAPS 3 & 4 area where plant grade level is
383.7 m, general water table was found to vary from 356 m to 381 m. As HWL of Rana
Pratap Sagar is 30 m below the plant grade level of 383.7 m, its influence on water table
2.50
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
in area is found to be insignificant. For RAPS 5 to 8 units, general grade level is around
400 m and water table in the area is observed to be 40 m below ground level.
2.3.5 Baseline Water Quality
Physico-chemical, bacteriological & biological parameters have been determined
to ascertain the baseline status of the existing groundwater and surface water. Sampling
locations for water quality monitoring are shown in the Figure 2.3.1. These sampling
locations are enlisted in the Table 2.3.1. The groundwater quality was assessed by
collecting samples from borewell, dug wells and hand pumps. Three surface water
sampling locations connected to Rana Pratap Sagar namely Gandhi Sagar Dam,
Jawahar Sagar and Bramini river (sampling location at Bhagawatpura) were identified
and samples were collected for various parameters.
2.3.5.1 Physico-chemcial Characteristics of Surface Water
Physico chemical characteristics of surface water for the three seasons are
reported in Tables 2.3.2-2.3.13 respectively. The surface water was mostly alkaline with
pH 7.8-8.3. The temperature of water ranged from 29-31 °C (summer), 29-31 °C (Post
monsoon), and 26-30 °C (winter season). The turbidity of surface water varied from 2.6 to
4.5 NTU except in Brahmini River (23 NTU) in summer season and saddle dam (23 NTU)
in post-monsoon season. The variations in other parameters were: total suspended solids
(1.6-8.0 mg/l), total dissolved solids (120-218 mg/l), and conductivity (240-400 mg/l). The
ranges of inorganic parameters were: total alkalinity (86-138 mg/l), total hardness (50-127
mg/l), chlorides (5-18 mg/l), sulphates (4-22 mg/l), sodium (7-33 mg/l), and potassium (4-
7 mg/l). The nutrients varied as: nitrate (0.3-2.0 mg/l), phosphate (0.24-1.76 mg/l).
Dissolved oxygen and COD were found to vary from 3.8-10.1 mg/l and 10-21 mg/l
respectively. Oil and grease and hydrocarbons were not detected in the water samples.
2.3.5.2 Physico-chemcial characteristics of Groundwater
Physico-chemcial characteristics of groundwater for the three seasons are
reported in Tables 2.3.2.-2.3.13. The pH, temperature and turbidity were observed to
vary from 6.5 to 8.5, 21-32 °C, 1-9.2 NTU during three seasons except at Bhaisrorgarh,
Ambabadi and Gandhisagar colony (26-160 NTU). Total suspended solids ranged from
0.4-12 mg/l, while total dissolved solids and conductivity were observed to vary from 140-
1472 mg/l and 250-2540 uS/cm respectively.
Total alkalinity, total hardness and chlorides (mg/l) were found to vary during
study period in the range of 46-444, 51-586 and 6-547 respectively. Sulphates, sodium
2.51
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
and potassium were observed to vary in all 3 seasons in the range of 1-160 mg/l, 2-510
mg/l, and 1-92 mg/l respectively.
The nutrients viz. nitrates and total phosphate were observed to vary in study
period in the range of 0.1-47.0 mg/l and ND - 3.06 mg/l respectively. Higher values of
nitrates were recorded at Udpura (47 mg/l) and Tamlao (46 mg/l) in summer season and
higher total phasphate at Gandhisagar No. 8 (3.06 mg/l) in winter season.
COD values ranged from 3-19 mg/l during study period. The heavy metal content
in groundwater was observed to be low and below the stipulated standards for drinking
water.
2.3.5.3 Bacterilogical Characteristics of Surface water
Bacteriological quality of surface water is shown in Tables 2.3.14-2.3.16. The total
coliform density (CFU/100 ml) in surface water varied from 210-610, 150-950 and 360-
1200 in summer, post monsoon, and winter seasons respectively. Whereas faecal
coliforms density (CFU/100ml) varied from 16-84, 10-40 and 21-68 respectively. The
highest total coliforms and faecal coliforms were observed in Saddle dam in winter
season.
2.3.5.4 Bacterilogical Characteristics of Groundwater
Bacteriological quality of groundwater is shown in Tables 2.3.14-2.3.16. The total
coliform density (CFU/100ml) and faecal coliform density (CFU/100ml) were observed to
vary from ND-480, ND - 300, ND-310 and from ND-84, ND-45, ND-71 in summer, post
monsoon and winter seasons respectively. Most of the water samples are not faecally
contaminated except reasonably high faecal pollutation at Mandesara (in winter and
summer seasons), Tamlao (summer and Post monsoon seasons), Jaora (summer),
Nalikheda (summer and post monsoon seasons) and Agra (summer and post monsoon
seasons).
2.3.5.5 Biological Quality of Fresh Water
Biological species viz. phytoplankton and zooplankton which are indicators of
particular water quality are important in environmental impact assessment in view of the
conservation of environmental quality and safety of natural flora and fauna. Information
about the impact on the biological species serves as an inexpensive and efficient early
warning and control system to check the effectiveness of control measures to prevent
damage to a particular ecosystem. Keeping this in view, planktons (phytoplankton and
zooplankton) being good indicators of environmental stress, were included in the study.
2.52
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Shannon Weaver Index is a measure of diversity of plankton, which takes into
account the total count, and individual species count in water samples collected from a
particular source.
The Shannon Weaver Index is calculated from the equation :
N
D = - 2 (ni/n) log
2
(ni/n)
i = 1
Where,
ni = Number of individuals of each species in the sample
n = Total number of individuals of all the species in the sample
N = Total number of species in the sample
Surface Water and Groundwater
The observations on phytoplankton population are shown in Table 2.3.17-2.3.19.
Total phytoplankton population density (no/ml) varied from 4183-18578, 1140-2040,
3749-15650 in summer, post monsoon and winter seasons. The phytoplankton density in
Brahmini River is low i.e. 3749-4183 showing that the water quality is relatively good. This
observation is substantiated by dominance of bacillariophyceae (indicator of clean water)
and Shannon Weaver Diversity Index 1.5 to 1.8 showing deficiency of some nutrient (s) in
water body. Jawahar Sagar and Gandhi Sagar supported phytoplankton count (no/ml)
varying from 1140-18578 indicating mesotrophic water quality. The cyanophyceae, the
indicator of organic pollution, is dominant in phytoplankton community showing low level
of organic contamination in these water bodies.
These observations are supported by the zooplankton density (low in Barhmini
River and higher in Jawahar Sagar and Gandhi Sasar) (Tables 2.3.21-2.3.23) . Presence
of organic pollution indicator rotifera in Jawahar Sagar and Gandhi Sagar and low values
of Shannon Weaver index in these water bodies.
The list of species of phytoplankton and zooplanton are given in Tables 2.3.20-
2.3.24 respectively. The organic pollution indicator species recorded in Gandhi Sagar and
Jawahar Sagar are Chlorella, Ankistrodemus, Euglena, Anacycstis, Merismopedia,
Oscillatoria, Nitzschia (Phytoplankton), Keratella, Brachionus (Zooplankton).
In case of ground water, planktons are not recorded in any of the water sample.
This may be due to unfavourable underground conditions for their growth.
2.53
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.3.6 Radioactivity in Water Environment
The acceptable concentrations and total activity limits for the radioactive
contaminants in the liquid effluents discharged to water have been evaluated by Health
Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, depending on the values obtained in the recent study
done in the year 2002. The quantity of wastewater generation and their radiological
characteristics are given in Tables 2.3.25-2.3.26. Total 550 water samples from various
locations were analyzed for H-3 content and the values are given in Table 2.3.27. The
GM of tritium concentrations in the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station main outfall #1 and
#2 are 194 and 189 Bq/I respectively. The tritium activity in surface water at Rana Pratap
Sagar Dam, Bhainsroadgarh, Jaora, Jawahar Sagar Dam and Kota Barrage was
analyzed and GM values ranged from 22 to 98 Bq/I. 60 water samples from domestic
water supplies of Vikram Nagar, Bhabha Nagar, Anu Bhagya, Anu Kiran and Sentab
colony were analyzed for H-3 contents and GM values ranged from 63 to 101 Bq/I
respectively. 45 water samples of liquid effluents from HWP, which traverse through delay
Tank and Baisakhia Nullah and meet lake at Soil Conservation Weir were also monitored
for tritium activity. The GM value recorded was 964 Bq/I and maximum value was 1427
Bq/I at Soil Conservation Weir.
One hundred forty two cumulative lake water samples from Rajasthan Atomic
Power Station Site, Rana Pratap Sagar (RPS) Dam area, RPS downstream area, Gandhi
Sagar, Kota Barrage, barkheda, Jawahar Sagar were analyzed for Sr'
89+9
°, 1-131 and Cs
-137. The values are given in Table 2.3.28. Two hundred twenty six well and pond water
samples collected from 13 villages within 20 km area around Rajasthan Atomic Power
Station were monitored for H-3 content. The values are summarized in Table 2.3.29.
Twelve well water samples collected from Aklingpura, Mandesara and Udpura were
analyzed for radiocesium and radiostrontium. The levels of radiostrontium and
radiocesium were below detection limit in most of the samples.
2.3.7 Radio-Active Liquid Effluent Management
Waste Management Centralized Facility (WMCF) has been planned to cater to the
radioactive liquid and solid waste management needs of RAPP-3 to 8. The planning is
based on the assumption that on single shift operations RAPP - 3 & 4 needs will be met,
on double shift operation RAPP - 5 & 6 needs will be met and on three shift basis RAPP 7
& 8 needs will be met. However in regard to RAPP 5 & 6 and RAPP 7 & 8, some
augmentation of the treatment facilities may be required which can be decided upon
based on the details of setting up the projects. For RAPP 3 & 4 a storage provision of 2
2.54
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
weeks has been made. For RAPP 7 & 8 appropriate provisions could be made as part of
the design in setting up these projects.
Liquid effluents having almost negligible activity from WMCF of RAPP 3 & 4 are
filtered through 25 urn size fitters and led into the condenser cooling water outlet channel
of RAPP 1 & 2 which has a flow of about 100,000 rrrVhr where all the CCW pumps of
RAPP 1 & 2 are in operation providing enormous dilution before the treated liquid effluent
is released to the lake. In addition, a solar evaporation facility has been set up at the site
for handling liquid waste having higher activity. The solar evaporation facility consists of
60 nos. of solar evaporation pans (sep) (Size: 6m x 31.25m x 0.6m deep) and 20 no. of
effluent storage tanks (EST) (Size: 6m x 31.25m x 3.1m deep). All pans and tanks are
constructed by RCC in modular form. One module has 3 nos. of Pans and one storage
tank. Effluent comes from LEMP or LESS in upper pan, then overflow in first lower pan,
then second lower pan and then storage tank. The average evaporation rate at the site is
5 mm/day. The site based on the climatic condition offers a significant advantage for solar
evaporation. The residues from liquid effluent after solar evaporation are fixed with
cement and immobilized in 200 L capacity MS compartments or drums in earth-trenches
within the controlled premises of nearby Solid Waste Management Facility (SWAMP).
Since solar evaporation is used continuously and efficiently, the discharge to lake are
maintained below 1% of the prescribed limit given by AERB.
CCW discharge flow of RAPP 1 & 2 will normally be available for discharge of low
level liquid effluents from RAPP 3 to 8. However in the long term, for any reason if this
flow becomes unavailable, the discharges can be laid through respective cooling tower
blow downs and also even otherwise, effluent treatment facility combined with dilution
available in cooling tower, blow down should enable meeting the limits for releases.
The engineering of the plant is based on the storage/containment of liquid
effluents during any off normal conditions and release them only in a controlled rate
meeting the stipulated release limits.
2.3.8 Thermal Pollution
In view of the adoption of cooling towers, thermal pollution of the aquatic
environment does not arise.
2.3.9 Flood Analysis
The design flood for Rana Pratap Sagar is 18,400 rrrVsec (6,40,000 cusecs) which
can be safely passed over the spillway. The top of Rana Pratap Sagar is +357.32 m while
2.55
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
site elevation varies from + 355 m to +410 m with an average well above the top of the
RPS dam.
Nearest upstream dam of importance to the site is the Gandhisagar dam which is
located at a distance of 40 km upstream of Rana Pratap Sagar Dam. The hydrological
studies carried out by Central Water Commission (CWC) indicate a maximum probable
flood peak discharge of 40,000 m
3
/sec. (14.15 lakhs cusecs). This is on the assumption of
80% run off factor with 5 days storm duration and intensity of rainfall of 30.28 cms in 2Vi
days. Flood frequency studies carried out by CWC indicate that flood of 43,890 m
3
/sec,
(15.5 lakhs cusecs) peak discharge will have return period of about 1000 years and flood
of 40,000 m
3
/sec (14.15 lakhs cusecs) will have return period of about 200 years. The
discharge capacity of Gandhisagar dam spillway at elevation + 400m is around 13,590
m
3
/sec (4.8 lakhs cusecs). As can be seen, the discharge capacity is less than probable
maximum flood. Hence some guidelines were issued by Govt. of M.P. in the operating
manual of Gandhisagar Dam. Previous Site Selection Committee got the safety of Dam
reviewed by Shri L. G. K. Murthi who opined that it is most unlikely that the dam will be
ever be over topped and that the selected site for Nuclear Power Plant is quite safe.
Further, dam break studies for Gandhisagar Dam were carried out by CWC. The
studies considered that Gandhi Sagar Dam Breaches when water is at FRL and no
breach in RPS reservoir. Under these conditions the water level at RAPP site is 359.46m.
The RAPP 3 & 4 is constructed at 384 m giving a safety margin of 24 m. from the
flood level. RAPP - 5 & 6 elevation is fixed at 392. 7 m. For RAPP - 7 & 8 level may be
kept same as RAPP - 5 & 6 or higher. Based on the contours of the site a grade level of +
400 m. appears probable. This can be decided at the design stage based on techno
economic considerations.
2.56
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
LEGEND
• Sampling Location
"~~" Tar Road
""""Earthem Road
Rana Pratap Saaar
Figure 2 .3.1: Sampling Locations for Water Environment
2.57
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.1
Sampling Locations for Water Environment
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Sampling Location
Surface Water
Bramini river
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground Water
Dugwell
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
Charbhuja
Handpump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Direction
EN
NW
ES
W
N
S
N
W
E
ENE
NE
NW
SE
N
SSE
NNE
NW
WSW
W
S
WSW
WSW
WSW
Distance (km) from
Plant Site
19.00
19.5
20.0
5.0
13.0
17.5
7.0
5.0
8.0
10.5
12.0
12.0
12.5
13.00
13.0
18.00
18.0
18.4
19.0
20.0
20.0
25.0
25.5
2.58
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.2
Water Quality - Physical Parameters
(Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location
Surface Water
1
2
3
Bramini river
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground Water
Dugwell
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7 Charbhuja
Handpump
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
PH
8.2
7.9
7.9
8.0
6.7
7.8
7.0
7.8
7.3
8.5
7.1
8.0
8.2
7.8
7.5
6.5
7.5
7.3
7.4
7.6
7.1
7.7
7.3
Tempe-
rature
(°C)
29
31
31
29
30
29
29
30
29
28
29
29
27
29
28
29
29
29
29
29
30
29
29
Turbidity
(NTU)
23
4
3
1
2
4
8
5
1
1
1
26
2
1
112
5
2
1
2
160
5
3
4
Total
Suspended
Solids
(mg/l)
7
8
4
2
2
1
2
8
2
2
1
3
1
1
9
5
1
1
1
4
1
3
1
Total
Dissolved
Solids
(mg/l)
218
130
160
560
234
520
150
656
404
642
908
762
356
790
1400
710
936
718
680
538
822
436
910
Condu-
ctivity
(nS/cm)
400
250
290
1020
430
950
280
1200
740
1180
1660
1400
650
1440
2540
1300
1710
1310
1250
980
1500
800
1660
2.59
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.3
Water Quality - Physical Parameters
(Post monsoon -2 003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location PH
Tempe-
rature
Turbidity
(NTU)
Total
Suspended
Solids
(mg/l)
Total Condu-
Dissolved ctivity
Solids (mg/l) (jiS/cm)
Surface water
1. Gandhi sagar Dam
2. Jawahar sagar Dam
3. Saddle Dam
Ground water
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
.2.
23.
Mandesara
Barkheda
Tamalo
Charbhuja
Agra
Udpura Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Chainpura
Kalipura
Borabas
Jaora
Borav
Gandhi Sargar No. 8
Ambabadli
Aklingpura
Jharjhari
Shripura
Saddle dam
Bhainshrodgarh
7.87
7.93
8.24
31
31
29
6.68 30
7.83
8.00
7.00
7.74
7.11
7.34
7.35
7.30
7.12
6.8
7.79
7.27
7.58
7.54
8.18
8.46
7.52
7.80
8.00
29
29
29
29
30
29
24
29
29
29
29
29
29
28
21
28
29
30
21
3
4
23
5
1
2
1
1
5
1
4
160
112
2
1
2
5
26
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
5
1
1
4
9
1
2
1
120
124
140
232
392
797
140
486
718
748
736
288
908
760
768
554
276
1472
320
582
895
550
890
250
250
350
400
700
1250
250
700
1100
1100
1150
700
1400
870
1400
1600
750
2400
600
1100
1600
950
1600
2.60
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.4
Water Quality - Physical Parameters
(Winter 2003-2004)
J' Sampling Location
Surface water
'. Gandhi sagar Dam
2. Jawahar sagar Dam
3. Saddle Dam
Ground water
PH
8.2
8.3
8.3
Tempe-
rature
< °C)
29
26
30
Turbidity
(NTU)
3.5
2.6
4.5
Total
Suspended
Solids
(mg/l)
4.8
1.6
2.0
Total
Dissolved
Solids
(mg/l)
200
120
210
Condu-
ctivity
(nS/cm)
400
240
400
4. Rana pratep sagar Dam 8.3 27 2.8 12 210 410
5.
6.
7.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
Mandesara
Barkheda
Tamalo
Charbhuja
Bhainsrodgarh
Shripura
Borav
Nalikheda
Ganeshpura
Agra
Udpura
Chainpura
Saddle Dam
Ambavadi
Aklingpura
Jharjani
Jaora
Kalipura
Borabas
8.1
7.9
8.4
8.0
8.2
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.9
8.3
7.9
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.1
8.2
8.0
8.1
27
29
29
29
25
31
30
26
30
32
31
31
31
32
30
29
30
32
26
1.7
3.5
2.4
3.0
2.6
1.5
2.8
3.6
2.4
8.5
3.0
3.0
1.6
1.8
2.0
3.0
1.1
3.0
9.2
11.6
4.0
6.4
0.4
3.2
2.0
0.8
8.4
7.2
0.4
4.0
3.2
3.2
7.6
5.2
4.0
11.2
3.2
0.4
290
190
850
176
512
640
840
440
470
500
490
332
880
194
870
680
624
590
480
460
380
1680
340
990
1260
1610
890
930
970
960
580
1720
380
1710
1310
1230
1150
920
2.61
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.5
Water Quality - Inorganic Parameters
(Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location
Surface Water
1
2
3
Bramini River
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground Water
Dugwell
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7 Charbhuja
Handpump
8
g
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Total
Alkalinity
138
86
89
117
117
119
56
391
316
385
444
328
253
357
233
150
282
382
383
236
168
270
307
Total
Hardness
(as CaCO
3
)
127
70
61
430
121
133
61
194
280
79
515
322
208
266
463
290
586
453
396
97
320
279
499
Calcium
Hardness
108
53
38
279
96
74
38
111
206
1
285
229
81
117
334
213
291
335
185
65
212
197
353
Chloride
(mg/l)
16
11
12
113
33
91
16
39
20
76
79
58
34
198
547
53
167
67
81
61
64
35
156
Sulphate
14
6
22
13
12
80
15
88
5
3
27
10
14
3
160
6
11
3
3
79
1
11
70
Sodium
20
17
30
22
28
50
14
134
33
207
88
61
53
171
324
96
50
69
78
142
75
30
124
Pota-
ssium
4
4
4
1
5
25
4
10
4
1
20
80
3
20
40
30
20
5
20
10
87
10
5
2.62
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.6
Water Quality - Inorganic Parameters
(Post monsoon -2 003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Location
Surface water
1.
2
3.
Bramini River
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground water
4.
5.
6.
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7.
Hand
8.
9
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
1. .
20.
21.
22.
23.
Charbhuja
pump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
(Residential
Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Total
Alkalinity
Mg/I
79
76
125
107
109
107
46
260
158
' 372
373
306
434
140
347
297
226
223
243
375
272
381
318
Total
Hardness
50
68
100
111
123
320
51
269
310
443
386
270
500
280
256
489
87
453
98
198
576
184
311
Calcium
Hardness
Mg/I
28
45
60
86
64
269
27
187
200
325
175
196
275
200
107
343
55
324
71
71
281
100
219
Chloride
7
5
10
11
55
103
6
16
54
57
53
10
69
43
188
146
51
537
24
24
157
29
48
Sulphate
11
4
7
7
70
4
7
7
1.0
3.0
3.0
5.0
17.0
6.0
3.0
50.0
55.0
17
15
15
11.0
60.0
10.0
Sodium
8
7
11
52
60
2
14
10
65
59
105
7
7
90
510
340
315
420
16
16
40
40
15
Potassium
4
4
4
5
6
1
4
10
60
5
40
40
20
30
20
55
10
40
3
3
20
10
60
2.63
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.7
Water Quality - Inorganic Parameters
(Winter 2003-2004)
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Location
Surface water
1.
2.
3.
Bramini River
Jawahar
Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground water
Dugwell
4.
5.
Tamlao
Mandesara
Borewell
6. Charbhuja
Handpump
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
(Residential
Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Total Alkalinit;
Mg/I
115
114
121
119
gg
182
52
181
150
139
169
208
179
254
194
298
74
188
354
246
250
174
Total
Hardness
108
124
107
181
86
466
124
206
478
451
344
302
304
232
299
132
105
463
390
314
322
229
Calcium
Hardness
Mg/I
66
71
59
131
55
336
50
142
230
341
259
272
240
147
212
52
79
232
107
140
193
148
Chloride
14
17
18
16
20
121
15
62
88
186
48
19
18
26
22
39
19
191
123
67
35
34
Sulphate
19
17
17
3
8
103
7
45
61
107
17
6
8
48
3
55
10
46
36
31
35
58
Sodium
27
31
33
18
15
61
15
80
42
78
17
32
42
79
16
109
15
104
117
84
74
60
Potassium
6
6
7
4
10
56
3
7
11
92
30
3
4
18
3
12
11
7
5
16
7
19
2.64
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.8
Water Quality - Nutrients and Organic Parameters
(Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location
Surface Water
1
2
Bramini River
Jawahar Sagar
3 Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground Water
Dugwell
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7 Charbhuja
Handpump
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Nitrate
asN
2.0
1.0
1.0
46.0
5.0
15.0
5.0
0.1
4.0
10.0
40.0
40.0
3.0
7.0
0.35
38.0
40.0
24.0
19.0
0.15
47.0
10.0
3.0
Total Phosphate
0.24
0.65
0.54
0.11
0.71
1.23
0.09
ND
0.80
0.14
0.96
ND
1.14
0.38
1.99
0.71
ND
0.63
0.48
0.78
0.68
0.53
0.60
Dissolved
Oxygen
(mg/l)
6.6
5.8
6.4
6.4
4.7
5.6
3.7
3.6
2.8
2.7
2.7
3.7
2.3
2.4
2.8
2.6
2.1
3.7
2.6
3.2
2.8
3.2
2.9
Chemical Oxygen
Demand
13
16
21
19
12
18
4
4
17
4
13
8
17
15
14
10
5
10
11
10
3
16
11
2.65
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.9
Quality - Nutrient, Demand and Organic Parameters
(Post monsoon -2 003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location
Surface water
1.
2.
3.
Bramini River
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground water
Dugwell
4.
5.
6.
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Bore well
7. Charbhuja
Handpump
8.
9.
10.
11.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Nitrate
asN
1.0
1.0
2.0
5.0
15.0
33.0
5.00
10.00
36.0
24.00
19.00
4.0
33.0
32.0
7.00
3.0
0.15
0.35
3.0
10.0
28.0
0.10
25.0
Total Phosphate
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.7
0.11
0.1
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.7
1.4
1.1
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Dissolved
Oxygen
(mg/l)
6.4
3.8
6.6
4.7
3.6
6.4
3.7
3.2
2.8
3.7
2.6
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.4
2.4
3.2
2 8
2.3
2.7
2.1
36
32
Chemical
Oxygen
Demand
21
16
13
10
16
17
4
14
3
10
11
15
13
10
15
11
10
14
13
4
5
4
8
2.66
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
Water Quality -
Sampling Location
Surface water
1.
3.
3
Bramini River
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sgar Dam
Ground water Dugwell
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7 Charbhuja
Handpump
8
g
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Saddle darn
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8.
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Table 2.3.10
Nutrient, Demand and Organic Parameters
(Winter 2003-2004)
Nitrate
asN
0.4
0.4
0.3
3.9
4.9
36.7
4.5
20.0
18.5
28.0
14.2
10.2
5.9
0.1
7.6
0.3
6.5
26.2
4.6
10.5
0.2
Total Phosphate Dissolved
Oxygen
0.960
1.755
1.425
1.500
1.905
1.68
1.725
1.140
1.035
1.080
0.975
1.035
1.875
1.125
0.900
1.155
1.275
1.56
2.49
3.06
2.22
( mg/l)
5.3
10.1
9.3
3.4
5.3
1.6
5.3
3.9
2.3
3.9
3
5
2.3
3.4
4.1
3.1
2.6
3.7
3.4
3.4
3.5
Chemical
Oxygen
Demand
20
10
10
15
15
19
6
10
7
11
11
10
16
3
17
4
14
17
4
15
13
2.67
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location
Surface Water
1
2
3
Bramini River
JawaharSagar
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground Water
Dugwell
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7 Charbhuja
Handpump
8
g
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No. 8
(Residential Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Water
Cadmium
0.02
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Table 2
Qual i t y- i
.3.11
Heavy Metals
(Summer 2003)
Chromium
0.03
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.03
ND
0.12
ND
ND
0.07
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.01
ND
Copper
i
0.03
0.01
0.01
ND
0.01
0.01
ND
ND
0.03
ND
ND
0.11
ND
0.02
0.01
0.02
ND
ND
0.02
ND
0.01
0.01
0.01
Lead
ng/l
0.33
0.03
ND
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.08
0.04
0.14
0.01
0.01
0.06
0.14
0.01
0.03
0.09
0.05
0.07
0.12
0.01
0.02
0.08
0.02
Iron
0.31
0.35
0.03
0.43
9.90
0.90
1.56
1.93
0.88
0.73
0.06
3.60
1.62
0.18
1.57
1.02
0.80
0.10
10.50
0.42
0.99
10.40
0.75
Manganese
0.06
001
0.01
0.02
0.15
0.02
0.08
0.05
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.12
0.01
0.14
0.17
0.02
0.01
0.06
0.01
0.06
0.09
0.03
Zinc
0.01
0.75
ND
0.86
0.14
0.11
0.11
1.12
1.17
6.02
0.44
0.85
1.14
0.22
0.24
0.27
0.33
0.12
1.03
0.31
0.43
3.88
0.32
ND : Not detected
2.68
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.12
Water Quality - Heavy Metals
( Post monsoon -2 003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Location
Surface water
1.
- •
3.
Bramii River
Jawahar
Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground water
4.
5.
6.
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7.
Hand
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
•5 .
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
-
2
23
Charbhuja
pump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
(Residential
Colony)
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Cad-
mium
0.10
ND
ND
0.03
ND
ND
ND
0.06
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.08
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.06
0.01
0.03
0.06
0.01
0.06
Chro-
mium
0.02
0.03
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.01
ND
ND
0.03
ND
ND
ND
0.01
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.01
ND
ND
Copper
0.03
0.01
0.01
ND
0.03
ND
ND
ND
0.1
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.02
0.02
ND
0.10
0.02
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Cobalt
«
ND
0.01
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.01
ND
ND
0.08
ND
ND
0.05
ND
0.04
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.06
0.05
ND
Nickel
Mg/I
.02
0.05
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.04
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.03
0.02
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.06
0.03
Lead
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.03
0.02
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.08
0.3
0.06
0.3
0.04
0.4
0.03
0.3
0.1
0.02
Iron
0.3
0.5
0.3
6.0
8.8
209
10.9
4.0
16.0
0.6
0.08
1.15
2.7
3.15
50
0.10
1 13
11.0
2.0
2.3
4.0
3.6
2.2
Mang-
enese
0.08
0.8
0.6
0.20
0.20
12.0
0.30
2.3
0.30
6.0
3.5
0.40
0.30
4.0
0.25
0.18
0.15
5.3
0.18
0.23
6.3
0.13
0.40
Zinc
1.15
0.6
0.8
4.0
2.0
20.0
42.0
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
75.0
4.0
41.0
2.0
4.0
3.0
ND
ND
2.5
2.69
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
ST.
kin
NO.
Sampling Location
Surface water
1.
2.
3.
4.
Gandhi sagar dam
Jawahar sagar dam
Saddle dam
Rana pratap sagar
dam
Groundwater Dugwell
5.
6.
7.
Mandesara
Barkheda
Tamalo
Borewell
8. Charbhuja
Handpump
9.
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Bhainsrodgarh
Shripura
Borav
Nalikheda
Ganeshpura
Agra
Udpura
Chainpura
Saddle dam
Ambavadi
Aklingpura
Jharjani
Jaura
Kalipura
Borabas
Table 2 .3.13
Water Quality - Heavy Metals
(Winter 2003-2004)
Nickel
0.32
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.13
0.02
1.11
0.74
0.06
0.42
ND
0.03
0.07
0.02
0.14
0.2
1.72
0.02
0.01
0.001
0.01
0.05
0.12
Cadm
-ium
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.18
0.05
0.05
ND
0.03
0.20
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.26
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.004
0.38
0.005
Chrom
-ium
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.10
0.03
0.98
0.46
0.05
0.22
0.005
0.05
0.08
0.18
0.08
0.09
3.66
0.04
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.24
Copper
0.025
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.054
0.02
0.02
0.32
0.03
0.16
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.06
0.07
1.63
0.02
0.01
0.013
0.01
0.02
0.02
Lead Iron
(mg/l)
0.026
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.46
ND
2.06
2.99
0.57
1.12
0.01
0.37
0.36
0.20
0.62
0.7
3.46
0.21
0.10
0.26
0.10
0.42
0.16
1.71
0.82
0.71
0.91
12
3.33
81.5
56.9
5.13
23.3
ND
0.94
2.94
0.12
7.76
2.1
2.31
16.4
2.6
1.93
1.11
0.04
0.62
Mangan-
ese
0.102
0.12
0.15
0.20
0.22
0.03
20.25
1.738
0.57
12.8
ND
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.24
0.20
2.31
0.01
0.08
1.57
0.48
3.09
0.14
Zinc
-
2.1
0.9
0.8
6.73
2.77
34.66
56.6
7.63
18.52
ND
5.29
3.51
ND
134.42
2.0
77.06
ND
2.0
0.48
ND
ND
0.17
Cob-
alt
0.02
0.07
0.09
0.06
0.08
0.02
0.47
0.31
0.03
0.15
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.07
0.08
1.09
0.08
0.07
0.02
0.01
0.06
0.07
2.70
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.14
Water Quality - Bacteriology
(Summer 2003)
Sr. No. Sampling Locations Total Coliform Faecal Coliform
CFU/100ml
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
21
23
Surface Water
Bramini River
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Ground Water
Dugwell
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Bore well
Charbhuja
Handpump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8 (Residential Colony)
Agra
Udpura
Borav
210
610
370
90
480
ND
60
30
ND
120
ND
70
ND
280
20
ND
ND
210
310
60
140
80
ND
24
84
16
20
84
ND
ND
ND
20
ND
ND
ND
56
ND
ND
ND
16
44
ND
56
ND
ND
2.71
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.15
Water Quality - Bacteriology
(Post-monsoon 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Location
Surface water
1
2
3
4
5
Brahmini River
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Saddle Dam
Rana Pratap Sagar
Groundwater Dugwell
6
7
8
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
9 Charbhuja
Handpump
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhiansrodgarh
Aklingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8 (Residential Colony)
Agra
Udpura
Borav
Total
Coliform
(CFU/100
150
310
250
950
670
45
270
300
Faecal
Coliform
ml)
15
30
10
40
15
ND
45
ND
35 ND
40
ND
60
140
30
110
ND
150
ND
ND
50
65
40
45
50
ND
5
ND
7
ND
ND
ND
15
ND
ND
ND
ND
18
ND
22
ND
ND
2.72
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr. No.
Surface
1
2
3
4
Dugwell
5
6
7
Table 2.3..16
Water Quality - Bacteriology
(Winter 2003-2004)
Sampling Locations
Water
Gandhisagar Dam
Jawaharsagar Dam
Sadie Dam
Rana Pratap Sagar Dam
Mandesara
Barkheda
Tamlao
Borewell
8 Charbhuja
Handpump
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Bhainsrodgarh
Shrifwra
Borav
Nalikheda
Ganeshpura
Agra
Udpura
Chainpura
Saddle Dam
Ambavadi
Aklinghura
Jharjani
Jaora
Kalipura
Borahas
Dugwell
Total
Coliform
Faecal
Coliform
CFU/100ml
900
360
1200
800
82
4
30
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
280
200
ND
ND
310
ND
ND
65
40
68
21
71
ND
3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.73
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Location
Surface Water
1
2
3
Brahmini River
Jawahar Sagar
Dam
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground Water
Dug
4
5
6
Well
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Bore Well
7
Hand
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charbhuja
I Pump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhainsrodgarh
Akhingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
Udpura
Agra
Borav
- Absent
ND - Not Detected
Water
Table 2.3.17
Quality - Phytoplankton
(Summer 2003)
Total Percentage composition of Different
phytoplankton/ml Groups
4,183
16,967
18,578
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Bacillario- Cyanoph-
phyceae yceae
83.14
1.66 96.95
9.39 71.57
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Chloro-
phyceae
16.85
1.38
9.64
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shannon
Weaver
Index
1.5
2.3
2.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.74
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.18
Biological parameters - Phytoplanktons
(Post Monsoon 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling
location
Surface water
1
2
3
Jawahar Sagar
Dam
Rana Pratap
Sagar Dam
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Groundwater Dugwell
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Borewell
7 Charbhuja
Handpump
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhainsrodgarh
Akhingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Phytoplankton
(No./ml)
1520
2040
1140
60
ND
300
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Percentage
Bacillario-
phyceae
4
-
-
67
ND
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Composition
Groups
Cyano-
phyceae
10
-
7
33
ND
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
of Different
Chloro-
phyceae
86
100
93
-
ND
87
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shannon
Weaver
Diversity Index
0.756
0.000
0.368
0.919
ND
0.698
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.75
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
Sampling
location
Surface water
1
2
3
Brahmini River
Jawahar Sagar
Dam
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground water
4
5
6
Bore
7
Hand
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
•8
19
20
21
22
23
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Well
Charbhuja
Pump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhainsrodgarh
Akhingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Water i
Table 2.3.19
Quality Phytoplankton
(Winter 2003-2004)
Phytoplankton
(No./ml)
3749
13780
15650
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Percentage Composition
Groups
Bacillario-
phyceae
76
4
11
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Cyano-
phyceae
-
76
67
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
of different
Chloro-
phyceae
24
10
22
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shannon
Weaver
Diversity Index
1.8
2.5
2.3
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.76
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.20
List of Species Identified
(Phytoplanktons)
Group
Chlorophyceae
Euglenophyceae
Cyanophyceae
Bacillariophyceae
Species
1) Chlorella sp.
2) Ankistrodesmus sp.
1) Euglena sp.
1) Anacystis sp.
2) Merismopedia sp.
3) Oscillotoria sp.
1) Nitrschia sp.
2) Diatoma sp.
3) Stephanodiscus sp.
2.77
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.21
Water Quality - Zooplankton
(Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling
location
Surface Water
1
2
3
Bramini River
Jawahar
Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground Water
Dug Well
4
5
6
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Bore Well
7
Hand
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Charbhuja
Pump
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhainsrodgarh
Akhingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Total
zooplankton
(no/m
3
) "
ND
24,000
84,000
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Percentage
Cladocera
-
12.5
7.14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Composition of Different Groups
Copepoda
-
75.00
46.42
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Rotifera
-
12.5
46.42
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shannon
Weaver Index
-
1.545
2.254
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- Absent
ND - Not Detected
2.78
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.22
Biological parameters - Zooplankton
(Post Monsoon 2003)
Sr.
No.
Sampling Station
Surface water
1
2
3
4
Jawahar Sagar
Dam
Gandhi Sagar Dam
Rana Pratap Sagar
Dam
Saddle Dam
Groundwater Dugwell
5
6
7
Bore
8
Hand
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Tamlao
Mandesara
Barkheda
Well
Charbhuja
Pump
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhainsrodgarh
Akhingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar No.
8
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Total Zooplankton
(no/m
3
)
3000
1500
3000
1500
3000
4500
6000
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Percentage Composition
of Different Groups
Rotifera
100
100
-
-
-
100
50
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Copepoda
-
-
100
100
100
-
50
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shannon
Weaver
Diversity Index
1.8
2.0
1.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.79
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
Sampling
Station
Surface water
1
2
3
Brahmini River
Jawahar Sagar
Dam
Gandhi Sagar
Dam
Ground water Dugwell
4
5
6
Bore
7
Barkheda
Mandesara
Tamlao
Well
Charbhuja
Handpump
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Chainpura
Saddle Dam
Jharjhani
Kolipura
Bhainsrodgarh
Akhingpura
Jaora
Ambabadi
Borabas
Shripura
Ganeshpura
Nalikheda
Gandhi Sagar
No. 8
Udpura
Agra
Borav
Table 2.3.23
Water Quality - Zooplankton
(Winter 2003-2004)
Total Zooplankt
(no/m
3
)
12750
18950
68498
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
on Percentage Composition
Groups
Nauplius
35
15
23
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Keratella
65
74
39
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
of Different
Brachionus
-
11.0
38.0
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Shannon
Weaver
Diversity Index
1.6
1.8
1.6
ND
ND
ND
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.80
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.24
List of Species Identified
(Zooplankton)
Group and Name of
species
Copepoda
Rotifara
1) Cyclop
2) Nauplius
1) Keratella
2) Brachionus
Table 2.3.25
Quantity of Wastewater Generation (Unite wise) and its Characterization
Year
2000
2001
2002
RAPS 1 & 2
(m
3
)
28942.03
34682.54
25618.05
RAPS 3 & 4
(m
3
)
7534.31
13486.21
18583.60
RAPP 5 & 6
(m
3
)
31.50
10.50
8.50
WMF (m
3
)
225.0
424.14
140.05
TOTAL (m
3
)
36732.840
48603.39
44350.20
Surce : Environmental Survey Laboratory BARC, RAPS
Table 2.3.26
Specific Activity Contained in Liquid Waste
Year
2000
2001
2002
RAPS
Tritium
(Bq/ml)
2529.58
2603.15
2600.16
1&2
Gross
P-Y
(Bq/ml)
0.116
0.235
0.18
RAPS
Tritium
(Bq/ml)
163.26
904.5
2411.32
3&4
Gross
P-Y
(Bq/ml)
0.061
0.075
0.48
RAPP
Tritium
(Bq/ml)
0.00
0.00
ND
5 &6
Gross
P-Y
(Bq/ml)
25.15
17.934
0.85
WMF
Tritium
(Bq/ml)
2524.71
13984.8
275.87
Gross
P-Y
(Bq/ml)
0.045
0.444
0.002
Surce : Environmental Survey Laboratory BARC, RAPS
2.81
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.27
Concentration of H-3 in Water Samples Collected Around RAPP
Environment During 2002
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Location
Main Outfall unit -I
Main Outfall unit II
Reactor Coolant Fore Bay
RAPP 3 & 4 Pump house
Ground water seepage near Jetty
IDCT 3 & 4 Blow down
NDCT 3 & 4 Blow down
1.6 km upstream of RAPP
1.6 km downstream of RAPP
Saddle dam
RPS dam Bhabha Nagar End
RPS dam Vikram Nagar End
Sentab Bridge
Bhainsroadgarh
Jaora
Barkheda (RPS)
RPS at Gandhi Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Jawahar Sagar Dam
Kota Barrage
No. of
Total
52
52
53
53
53
42
53
4
4
24
26
26
24
24
24
4
4
4
12
12
Samples
BDL
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
1
3
4
2
2
Max.
Bq/I
612
509
234
1077
12039
837
925
122
220
142
230
220
181
142
177
66
68
-
61
177
GM
Bq/I
194
189
80
176
459
175
290
95
128
89
96
98
63
49
51
41
22
-
36
36
GSD
1.5
1.5
1.6
2.2
2.4
1.8
1.8
1.3
1.8
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.8
-
1.6
2.0
Source : BARC, Mumbai
2.82
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.28
Concentration of Sr-89+90,1-131 & Cs-137 in Water Samples Collected
Around RAPP Environment During 2002
Radio
Nuclide
Location
No. of Samples Max. GM GSD
Total BDL Bq/I Bq/I
Sr-89+90 RAPP site area
1.6kmU/S
1.6 km D/S
RPS dam area (5 km D/S)
RPS downstream area
(Jawahar Sagar 13 km U/S)
Barkheda(18kmU/S)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km D/S)
Gandhi Sagar (20 km U/S)
Kota Barrage (40 km D/S)
1-131 RAPP Site Area
RPS.dam area (5 km D/S)
RPS downstream area
(Jawahar Sagar 13 km D/S)
Cs-137 RAPP site area
1.6 km U/S
1.6 km D/S
RPS dam area (5 km D/S)
RPS downstream area
(Jawahar Sagar 13 km U/S)
Barkheda(18kmU/S)
Jawahar Sagar (20 km D/S)
Gandhi Sagar (20 km U/S)
Kota Barrage (40 km D/S)
52
4
4
25
24
24
24
4
12
4
12
51
4
4
25
24
4
12
4
12
53
25
4
12
4
12
51
25
24
53
4
4
25
30
4
4
20
5.0
6.6
1.5
2.6
52.9 4.6
11.0 3.0
22 4.0 2.6
1.1
1.1
2.1
1.4
1.1
11 3.1 2.5 1.1
4
11 3.6 2.6 1.1
Source : BARC, Mumbai
2.83
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.3.29
Concentration of H-3 in Well and Pond Water Samples Collected Around
RAPP Environment During 2002
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Location
Wells
Tamlao (5 km)
Baheliya (8 km)
Chainpura (8 km)
Jharjhani (10 km)
Barodiya (12 km)
Aklingpura (13 km)
Mandesara (13 km)
Shripura (15 km)
Ganeshpura (16 km)
Barkheda (18 km)
Udpura (20 km)
Borabas (20 km)
Ponds
Baroli
Tamlao
Jharjhani
No. of i
Total
25
4
25
24
24
14
15
12
4
4
4
12
20
19
20
Samples
BDL
2
4
23
16
14
14
15
-
4
3
4
12
0
1
2
Max.
Bq/I
67
-
34
96
57
-
34
-
-
19
-
-
220
285
99
GM
Bq/I
34
-
-
19
19
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
60
53
35
GSD
1.5
-
-
1.5
1.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.6
1.8
1.7
Source BARC, Mumbai
2.84
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2A Land Environment
2.4.1 Reconnaissance
Pre-operational studies on land environment have been carried out within the
impact zone of 25 km radius of proposed site of Rajasthan Atomic Power Project units 7
& 8. The studies include assessment of overall baseline environmental status of land
environment and secondary data on soil radioactivity.
The terrain is featureless gently sloping towards the reservoir, i.e. westemly
direction. The slope is governed by the dip of the rocks and is characterized by open
grassy land with very thin soil cap above the bed rock. The area is traversed by shallow
gently sloping Nallahs carrying monsoon runoff from upper catchment to the river
Chambal at intervals of a few hundred meters. The site is made up of flat bedded openly
folded Kaimur sandstone (Chittor fort sandstones) of Vindhyan super group. The
Chittorgarh sandstone is exposed in an area up to 8.5 km east of Rajasthan Atomic
Power Station reservoir and about 30 km along the reservoir, upstream of the dam.
Generally in the area warping of bedding surface is observed. At the plant site, south
westemly dips varying from 3 to 8 degrees have been observed. The sandstones are
moderate to thickly bedded and devoid of thick shale parting down to a depth of 40 m.
Localized thin shale layers few mms in thickness are not uncommon. The thickness of the
Chittorgarh fort sand stones exceeds 65 m. The sandstone is greyish white to buff colour
in upper reaches followed by pink and reddish brown coloured quartzite sand stones with
blotches in lower regions. It is fine to medium grained in texture.
The geological structure of the region reveals that the soil characteristics differ
from place to place. The soil on plateau and plains consists mostly of sandy clay and
clay, often mixed with stones and gravel, whereas the soil found in the low lying areas
and in the river basins is black which is very fertile. Most often there is only a thin layer of
soil on plateau. Hill soils (Lithosols) are found on and at the foot hills of the hill ranges
falling in the study area. The colour of soils vary from reddish to yellowish red to yellowish
brown. These soils are sandy loam to clay loam in texture and well drained. Cultivation of
crops in these soils is very much restricted due to shallow nature of these soils and
presence of stones on the surface.
2.85
NEER1 Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.4.2 Geology
The site lies on the Kaimur Sandstone of Vindhyan Supergroup. The terrain within
300 km radius exposes Mangalwar Supergroup to Quaternary sediments. The basement
components are represented by greenstone belt of Hindoli, Bundelkhand granite massif,
unclassified gneissic complex of Mangalwar and composite Batholithic Complex of
Berach. The Aravalli fold belt lies to the west and SW on the site. The isolated patches of
Delhi fold belt striking NE-SW is exposed to the west and northwest of the site. Both the
Aravalli and Delhi sequences expose ultramafic rocks along narrow liner belts. The Delhi
rocks are invaded by late to post tectonic Erinpura, Sendra, Ambaji and Annasagar
granites. Along the southern fringe of the Aravalli Fold belt, synkinermatic acidic event is
mainly represented by Godhra Granite to the SW of the site. Marwar Super group lying
NW of the site represents Proterozoic self facies covers in intracratonic sags. Deccan
TRAPP occupying a vast area to the east and south of the site. Folded volcano-
sedimentary pile in intracratonic abortive rift within Deccan Trap terrain covers sequence
also include Cenozoic alluvial pericratonic fill on attenuates continental crust covering the
area in the Chambal and Kalisindh River courses and the quaternary cover occupying the
alluvial plains.
Geologically the area exposes, NNW-SSE trending buff to reddish brown coloured
quartzitic sandstones of Kaimur stage of upper Vindhyan group (each Paleozoic) having a
gentle dip of 5° - 8° (towards reservoir) in WSW direction. Shaly partings occur in
between the sandstone units but are generally infrequent and partly developed. Detailed
sub soil investigations were carried out before undertaking construction of RAPS 1 & 2 as
well as RAPS 3 & 4. These investigations have revealed that the rocks are jointed, giving
rise to blocky weathering. However, soil development is poor and even the weathered
zone is of very insignificant thickness (0.2 to 0.3 m) at the outcrop level, the quartzitic
sand stones are both cross bedded and ripple marked. Based on borehole data it is
observed that upto a depth of 16.00 mm they are buff white coloured, underlain by
reddish ferruginous banded quartzites and from 16 to 30 m depth without any shaly
partings. These findings have been further confirmed during construction of plant
structures of unit 1 & 2 as well as unit 3 & 4. Further a detailed subsoil investigation in
areas of proposed units 5 to 8 have been carried out by Echidna Company India Limited.
Total 54 boreholes have been dug in RAPS 5 & 8. Bore holes of depth upto 105 m have
been dug. Double Packer Permeability Tests, Pressure Meter Tests and Lab tests on
rock samples collected have been conducted. As in the case of RAPS-1 to 4 the
2.86
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
foundation for the reactor structures will be provided by the buff to reddish brown
coloured hard quatzites, which is quite suitable. The RQD and Core recovery for a typical
bore hole (Bore hole no. 18) located in RB-8 at a RL of about 380 m (near to founding
level of RB-8) indicate values of 99% and 95% respectively. And more or less same is the
range in other boreholes. Later on detailed subsoil investigations have been carried out
for RAPS-5 & 6 for confirming subsoil parameters for RAPS- 5 & 6 and they are in line
with above findings.
2.4.3 Baseline Data
Fifteen sampling locations within 25 km radius of the proposed project site were
identified for collection of soil samples. The sampling locations are shown in
Figure 2.4.1 and their details are reported in Table 2.4.1.
2.4.4 Physical Characteristics
Physical characteristics of soil samples are delineated through specific
parameters, viz., particle size distribution, texture, bulk density, porosity and water
holding capacity. The particle size distribution in terms of percentage of sand, silt and clay
is furnished in Table 2.4.2 and depicted in Figure 2.4.2. It is observed that soil texture
varied from sandy clay loam to sandy loam.
Regular cultivation practices increase the bulk density of soils, thus, inducing
compaction. This results in reduction in water percolation rate and penetration of
root through soils. The bulk density of soils in the region is found to be in the range of
1.39-1.54 gm/cm
3
which is considered as moderately good.
Soil porosity is a measure of air filled pore spaces and gives information about
movement of gases, inherent moisture, development of root system and strength of soil.
Variations in soil porosity are presented in Table 2.4.2. The porosity and water holding
capacity of soils are in the range 32-53 % and 22 - 43 % respectively. The soils in the
impact zone have loam (40%), clay (26%), sandy loam/silt loam (34%), texture with
moderate to low water holding capacity.
2.4.5 Chemical Characteristics
Data was collected for chemical characterization of soils through select
parameters, viz. pH, electrical conductivity, soluble anions and cations, cation exchange
capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations, exchangeable sodium percentage, nutrients,
organic content and heavy metals and the same is presented in Tables 2.4.3-2.4.6.
2.87
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
pH is an important parameter indicative of the alkaline or acidic nature of the soil.
It greatly affects the microbial population as well as the solubility of metal ions and
regulates nutrient availability. Variation of pH of soils in the study area is presented in
Table 2.4.3 and it was observed to be neutral to slightly alkaline (within the range of 6.6
to 8.7) thus indicating that the soils are conducive for the growth of plants.
Electrical conductivity, a measure of soluble salts in the soils, is in the range of 0.2
to 1.3 mS/cm as seen from Table 2.4.3.
Variations in Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of the soils are presented in
Table 2.4.4. Amongst the exchangeable cations, Ca
2+
and Mg
2+
are observed to be in the
range of 4.2 to 33.5 meq/100 gm and 0.9 to 14.1 meq/100 gm and for Na
+
and K
+
, the
values of CEC are in the range of 0.2 to 0.6 and 0.02 to 0.25 meq/100 gm of soil
respectively. Exchangeable sodium percentage ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 indicating that the
soils are free from sodicity.
Organic matter present in soil influences its physical and chemical properties. It
commonly accounts for as much as one third or more of the cation exchange capacity of
the surface soils and is responsible for stability of soil aggregates. Organic matter and
available nitrogen in soil samples vary in the range of 0.4 to 1.5 % and 29.1 to 59.8 kg/ha.
Available phosphorus and patassium vary from 1.2 to 42.9 kg/ha and 6.2 to 374.3 kg/ha
respectively. This shows that the soils are good in organic matter but low in nutrient
content. The fertility status of soils is presented in Table 2.4.5.
Plants require some of the heavy metals at microgram levels for their metabolic
activities. These heavy metals are termed as micronutrients. Their deficiency becomes a
limiting factor for plant growth, but at the same time their higher concentration in soils
may lead to toxicity for plant growth. Levels of heavy metals in soils are presented in
Table 2.4.6
2.4.6 Microbiolog ical Ch aracteristics
Microbiological characteristics of soil samples are given in Table 2.4.7. Different
microorganisms play an important role in biotransformation of inorganic and organic
matter in the soil and convert it into simplest form, for other organisms and plants, for
example, stabilization of organic matter, nitrogen fixation, and production of growth
promoting factors. The study reveals that most of the soil samples contain high density of
total viable count (TVC) and fungi, whereas low density of actinomycetes, rhizobium and
2.1
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
azotobacter. Thus the soils are biologically active but comparatively less productive in
nature.
2.4.7 Radioactivity in Terrestrial Environment
Terrestrial ecosystem forms the major sink for radionuclides for all types of
releases i.e. into water, land or air either through seepages, water use, precipitation or
impaction. Plants receive these radionuclides either through roots or impaction on
surfaces. Here these radionuclides are retained until they find their way to another chain
i.e. animal or man or through animal to man. Based upon the annual reports of off site
environmental and micrometeoroiogical studies at Rawatbhata site done by Health
Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (1999 - 2003), it is inferred
that the concentration of Sr
89
*
90
was not detected in milk except 1998, but Cs
134+137
levels
registered little variation through these years. The maximum value of Cs
134+137
was
recorded in 1999 and minimum in 2002. In case of cereals, the trend in Cs
134+137
activity
exhibited maximum levels in 2001 and minimum in 2002. Sr
89+90
was not detected from
cereals, except in 2002. In meat and fish samples, Sr
89+90
was not detected and there was
not much variation in Cs
134+13?
values. In egg samples values showed up and down trend.
Radioactivity levels in vegetables grown in the region varies with respect to Sr
89+90
and
Cs
i34+i37. The values pertaining to concentration of Sr
89+90
and Cs
134+137
in dietary items of
samples collected during 1998-2002 are indicated in Tables 2.4.8 to 2.4.12 year wise.
From these we find that no definite trend is observed in any of these samples. However,
the values recorded are much below the permissible limits. Apart from these samples,
several soil samples were collected during 1999 - 2003, from farms within 30 km from the
project site and they were analyzed by gamma ray spectrometry. Except Cs
137
no other
anthropogenic gamma emitters were detected. The mean activity due to Cs
137
in these
years was found to be 4.5 Bq/kg whereas Cs
134
and Co
60
were not detected.
2.4.8 Solid Wastes
The radioactivity in terrestrial environment due to the power plant would
significantly depend on the disposal of active materials from the plant as solid waste. The
conditioning and disposal of the solid waste is carried out with an objective to minimize
the possibility of the release of activity to the biosphere. Waste isolation depends on the
performance of the overall disposal system consisting of three major components, viz. the
waste package, including the waste form in a suitable container, the repository including
2.89
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
engineered barriers, and the host rock soil and surrounding geo-hydrological
characteristics of the site.
Initially, the existing Solid Waste Management Facility at Rawatbhata shall be
used for disposal of soild waste generated from RAPP 7 & 8. However, the Solid Waste
Management Facility for RAPP 7 & 8 will be integrated with the existing solid waste
management facility at this site. This area will be developed in stages. Presently total
quantity of radioactive solid waste generation (volume per unit) is 90.985 m
3
(2000),
95.532 m
3
(2001), and 97.327 m
3
(2002).
Types of solid wastes
Solid waste is categorized on the basis of its on contact surface radiation dose
rate and its physical characteristics. These are Category - I : Waste with surface dose rate
upto 2 mGy/h (200 mR/h) : For the purpose of segregation at source this waste is further
divided into two groups viz. compactable waste and non-compactable waste, Category-ll:
Waste with surface dose rate more than 2 mGy/h (200 mR/h) but less than 0.02 Gy/h (2
R/h) and Category -III: Waste with surface dose rate more than 0.02 Gy/h (2R/h). This
category is further sub divided into two groups viz. waste packages with surface dose rate
upto 0.5 Gy/h (50 R/h) and waste packages having surface dose rate more than 0.5 Gy/h
(50 R/h).
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. shall establish correlation factors and
periodically validate solid wastes to achieve radiochemical characterization and estimate
curie content of the wastes based on dose measurement of disposal container and actual
wet analysis data. These data will be utilized to assess the safety aspects of the waste
repository. The solid waste is expected to be free from alpha contamination. After
collection, the waste will be transported to the Waste Management Plant (WMP) building
where it is received, treated and then taken to the Solid Waste Management Facility
(SWMF) area for final storage/disposal of the solid/solidified radioactive waste.
The objective of the segregation is to segregate the category I waste into
compactable and non compactable groups. It is to be noted that, as far as possible, the
segregation of the waste will be done at the point of origin, that is at the main plant itself
to reduce unnecessary exposure/spread of contamination.
Regular analysis of radioactive waste is carried out and characterization of
radioactive solid waste is given in Table 2.4.13.
2.90
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Waste processing
For volume reduction of solid waste a hydraulic baling press with variable
compaction force upto 75 tonnes will be provided before disposal. Routine and preventive
maintenance works are carried out in waste management facilities, catering to RAPS-1 to
4. Baling machine is being operated regularly to bale compressible waste received from
RAPS 1-2 and RAPS 3-4 and it is operating satisfactorily.
Disposal
Solid wastes after treatment and conditioning will be disposed off in the Solid
Waste Management Facility area in earthen trenches/RCC trenches/vaults tile holes
depending on their surface dose rates. After filling of the trenches/vaults with waste, they
will be suitably sealed permanently with proper water proofing as per established
practices.
The dose rate on the top of the sealed earth trenches and RCC vaults would not
exceed 0.025 mGy/h (2.5 mR/h). Waste of category I will be disposed off in earth
trenches /RCC vaults trenches. Waste of category II and III solid /solidified wastes will be
disposed off in RCC vaults/ trenches. Waste packages (above 50 R/hr) will be disposed
off in tile holes.
Augmented SWMF site also will be provided with an array of bore wells to monitor
migration, if any, of the radionuclides from the facility. Provision of (i) stand pipes in RCC
- Trench walls and (ii) ground water drains off collection near and around RCC trench
bottom will be incorporated in the design of SWMF to facilitate detection of breach in
engineered barriers/migration of radio nuclides from the engineered barriers.
Similarly, need of disposal of large size contaminated components like end
fittings, end shields, etc. also will be part of the scheme for coolant channel disposal.
Scheme for disposal of any other such non routine components will be evolved and
finalized and due approval of regulatory authority will be obtained as required.
The SWMF area will be fenced and necessary access control procedures will be
established.
2.91
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.4.9 Solid Waste Management
There is already a Solid Waste Management Plant (SWAMP) set up at the site to
meet the requirement of RAPP - 1 & 2 and RAPP 3 & 4. This could be suitably
augmented to suit the needs for additional 700 MWe PHWRs units. The substrata is
rocky and water table is low. In building substructures, engineering measures such as
earth filling, consolidation, grouting etc. are required and are feasible (as has been done
for the existing units) for preventing migration of radio-nuclides. In addition bore wells are
also provided all around the structure to monitor the migration if any of radio-nuclides.
The area at SWAMP amounting to 5 ha has been earmarked for future expansion also.
This will meet the needs of RAPP - 7 & 8.
2.4.10 Land Use
In general the terrain is rocky with little soil coverage dotted by occasional shrubs
except in the monsoon when the green pastures though for short duration, do permit the
grazing of cattle.
The land within 10 km consists mainly of barren, and forest land with some small
extent of agricultural land at Tamlao village and Charbhuja village. About 30-40% of the
area falls within the waterspread of Rana Pratap Sagar. The main agricultural produce
are maize, wheat, barley and taramira. The total agricultural produce per annum is about
250 to 300 t/yr. Beyond 10 km, there is a valley in the east and fields in the north and
west where mainly rain fed crops are grown at a few places. Where the reservoir or well
waters are available, other crops and vegetables are also produced to a limited extent.
The area is sparsely populated with average population distribution of 60
persons/sq.km. In the 30 km radial distance of RAPP, There is negligible population
within 5 km radial distance from RAPP. There is no population within 1.6 km exclusion
zone around RAPP site. Even upto 15 km total population is only 60000 as per 1991
census and majority of this about 36000 is in NNW sector comprising mainly of
Rawatbhata (Bhaba Nagar) at about 6 km from RAPP.
2.4.10.1 Landuse Pattern Study Using Remote Sensing Data
The traditional techniques for mapping the landuse ranging from sample surveys
to systematic total area surveys are generally expensive and time consuming to follow
desired schedules and susceptible to human factors. Again, it's not possible to map the
landuse landcover of the previous dates due to non-availability of archived data. Hence,
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
use of remote sensing data becomes much more beneficial.
The different features on earth's surface reflect different amount of
electromagnetic radiations depending upon their physical and chemical properties.
Remote sensing is an art and science of obtaining information of a distant object without
actually coming in contact with that object. In satellite based remote sensing, the energy
reflected by earth-based objects, called spectral response (signature) is picked up by
sensors onboard the space platform and transmitted back and employed to generate
corresponding data products. The data gives multi-spectral, synoptic and repetitive
images of the study area, which can in combination of limited ground truth, be used
effectively to map the landuse/landcover of the region and is computer compatible for
quick and accurate digital analysis.
Data Used
Four spectral bands provide for high degree of measurability through band
combinations including False Colour Composite (FCC) generation, band ratioing,
classification etc. These features of the IRS data are of particular importance in better
comprehension and delineation of the landuse classes. Therefore, IRS LISS-III data has
been used for landuse mapping. The good quality cloud free Remote Sensing (RS) data
of appropriate season covering the study area are chosen with reference to climate of the
area and was purchased from NRSA, Hyderabad. The details are:
Satellite IRS-P6
Sensor LISS-III
Path 95
Row 54
Date of Pass 18
th
February 2004
The spatial resolution and the spectral bands in which LISS III collects the
reflectance data are two important parameters for landuse delineation. Keeping these
things in mind the IRS P6 LISS III data which consists of the reflectance in four different
bands with the spatial resolution of 23.5 m and swath of 148 km has been selected.
2.93
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Wavelengths EMR Region
0.52 to 0.59 urn Green
0.62 to 0.68 urn Red
0.77 to 0.86 (am NIR
1.55 to 1.70 nm SWIR
The following secondary data was used.
Secondary data Source
Toposheets 45 P/5, 45 P/9, 45 O/8, 45 0/12, 45 O/16
Scale 1:50,000
Methodology
Digital Image Processing software ERDAS/lmagine (Ver. 8.5) on SILCON
GRAPHICS (UNIX) workstation and PC was used for Remote Sensing data analysis.
The data from CD is loaded on the hard disc and the quality checked to ensure for
clouds cover, stripping land dropouts etc. Further by studying the sampled image the sub
scene with the study area coverage is extracted. Standard false color composite (FCC)
was generated by assigning red, green and blue colours to NR, Red and Green
reflectances respectively. In order to enhance the contrast of the image for recognition of
different landuse/landcover types the actual gray levels were stretched linearly between
levels 0 to 255. The shapes, sizes and colours of several geomorphic and cultural
features are visible in FCC.
By virtue of perturbations in altitude and velocity of the satellite and simultaneous
movement and unevenness of earth surface; geometric distortions are incorporated in the
raw satellite data. The systematic distortions as that due to earth curvature and
unevenness are corrected by applying formulae derived by modeling the sources of
distortions mathematically. But in order to achieve better plannimetric accuracy for the
image, ground control points (GCPs) are identified and collected both on image and
toposheet, after acquiring a good amount of GCPs well distributed over all the area of
image, it is registered to achieve one to one correspondence between image and
toposheet. The image was georeferenced by image-to-image rectification. Afterwards the
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
area of interest was extracted.
Supervised classification using all the spectral bands can separate different
landuse classes at level II fairly accurately. Maximum likelihood algorithm has been used
for the classification of Remote sensing data. Separation of landuses with identical
spectral signatures is possible through stratification, which comprises of extraction of
areas using mask, classification separately under mask and forming appropriate
composites. The classification process involves three steps viz.
• Acquisition of ground truth
• Calculation of the statistics of training area
• Classification using maximum likelihood algorithm
Reject class has been minimized by interactive iteration through careful selection
of the training areas. The collateral information has been used through referential
refinement. Area statistics for different landuse categories has been generalized and
pseudo-colored classified images were recorded photographically.
Land Use Classification
The training area for classification was homogenous well spread out throughout
the scene with bordering pixels excluded in processing several training sets have been
used through the scene from similar land use classes. After evaluating the statistics
parameters of training sets, the training areas were rectified by deleting non congruous
training sets and creating new ones. Area statistics for different land use categories have
been generated on the final output.
The landuse/land cover classification system standardized by department of
space, for mapping different agro-climatic zones has been adopted (Table 2.4.14). In the
present case the classification system has major six classes:
1) Agricultural land: this comprises areas primarily used for raising agricultural crops,
fibre, vegetables fruits, cultivated fodder and other plant material of medicinal and
commercial value. Three classes viz., cropland, fallows and plantation are
included under this category. Cropland are sub classified as kharif, rabi, kharif +
rabi. Agriculature land from other categories that are dominated by vegetative
community.
2.95
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2) Wasteland: Land having potential for the development of vegetation cover but not
being used due to constraints includes salt effected land, eroded land and
waterlogged area. Level II classes identified under this category are salt affected
land, marshy/swampy land, and gullied/ravenous land, land with or without scrub,
sandy area, and barren rocky/stony waste/sheet rock area.
3) Water bodies: area persistently covered by water such as rivers/streams
reservoirs/tanks, lakes/ponds and canals.
4) Built up land: This comprises area of land covered by structures.
5) Forest: Forest is defined as all lands bearing vegeatative association dominated
by trees of any size, exploited or not, capable of producing wood or other forest
products and exerting an influence on climate or water regimes, or providing
shelter for wildlife and live stock.
6) Others: are included shifting cultivation, grass land/grazing land, snow
covered/glacial areas.
The above six classes can be seen in the classified output. The color coded output
shows different type of landuse. In this image, colors are assigned to various classes
given in the legend. The coverage of road overlaid on the classified output.
Plate I
Plate I is the False Color Composite (FCC) image having 25 km radius distance
from study area. The interpretation of the FCC was carried out using the various image
interpretation keys such as tone, colour, size, shape, texture, pattern, and association of
the various landuse and land cover classes present in the study regions. In the image
vegetation (cropland) appears red, water bodies as blue/dull green, barren land appear in
different shades of blue /black. Rivers appear in black wherever they contain water;
otherwise they are whitish in appearance. The barren sandy areas are distinct by their
characteristic white colour throughout the FCC. In this FCC there are two types of
signatures in the vegetation i.e. cropland which is clearly seen having red and pinkish red
color tone. Forest area is covered in the western side of study area.
Plate II
Plate II is the classified image having 25-km radius distance and its surrounding
area. The color-coded output shows 25 Sq. km area. In this image, colors are assigned
2.96
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
to various classes given in legend for study area.
The land use/ landcover classification indicates agriculture land covered 17.43%
(comprising 4.44% area covered by cropland, fallow land covered an area of 12.99%),
34.51% area is covered by forest, wasteland covered an area is 39.84% (comprising
16.78% area covered by Barren land, 14.91% area covered by land with scrub & 8.15%
area covered by waterlogged land), 8.22% covered by water body including river etc.
(Table 2.4.15).
2.97
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
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2.98
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
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2.99
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
LEGEND
A Sampling Location
Tar Road
Earthern Road
E^^^^^j Rana Pratap Sagar
Figure 2 .4.1: Sampling Locations for Land Environment
2.100
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Percent Sand
Figure 2.4.2 : Textural Diagram for Soil Composition
2.101
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.1
Details of Soil Sampling Locations within the Study Area
Sr. No. Sampling Location Distance (km) from Direction
Plant Site
1 Tamlao 6.7 W
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
7
8
10.5
12
12
12.5
13
13
17.5
18
18
19
21
25.5
E
E
W
N
NW
SW
SW
N
S
NW
NE
E
ES
NE
2.102
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.2
Physical Characteristics of Soils Within Study Area (Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Sampling Location
Tamlao
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
Particle Size Distribution
Coarse Fine . . .
0/ C | 0/
Sand% Sand%
S l l t / o C l a y / o
30
34
20
6
10
39
5
19
14
15
16
13
22
16
7
34
20
37
37
40
31
27
45
25
37
22
30
25
28
36
21
30
8
37
30
18
50
14
45
30
31
30
37
43
38
16
16
35
20
20
12
18
21
16
18
31
27
16
15
19
Textural
Class
Sandy clay
loam
Sandy loam
Sandy clay
loam
Loam
Loam
Sandy loam
Silt loam
Clay
Loam
Clay
Loam
Clay
Clay
Loam
Loam
Bulk
Density
(gm/cm
3
)
1.44
1.44
1.49
1.42
1.45
1.50
1.54
1.40
1.39
1.43
1.51
1.43
1.42
1.44
1.41
Porosity
(%)
41.4
46.4
45.6
46.8
48.2
45.9
52.6
45.0
51.2
32.4
49.8
44.9
45.4
51.4
45.3
Water
Holding
Capacity
(%)
32.4
39.2
33.5
38.4
32.7
34.8
39.9
33.4
43.3
22.5
36.5
33.6
34.8
41.8
32.4
2.103
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.3
Chemical Characteristics of Soil - Water (1:1) Extract (Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Sampling
Location
Tamlao
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
PH
8.6
7.9
7.7
8.7
7.0
7.5
8.7
7.2
8.0
6.6
7.7
7.9
7.8
7.9
8.4
EC
mS/cm
1.3
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.35
0.2
0.25
0.2
0.35
0.2
0.5
0.4
0.25
Ca
++
9.0
1.9
1.7
1.6
2.1
2.4
2.5
1.5
2.5
0.8
2.2
0.8
3.7
3.2
3.2
Mg
+ +
meq/l
1.9
3.7
0.9
2.4
3.1
0.1
1.8
0.9
0.7
1.5
2.1
0.9
1.0
0.1
0.5
Na
+
8.0
1.1
0.8
7.6
6.9
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.8
0.1
0.8
0.4
1.1
1.4
1.8
K
+
3.6
0.2
0.1
1.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.05
0.2
0.06
0.1
0.2
0.7
0.1
2.1
EC : Electrical Conductivity
2.104
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.4
Cation Exchange Capacity of Soil in Study Area (Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Sampling
Location
Tamlao
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
Ca
2 +
23.0
11.7
13.3
5.5
12.0
13.1
21.1
10.1
30.6
4.2
16.3
15.8
20.6
26.6
33.5
Mg
2 +
2.1
2.6
1.6
7.1
14.1
3.4
2.1
0.9
5.6
3.3
5.2
5.2
1.0
3.6
2.8
Na+
meq/100
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
K+
gm
0.19
0.13
0.08
0.25
0.09
0.17
0.09
0.06
0.13
0.02
0.06
0.14
0.16
0.08
0.19
CEC
29.9
17.4
24.5
16.5
32.9
19.2
28.6
19.8
40.6
9.4
23.9
30.4
34.3
36.9
27.6
ESP
%
1.5
2.4
1.5
3.9
1.2
2.9
1.5
1.5
1.1
2.6
1.5
1.1
1.0
1.4
1.9
CEC : Cation Exchange Capacity
ESP : Exchangeable Sodium Percentage
2.105
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.5
Fertility Status of Soils in Study Area (Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Sampling
Location
Tamlao
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
Level in poor soil
Level in Medium soil
Level in fertile soil
Organic
Matter (%)
1.2
1.06
0.9
0.4
1.2
0.8
1.5
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.3
1.2
1.2
<0.5
0.5-0.75
>0.75
N
50.2
50.9
29.1
30.6
43.7
33.5
40.8
32.8
38.5
29.1
30.7
45.2
46.6
32.8
59.8
<280
280-560
>560.0
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
42.9
2.4
1.2
13.1
3.6
10.7
3.6
3.6
9.5
4.8
3.6
3.6
23.8
ND
38.1
<23
23-57
>57.0
K
2
O
374.3
21.8
15.6
124.7
26.9
28.1
28.1
6.2
24.9
7.2
12.5
28.1
90.4
12.8
262.0
<133
133-337
>337.0
ND - Not detected
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NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.6
Heavy Metals in Soil Samples (Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Sampling
Location
Tamlao
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
Cd
0.24
0.58
0.30
0.45
0.55
0.35
0.26
0.09
0.54
0.2
0.5
3.3
0.36
0.56
0.33
Cr
1.2
2.1
2.52
3.9
2.6
1.6
3.7
9.8
2.7
0.75
3.6
3.5
3.70
3.36
1.1
Co
4.8
11.5
7.6
8.7
10.7
7.6
5.4
11.0
12.3
4.0
11.7
13.6
10.2
11.7
6.4
Cu Ni
(mg/100g)
1.2
1.1
1.7
10.1
2.4
1.3
4.7
1.2
3.1
0.6
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.9
1.9
1.1
3.6
1.3
2.9
2.9
1.9
1.3
1.7
2.9
0.9
2.5
3.4
1.6
3.3
1.9
Pb
2.7
7.1
4.5
5.4
6.1
3.9
2.7
4.2
4.9
2.1
4.7
7.3
2.9
6.3
4.2
Mn
15.9
80.6
22.4
34.9
35.6
28.2
5.1
26.3
45.1
15.2
48.4
55.1
36.3
41.8
31.4
Zn
2.5
2.9
2.7
3.9
3.1
3.5
8.6
1.7
4.8
0.9
2.5
2.8
3.6
3.9
4.6
2.107
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.7
Microbiological Characteristics of Soil (Summer 2003)
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
TVC
CFU
ND:
Sampling
Location
Tamlao
Saddle dam
Chainpura
Jharjhani
Bhainsroadgarh
Kolipura
Aklingpura
Ambabadi
Jaora
Barkheda
Borabas
Sripura
Nalikheda
Udpura
Borav
TVC
94x10
5
237 x10
5
102 x10
5
188 x10
5
150 x10
5
210 x10
5
80 x 10
5
238 x10
5
87x10
5
62x10
5
116 x10
5
217 x10
5
138 x10
5
162 x10
5
137 x10
5
: Total Viable Count
: Colony Forming Unit
Not detected
Fungi
8x10'
9x10'
7x10'
12x10'
8x10'
18x10
3
6x10
3
21x10'
9x10
3
11 x 10
3
6x10'
17x10'
10x10'
8x10'
7x10'
Actinomycetes
CFU/g of soil
ND
3x10'
3x10
3
3x10'
2x10'
10x10'
6x10'
4x10'
3x10'
ND
4x10'
1 x10
3
5x10
3
2x10
3
5x10'
Rhizobium
4x10
3
ND
1 x10
3
1 x10
3
1 x10
3
3x10
3
3x10
3
6 x 1 0 '
ND
ND
2 x 1 0 '
ND
6x10
3
2x10
3
2x10
3
Azotobacter
8x10
3
7x10
3
4x 10'
4x10
3
4x10
3
18x10
3
7x10
3
19x10
3
5x 10
3
7x10
3
9x 10
3
8x10
3
15 x 10
3
7x10
3
12x10
3
2.108
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.8
Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples collected
Around RAPP Environment During 1998
Dietary Item
Vegetables
Milk
Cereals
Pulses
Meat
Fish
Egg
Diet
Radionuclides
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
No. of
Total
Samples
22
22
12
12
10
10
10
10
4
4
10
10
5
5
4
4
Samples
BDL
22
0
11
ND
10
ND
10
ND
4
ND
10
ND
5
ND
3
1
Concentration
Max.
mBq/l or kg
ND
626
167
648
ND
1647
ND
2497
ND
408
ND
890
ND
1143
121
405
Average
or diet sample
ND
327
37
265
ND
920
ND
1778
ND
352
ND
523
ND
660
72
252
Source : BARC, Mumbai
2.109
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.9
Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples collected
Around RAPP Environment During 1999
Dietary Item
Vegetables
Milk
Cereals
Pulses
Meat
Fish
Egg
Diet
Radionuclides
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
No. of
Total
Samples
24
24
12
12
10
10
10
10
4
4
12
12
4
4
4
4
Samples
BDL
24
0
11
0
10
0
10
0
4
0
12
0
4
0
4
0
Concentration
Max.
mBq/l or kg
ND
1560
53
667
ND
1340
ND
3000
ND
ND
ND
1769
ND
ND
ND
ND
Average
or diet sample
ND
456
ND
267
ND
987
ND
2276
ND
ND
ND
715
ND
ND
ND
ND
Source: BARC, Mumbai
2.110
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.10
Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples collected
Around RAPP Environment During 2000
Dietary Item
Vegetables
Milk
Cereals
Pulses
Meat
Fish
Egg
Diet
Radionuclides
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
No. of
Total
Samples
27
27
12
12
13
13
10
10
4
4
12
12
4
4
4
4
Samples
BDL
26
0
12
0
13
0
10
0
4
0
12
0
4
0
4
0
Concentration
Max.
mBq/l or kg
131
1043
ND
449
ND
1846
ND
3325
ND
274
ND
490
ND
900
ND
938
Average
or diet sample
34
290
ND
225
ND
883
ND
2137
ND
231
ND
280
ND
757
ND
451
Source: BARC, Mumbai
2.111
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2 .4.11
Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples collected
Around RAPP E nv ironment During 2 001
Dietary Item
Vegetables
Milk
Cereals
Pulses
Meat
Fish
Egg
Diet
Radionuclides
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
No. of
Total
Samples
23
23
12
12
11
11
12
12
4
4
12
12
4
4
4
4
Samples
BDL
20
0
11
0
11
0
12
0
4
0
11
0
4
0
4
0
Concentration
Max.
mBq/l or kg
526
878
43
554
ND
2313
ND
3901
ND
667
341
1027
ND
1255
ND
847
Average
or diet sample
66
339
ND
304
ND
885
ND
1673
ND
427
ND
501
ND
1009
ND
725
Source: BARC, Mumbai
2.112
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.12
Concentration of Sr
89+90
& Cs
134+137
in Dietary Items of Samples collected
Around RAPP Environment During 2002
Dietary Item
Vegetables
Milk
Cereals
Pulses
Meat
Fish
Egg
Diet
Radionuciides
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
Sr-89+90
Cs-134+137
No. of
Total
Samples
24
24
11
11
11
11
12
12
4
4
12
12
4
4
4
4
Samples
BDL
24
3
11
1
10
1
12
0
4
0
12
0
4
0
4
0
Concentration
Max.
mBq/l or kg
ND
820
ND
307
870
1212
ND
3186
ND
609
ND
1199
ND
1696
ND
657
Average
or diet sample
ND
301
ND
160
171
615
ND
1355
ND
409
ND
441
ND
939
ND
455
Source : BARC, Mumbai
2.1
NEER!
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.13
Characterization of Radioactive Solid Waste at SWAMP RAPS
Waste
Materials
SEF/LEMP
sludges
IX columns
(PHT)
IX columns
(Moderator)
IX columns
(SFSB clean-
up)
Spent resin
(D
2
O clean-
up)
Compressible
waste
Non comp.
Waste
Suspected
active waste
Moleculer
sieves
Organic
liquids
Filter (PHT &
gland)
Filter
(Absolute)
Filter (liq.
Eff.)
Bulk
Density
( Kg /m
f
)
2000
1500-2000
1500-2000
1500-2000
800-2000
300-500
500-3000
300-3000
300-400
800
600
150-180
500-600
Av. Volume
Generated
Per Year
(m
3
)
5.6
4.0
2.0
1.0
10.0
15.8
138.0
13.2
5.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0.1
Activity
Contents
mCi/m
3
10-30
100-5000
20-500
150-500
20-50
2-30
2-30
1-5
1-1
(Other than
H
3
)
1-1
(Other than
H
3
)
100-300
10-30
10-30
Radiation Field
mR/hr
Min.
2
250
300
700
100
1
1
0.1
10
1.5
750
2
2
Max.
30
700000
70000
70000
7000
20
200
2
20
1.0
50000
10
10
Major
Radionuclides
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Zn
6 5
, Sr
90
H
3
, Cs
137
, Cs
134
,
Co
60
, Ce
i4A
H
3
Co
6
°Nb
9 5
, Zr
9 5
,
Cr
S i
, Zn
d 5
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Ce
1 4 4
, Nb
9 5
, Zr
9 5
,
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Zn
6 5
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Zn
6 5
, H
3
.
Cs
137
, Cs
134
. Co
60
,
Zn
6 5
, H
3
, Sr
90
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Zn
6 5
, Sr
90
, Fe
69
H
3
H
3
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Ce ^ . Nb ^ Zr ^ H
3
,
Mn
54
, Fe
59
, Ba
ui
,
La
140
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Cs
137
, Cs
134
, Co
60
,
Zn
6 5
, Sr
90
,
Note : No significant alpha activity is present in RAPS or RAPPCOF Waste
SEF : Solar evaporation facility
LEMP : Liquid effluent management plant
2.114
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.14
Landuse / Land Cover Classification System
Sr. No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Level -1
Built-up Land
Agricultural Land
Forest
Wasteland
Water bodies
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.6
5.1
Level - II
Built-up land
Road
Railway
Crop land
Fallow (Residual)
Plantation
Evergreen/Semi-evergreen forest
Deciduous forest
Degraded/Scrub land
Forest blank
Forest plantation
Mangrove
Salt affected land
Waterlogged land
Marshy/Swampy land
Gullied/Ravenous land
Land with or without scrub
Sandy area (coastal and desertic)
Barren rocky/Stony
waste/sheetrock area
River/Stream
6. Others
5.2 Lake/Reservoir
5.3 Tank/Canal
6.1 Grassland/Grazing land
6.2 Shifting cultivation
6.3 Snow cover/Glacial area
2.115
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.4.15
Landuse / Landcover
Landuse/Landcover
Classes
Water bodies/river
Cropland
Fallow
Forest
Land with scrub
Barren land
Waterlogged area
Total
Area in
(ha)
16137.10
8723.76
25510.47
67744.54
29274.87
32950.95
16007.85
196349.54
Level II
Area in
%
8.22
4.44 "I
12.99 j
34.51
14.91 ~\
16.78
8.15 I
100
Level I
Area in
%
8.22
> 17.43
34.51
> 39.84
100
2.H6
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.5 Biological Environment
2.5.1 Introduction
Study of biological environment is one of the most important aspects for
Environmental Impact Assessment, in view of the need for conservation of environmental
quality and biodiversity. Generally, biological communities are the good indicators of
climatic and edaphic factors. Studies on biological aspects of ecosystems are important
in Environmental Impact Assessment for safety of natural flora and fauna.
The animal and plant communities exist in their natural habitats in well-organized
manner. Their natural settings can be disturbed by any externally induced anthropological
activities or by naturally induced calamities or disaster. So, once this setting is disturbed,
it becomes practically impossible or takes very long time to come to its original state.
Plants and animals are more susceptible to environmental stress. A change in the
composition of biotic communities is reflected by a change in the distribution pattern,
density, diversity, frequency, dominance and abundance of natural species of flora and
fauna existing in the ecosystem. The sensitivity of animal and plant species to the
changes occurring in their existing ecosystem can therefore, be used for monitoring
Environmental Impact Assessment studies of any project.
2.5.2 Study Area
According to the Forest Department statistics, Rajasthan State possess 32309 sq.
km. of forest area (1999), out of this 11780.66 sq. km. of forest, 17604 sq. km. protected
forests and 2925 sq. km. unclassified forests. The total percentage of forest covered area
in Rajasthan as compared to other states is comparatively less yet as regards vividity and
percentage of animals, it ranks second to Assam. The study area was taken for
assessment of terrestrial ecology of flora and fauna with reference to the 25-km radius of
proposed nuclear power plant units 7 & 8. Total four districts comes under the study area
namely Kota, Bundi, Bhilwara and Chittorgharh. Forest cover is available in the districts
of Bundi (1496 sq.krn) and Kota (1391 sq.km).
2.5.3 Sampling Locations
A total 7 sampling locations were selected for study on biological aspects based
on topography, land use, vegetation pattern, etc. The field observations on vegetation
characteristics were made using quadrat method. The sampling locations are depicted in
Table 2 .5 .1. The biological observations were taken within 25 km radial distance from the
2.117
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
project site The biological survey was carried out in forest area (village forest, and
community forest), and non-forest area (agricultural field, riverside, on hills, in plain
areas, village wasteland, etc.) as per the objectives of Environmental Impact
Assessment during winter season in the month of September 2003. Efforts were also
made to collect secondary data from various Government departments, project authority,
etc to substantiate primary data. Sampling locations are shown in Fig. 2.5.1
2.5.4 Survey Methodology
The structure and composition of vegetation and forest cover was studied by
using phyto-sociological method of vegetation survey especially the quadrat method. The
quadrat method includes laying down of square sample plots or units of suitable size for
detailed analysis of vegetation. It is actually the sample plot method given by Clements
(1898). It may be a single sample plot or may be divided into several subplots. In
vegetation analysis, quadrat of any size, shape, number and arrangement may be used.
In the study of a forest community, quadrates equivalent to one tenth ha (10m x 10m)
were used to include maximum number of trees. While for studying shrubs the quadrates
of smaller sizes (8m x 8m) were used and for grassland and low herbaceous community,
the quadrates of one square meter size were used for the study. Coexistence and
competition among and within the species are affected directly by the number of
individuals in the community. Therefore, it is essential to know the quantitative structure
of community. Certain important parameters are used to characterize the community as a
whole. The parameters like frequency, density, abundance, Importance Value Index and
Simpson's Diversity Index give a clear picture of community structure in quantitative
terms. The value of these parameters as estimated from the representative samples is
the estimate close to the real value. The formulae incorporating different parameters,
which were used for analysis and assessment of the baseline terrestrial environmental
status, are presented in Table 2.5.2
To characterize the vegetation in the study area, the data was collected and
analyzed for describing the properties of vegetation with reference to species
composition and structural attributes expressed. The diversity measurements reflect as to
how many diverse species are present in the area. The density measurements indicate
number of individuals of a species in a sample plot. The dominance measurements
denote which species is largest in terms of its presence. The frequency measurements
indicate how widely a species is distributed or occurred.
2. 118
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
The density measurements may over-emphasize the importance of a small
species with large number of individuals in unit area. The frequency measurements over
emphasize the importance of largely distributed species and underestimate the sparsely
distributed species. Therefore, Importance Value Index, which is the average of relative
density, relative dominance and relative frequency, is a reasonable measure to assess
the overall significance of a species in the community.
Species diversity is the best measure of community structure. It is sensitive to
environmental stresses that affect the community. Lower value of Simpson's Diversity
Index indicates higher biodiversity & healthy ecosystem and the higher value shows
lower biodiversity & that an ecosystem is under environmental stress.
The assessment of fauna have been done on the basis of secondary data
collected from different government departments like forest department, wildlife
department, fisheries, etc.
2.5.5 Biodiversity in Study Area
Under broad category the forest are "Dry Tropical Forest". According to the
classification of forest type of India by H.G. Champion and S.K. Seth, the forest met
within the tract fall under sub group 5-B-Northern Tropical Dry deciduous forest is found
on plateau and edaphic type E-1 Anogeissus pendula forest is found on hill slopes and
underlying grounds, patches of edaphic type E2 Boswellia Forest are also found on
plateau where soil depth is low.
On higher slopes Dhaura is the most characteristic species along with Tendu,
Belli, Salar, Gurjan, Khair, Karaya etc. on dry and exposed sites on steep slopes, along
the ridges and spaces and also on higher plateaus the proportion of Dhaura and other
miscellaneous species decreases and almost pure patches of Salar and Gurjan are
found. On lower elevations, along Nallas and depressions and on river beds Khankara,
ber, Khair, Jamun, Kalam, Mahua, Arjun, Bahera, Sadan, Amm etc. are found. Bans
(Dendrocalamous strictus) occurs along some of the slopes facing the Chambal River.
During the floristic survey of study area of proposed project, a total of 76 plant
species were recorded belonging to 30 families out of which only 29 families are of dicots
whereas the rest belongs to monocots. A total of 42 tree species, 34 shrub, herb and
climbers were recorded from the study area. The list of common plant species (trees,
shrubs, herbs, climbers and grasses) recorded during field survey are depicted in
Table 2.5.3
2.119
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Dominant families recorded in the study area in descending order (based on
number of species in each family) are Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Verbenaceae,
Combretaceae, Urticaceae, Malvaceae, Rubiaceae, Acanthaceae, etc. The families with
their number of species in the study area are depicted in Table 2.5.4
Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) of the plants in the study area, which is based on
the number of individuals of different species, number of all species and the total number
of individuals of all species in the sample plots is presented in Table 2.5.5.
Biodiversity of trees is comparatively good at various places where the area is
suitable for their growth. Study area shows the different density of flora as per the climatic
conditions and suitable habitat. The details of density per ha are shown in Table 2.5.6.
2.5.6 Floristic Structure and Composition
2.5.6.1 Bhainsroadgarh
Herbs and shrubs are abundant only during monsoon, where as, rest of the year,
when the land turn dry, it can not sustain the life activity of younger plants, hence it dries,
withers and wipes away from the vicinity. Lianas & climbing shrubs are few. Frequency of
these climbers are more around the villages, but lianas are restricted only to dense
vegetation localities with species encompassing, Crotolaria oroensis, Tinospora
cordifolia, Mucuna prarita ,Abrus precatorius etc
The most dominant tree species are Azadirachta indica, Acacia leucophloea,
Acacia catechu, Emblica officinalis, Mangifera indica, Flacourtia indica, and in case of
shrubs Antigonum leptopus, Ricinus communis, Lantana camara, Jatropha gossipifolia,
Cassia auriculata etc.
The values of density/ha, relative density, frequency, relative frequency,
dominance, relative dominance and importance value index for dominant flora present
within 16 km of project site is given in Table 2.5.7.
The phyto-socio-ecological structure of the vegetation shows three different strata
i.e. Top, Middle and Ground. Top storey is covered by Terminalia tomentosa,
Actinodaphne hookeri, Ailanthus excelsa, Bauhinia racemosa, Cassia siamea, Syzygium
cumini, etc., Acacia concinna, Capparis sepiaria,, Jasminum auriculatum etc. forms
middle storey of this region. Ground vegetation covered by dominant herbs are Cynodon
dactylon, Aerva lanata, Vernonia cineria, Ludwigia parviflora, etc. Climbers are
comparatively few but include large woody species, which may be locally conspicuous.
2.120
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
A total 34 tree species, 19 shrub species and 26 herb species were recorded
during field study. Density of all plant species present within the 16 km radius is 475/ha
for trees, 6133/ha for shrubs and 7118/ha for herbs. Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) for
trees of this area is (0.014), while (0.025) and (0.025) for shrubs and herbs respectively.
The genera dominating the flora with large number of species are Anogeissus latifolia,
Bauhinia, Albizzia, etc. Endangered, rare and vulnerable species were not observed in
study area.
2.5.6.2 Jawahar Sagar
Distribution of incidental species is found in all the strata and life forms. Strata-
wise and species-wise tree types are numbered as 32 and they occur in both the top,
middle and lower lower order canopies, according to their age and growth. Shrub species
are numbered 23 and the ground cover is mainly contributed by seasonal herbs, (annual,
biennial) with some perennial forms, accounting to 45 species. In some patches pure
even aged Bamboo plantation were also observed. The height of culm varies from 7-10m
and girth varies from 0.15-0.30m.
Jawahar Sagar Dam was erected in the south of Kota city 16 km away a pick -up
dam which receives water from Gandhi Sagar and Rana Pratap Sagar dams. Except Kota
barrage, all the other dams have canals and distributaries along with their own power
houses. As a result, irrigational facilities in the districts of Kota Baran and Bundi have
increased tremendously. The project provides irrigational facilities to approximately
4.5 lakh hectares of land and generates 386 megawatt power.
The most common and valuable species found in these forests is Kaldhi
(Anogeissus pendula), which is generally found on all hilly areas and form almost pure
stands of uniform density on good sites. Kaldhi is generally slow growing, but trees upto
one metre girth and upto 12 metres height are not uncommon in favourable localities. At
places where the species have been continuously hacked and grazed it is found as a
scrambling bush. Over some areas the Kaldhi forests have been maltreatd in the past
leaving them in a degraded conditions and in extreme cases the areas have been
rendered completely blank.
Simpson's Diversity Index for trees in the area is 0.016, while 0.024 and 0.034 for
shrubs and herbs respectively.
Total density of all plant species present in the study area is 335/ ha for trees,
6133/ha for shrubs and 6715/ha for herbs.
2.121
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
The density and composition of vegetation changes with change in locations.
Grasses mainly cover open degraded land in the study area. Herbs and shrubs are
abundant only during monsoon, whereas during rest of the year when the land turn dry,
herbs can not survive and become dry, wither and get wiped away from the vicinity. The
composition of vegetation cover is uneven-aged, dry, mixed, deciduous natural forests.
Herbs and shrubs mainly occupy the ground cover and the canopy of trees forms top
story. Regeneration of herbs in this area is more than shrubs and trees.
The values of density/ha, relative density, frequency, relative frequency,
dominance, relative dominance and importance value index for dominant flora present in
plain area (Within 30 km) of project site is given in Table 2.5.8
The phytosociological structure of the forest shows three different strata i.e. Top,
Middle and Ground. Top storey covered by Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Albizzia
lebbek, Dendrocalamus strictus, Bauhinia racemosa, Cassia fistula, Anogeissus pendula,
Eucalyptus hybrid, Madhuca latifolia, etc. Calotropls gigantia, Calotropis procera, Cassia
occidentalis, Lantana camara, Opuntia dileni, Caesalpinia bonducella, Solanam hispidum,
Thespesia lampas, Indigofera tinctoria etc. forms middle storey of this region. Ground
vegetation covered by dominant herbs are Aerva lanata, Coccinia indica, Chenopodium
album, Tephrosia purpurea, Tridax procumbans Croton sparciflors, Boerhaavia diffusa,
etc.
2.5.6.3 Borabas
The most common and valuable species found in the forests is Kaldhi
(Anogeissus pendulata ) which is generally found on all hilly areas and form almost pure
stands of uniform density on good sites. Kaldhi is generally slow growing, but tree upto
one metre girth and upto 12 metres height are not uncommon in favorable localities. At
places where the species has been continuously hacked and grazed it is round as a
scrambling bush. Over some areas the Kaldhi forests have been maltreated in the past
leaving them in a degraded conditions and in extreme cases the areas have been
rendered completely blank.
Kaldhi is mostly gregarious but is also found mixed with Khair (Acacia catechu),
Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), Kakor (Flacourtia indica), Raunj (Acacia leucophloea), Tendu
(Diospyros melanoxylon), Gurjan (Lannea coromandelica), Karaya (Sterculia urens),
Jhinja, (Bauhinia recemosa), kalam (Mitragyna parvifolia), etc. On higher slopes Kaldhi is
replaced by safed dhokra (Anogeissus latifolia), bel (Aegle marmelos), salar (Boswellia
serrata), uum (Meliusa tomentosa), shisham (Dalbergia latifolia), etc. and other
2.122
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
associates. Small patches in most localities support miscellaneous species particularly
chbola (Butea monosperma) and Ber (Zizyphus mauratiana).
Dhokra mostly occurs in gregarious form and where over it is found mixed with
other species, the top canopy consists mainly of Dhokra mixed with Khair, Ber, Kakon.
The under growth consists mainly of goya khair (Dichristschya cinerarea), Jhari
ber (Zizyphus nummularia), Kalisiali (Grewia flavescens), Siali (Flueggea macrocarpa),
mererphali (Helicteres iora), harsinghar (Nictanthes arbortris), Hingot (Balanites
aegyptica), Karwale (Wrightia tomentosa), and Jal (Capparis spinosa).
The Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) of the trees in whole project area is 0.42,
which shows the medium diversity of trees because of diverse habitat conditions however
localized diversity is less at different sites
Bamboos of the species Dendrocalamus strictus are found in the miscellaneous
forests in places where moisture conditions are favorable. They are found usually along
nalas, and in patches along nalas and the slopes of Darrah hills as well on the slopes
along the Chambal River in Borabas block
The floral community parameters i.e. values of density per ha, relative density,
frequency, relative frequency, dominance, relative dominance and importance value
index for most dominant flora are presented in Table 2.5.9.
Different tree types are numbered as 39 and they occur in the top, middle and
lower order canopies, according to their age and growth. Shrub species are numbered
22 (listed as shrubs, climbing shrubs and under shrub along with the climbers) and
seasonal herbs (annual, biennial) mainly cover the ground cover with some perennial
forms, accounting to 32 species.
Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) for trees in study area is observed to be 0.020,
while 0.033 and 0.031 for shrubs and herbs respectively.
Total density of all plant species present is 531 / ha for trees, 5733/ ha for shrubs
and 8000/ ha for herbs.
2.5.6.4 Gandhi Sagar
The vegetation in this region had been over-exploited in the past, therefore,
condition is observed to be degraded presently. Seasonal grasses mainly cover open
degraded land. Most of the vegetation aggregates near village and in agricultural fields.
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
The average height of trees is found to be 7 m, girth 25-35 cm and age around 20-60
years, depending upon type of species and site quality.
The values of density/ha, relative density, frequency, relative frequency,
dominance, relative dominance and importance value index for dominant flora present
around riverine site is given in Table 2.5.10
The phytosociological structure of the forest shows three different strata i.e. Top,
Middle and Ground. Top storey covered by Holoptella integrifolia, Boswellia serrata, Ficus
benghalensis, Mangifera indica, Bauhinia racemosa, Tamarindus indica, Jatropha
gossipifolia etc. Calotropis procera, Caesalpinia cristata, Ricinus communs, Solarium
hispidum etc. forms middle storey of this region. Ground vegetation covered by dominant
herbs are Cynodon dactylon, Croton sparciflorus, Chenopodium album, Boerhaavia
diffusa, Lawsonia inermis etc.
During field study total 43 tree species, 26 shrub species and 25 herb species
were recorded. Simpson's Diversity Index for trees of this region is 0.026 while 0.024 and
0.034 for shrubs and herbs respectively. Total density of all plant species present in this
area is 324/ha for trees, 3508/ha for shrubs and 9333/ha for herbs.
2.5.6.5 Aklingpura
This is almost a plain tract where vegetation cover is thin in some patches and
there is xerophytic scrub vegetation cover The vegetation cover in this region consists of
un-even aged, mixed, dry deciduous species. The density and diversity varies with
change in site quality. Vegetation is extremely irregular and varying considerably in
condition, composition, and density of tree, shrub and herb species according to the
climatic condition and available space for their growth and development.
Generally trees observed here have low stunted branches, diffuse crown and are
mostly young plants. Dependency of villagers on natural vegetation in this region is
mostly for timber and firewood. Most of the vegetation is present near human settlement
and it is mainly composed of Butea monosperma, Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica,
Mangifera indica, etc.
The present condition of the vegetation is degraded due to extreme biotic
pressure like grazing and fire and having been reduced to scrubs and consists mainly of
Lantana camara, Solanum hispidum, Indigofera tinctoria. The values of density/ha,
relative density, frequency, relative frequency, dominance, relative dominance and
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importance value index for dominant flora present within 15 km of project site is given in
Table 2.5.11.
A total 12 tree species, 10 shrub species and 37 herb species were recorded
during field study. Total density of all plant species present within the study area is 120/ha
for trees, 3200/ha for shrubs and 4804/ha for herbs. Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) for
trees of this area is (0.035), while (0.026) and (0.029) for shrubs and herbs respectively.
The genera dominating the flora with large number of species are Acacia, Terminalia,
Albizzia, etc.
2.5.6.6 Nalikheda
During field study total 43 tree species, 26 shrub species and 25 herb species
were recorded. The values of density/ha, relative density, frequency, relative frequency,
dominance, relative dominance and importance value index for dominant flora present a
is given in Table 2.5.12
Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) for trees in study area is observed to be 0.023,
while 0.030 and 0.027 for shrubs and herbs respectively.
2.5.6.7 Padachar
The vegetation along the Nallah comprises of large number of miscellaneous
species e.g. Kohra (Terminalia arjuna), Gular (Ficus glomerata), Bargad (Ficus
bengalensis), Padar (Stereospermum suvelensis), Pipal (Ficus religiosa), etc.
Dhokra mostly occurs in gregarious form and where over it is found mixed with
other species, the top canopy consists mainly of Dhokra mixed with Khair, Ber, Kakon,
The under growth consists mainly of goya khair (Dichristschys cinerarea), Jhari
ber (Zizyphus nummularia) Kalisiali (Grewia flavescens), Siali (Flueggea macrocarpa),
mererphali (Helicteres ixora), Hingot (Balanites aegyptica), Karwale (Wrightia tomentosa),
and Jal (Capparis spinosa).
The grasses commonly found are, lapla (Artistida depressa) and Polardi (Apluda
mutica), Ratarda (Thamida quadrivalvis), Surwal (Heteropogan contortus), Chloris
variegata, Eragrostis sp. and Bhalki (Chrysopogon fulvus).
Simpson's Diversity Index (SDI) for trees in study area is observed to be 0.018,
while 0.023 and 0.027 for shrubs and herbs respectively.
Total density of all plant species present in this region is 320 / ha for trees, 3733/
ha for shrubs and 5067/ ha for herbs.
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
The values of density/ha, relative density, frequency, relative frequency,
dominance, relative dominance and importance value index for dominant flora present
within 16 km of project site is given in Table 2.5.13
2.5.7 Green Belt in and Around Plant Area
The nuclear Power Plant area and township area is developed and plantation is
done. The different trees have been planted and are being planted along the roads,
around the nuclear plant site and along the roads and gardens in township. As per the
details provided by the project authority, the area covered with lawns and gardens is 1.83
hectare of 3 and 4 units of nuclear Power Plant and 9.69 hectares of colony i.e. total
11.52 hectares. The total number of trees planted in the last three years i.e. 2001 -2003
at the site are 715, 1174, and 880 respectively and the percentage of trees surviving at
the end of year 2003 is 81 %.
The major tree species used for plantation in township and Nuclear Plant area are
mainly Tamarindus indica, Azadirachta indica, Ficus bengalensis, Prosopis juliflora,
Albizzia lebbek, Delonix regia, Euphorbia tirucalli, etc. The details of plantation carried out
at RAPP site is depicted in Table. 2.5.14
2.5.8 Wildlife Sanctuaries Present in the Study Area
2.5.8.1 Darrah Sanctuary
This wildlife sanctuary is situated about 50 km away from Kota Railway Station. It
extends from the Kota - Rawatbhata road near Kolipura (Around 12 km from RAPP) in
the west to the Kallisindh River near Gagron Fort in the east. It is about 75 km in length
and varies from 2-5 km in width. The main feature is a long valley with gentle to
precipitous hill slopes (354 m). The Chambal, Kallisindh and Amjhar rivers provide water
all the year round. There are also some perennial springs and natural caves. Average
rainfall 500-600 mm. It was established in 1955 and was previously supposed to be the
hunting reserve of the rulers of Kota State. It was a rich abode of fauna and flora,
especially the tiger. It is called Darrah for short, the full name being Mukundarrah after
Rao Mukund Singh of Kota. Darrah in persian means a pass and this strategic pass is the
only place between the rivers Chambal and Kalisindh.
Vegetation: The forest is of the dry deciduous type with dhok Anogeissus
pendula as the dominant species. The other trees are tendu Diospyros melanoxylon,
mahuwa Madhuca indica, ber Zizyphus nummularia, Acacia chundra, Diospyros
melanoxylon, Aegle marmelos, Dichrostachys cinerea, Bauhinia racemosa and Mitragyna
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parvifolia. In comparatively protected spots, where soil is deeper Diospyros melanoxylon
is more common. Aegle marmelos is present in richer habitats at Sujalghat and
Sundrapura-Ki-Pahari. On lower slopes in plain areas and near valleys, a mixed
vegetation of spinuous trees and shrubs is seen. The other common tree and shrub
species are Butea monosperma, Cassia fistula, Schrebera swietenioides,
Stereospermum personatum, Zizphus mauritiana, Balanites aegyptica, Holarrhena
antidysentrica and species of Flacourtia, Grewia, Helicteres etc.
Fauna: Tiger Panthera tigris, leopard P. Pardus, nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus,
chinkara (mountain gazelle) Gazella gazella, wild boar Sus scrofa, jackal Cam's aureus,
blacknaped hare Lepus nigricollis nigricollis, the Indian porcupine Hystrix indica. Birds
include spurfowl, grey Francolinus pondicerianus, and painted partridge F. Pictus, quail,
crane, duck, teal and others.
2.5.8.2 Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary
Still more southwards of Kota, around 20 kms away from RAPP, Gandhi Sagar
dam was erected and further area for the protection of crocodiles and gharials was
extended as Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary covering an area of another 100 sq. km. This wild
life conservation centre also include blackbuck, caracal, chinkara and wild wolf. Leopards
are occassionally seen.
2.5.8.3 Bhainsroadgarh Sanctuary
Situated in Chittorgarh district, 53 km. from Kota near the town Rawatbhata, is
Bhainsroadgarh wild life sanctuary. RAPP is only one km away from the sanctuary. It was
established in 1983 and covers over 229 sq. km. of scrub and deciduous forest. The area
has largely and increasingly been threatened by illegal grazing and collection of fuel
wood. Despite these threats, leopards are still seen in the area along with chinkara, chital
and sloth bear etc.
Block Bandharmutha, Kolgarh, Mamorgarh, Revajhar and Nimri represent the C2
Northern dry mixed deciduous forest. This type occurs mostly on higher slopes, plateau
and in places where moisture condition is good. On higher slopes, Dhaura is the most
characteristics species along with Tendu, Baelpatra, Salar, Gurjan, Khair, Karaya etc. On
dry and exposed sites on steep slopes, along the ridges and spaces and also on higher
plateaus the proportion of Dhaura and other miscellaneous species decreases and
almost pure patches of Salar and Gurjan are found. On lower elevations, along Nallas
and depressions and on river beds khankara, bor, Khair, Jamun, Kalam, Mahua, Arjun,
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Bahera, Sadar, Aam etc. are found. Bans (Dendrocalmous strictus) occurs along some of
the slopes facing the Chambal River.
In Chittorgarh area with a rainfall between 60 to 80 cm, poles and saplings of
Santalum alpumare are found to exist. In areas with a range of rainfall between 20 to 40
cm and in the west of Aravallis in Ajmer - Pali - Sirohi area up to Jodhpur, the vegetation
becomes thinner and more sparse. The main trees are Anogeissus pendula (DhauJ
Acacia Senegal (Khair) and Prosopis spicigera (Deshi babul).
2.5.9 The Fauna
The vegetation density and diversity is an important factor determining the habitat
and thus for particular wild animals. Different animals prefer different types of habitat for
food and shelter. The flagship nexus of the area further needs wooded and shrubby
grooves for hiding and predation which are available in most part of the sanctuary area.
Existence of the boundary out crops and numerous gorges in the hilly terrain form ideal
cover for big cats. In the absence of the proper food chain and thin population herbivores.
The fairly good population of Panthers quit often invade the domestic livestock to fulfill
their food requirement. The comman fauna found in the study area are presented in
Table 2.5.15.
The Hyenas, Jackals, Foxes, Jungle cat are also found co existing in the similar
habitat conditions. Blue bulls, Chinkara, Wild boar, Langoor, Hare, porcupine form major
herbivores of the sanctuary. The low population level is due to their direct competition
with livestock and human disturbances.
The avifauna population needs different species of flora for nesting and different
species have preferences for different trees and shrubs. Several species depend upon
grasses and fruits of varied species while other predate animals and variety of small
birds. Small birds prefer a leafed habitat for nesting. The common nesting sites for
different species are protected grooves of thorny species, understory trees, near water
points and on the top of the canopy trees. Rana Pratap Sagar Dam provides excellent
conditions for water birds. Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Brahmini River forms on of the
best Crocodile habitat in the country and supports one of the largest population of
crocodile in the country.
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.5.9.1 Vertebrates, their Status, Distribution and Habitat of Major Animals
The top carnivore inhibiting the area is Panther (Panthera pordus). Other major
vertebrate species of the area include the stripped Hyena, Jungle Cat, Jackal, Indian fox,
Common langoor, Neelgai, Chinkara, Porcupine, Crocodile and other important birds etc.
I. Panth er: Panther is the highest predator in the sanctuary. It inhabits all over the
sanctuary. Sometimes it moves to agriculture fields and human settlements in
search of food, while sometimes it moves to forest area of territorial forest division.
II. The striped hyena : Hyena, is nocturnal in nature. They are termed as
scavengers as they feed upon the dead animals and the left over portions of the
killed animals.
III. The Chinkara : Chinkara is the antelope found in Kolgarh, Mamorgarh,
Bandarmutha, Kalakhet block etc.
IV. Neelgai : It is the largest antelope of the area. It is found all over the area. It also
moves to the agricultural fields.
V. Crocodile : Crocodile is top most predator of aquatic eco-system. The Rana
Pratap Sagar dam and Brahmini river harbors large Maggars population. The
Brahmini River is supposed to be one of the best nesting ground for crocodiles.
The larger water spread of Rana Pratap Sagar with sandy banks at places forms
an ideal habitat. In 2003 census population of 193 maggars has been reported.
VI. Birds : The variety of birds inhabiting the sanctuary ranges from land birds to
water birds. The multilayered forests provide a suitable habitat for various
avifauna species. Variety of fruit species, grasses and varied microenvironments
inhabiting insects etc. form suitable habitat conditions for various herbivorus and
insectivorous birds. Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and other Talab & Talais are
inhabited by a variety of water birds.
VII. Reptiles and Amphibians : The reptile includes the snakes, tortoises and lizards
of various types. Non poisonous snakes include rat snake (Dhaman) etc. The
poisonous snakes include the cobra, common Kerait, Russell's viper etc. Lizards
including monitor lizard, chandan gho etc. are also commonly observed.
Species of Conservation Importance
(Bhainsroadgarh Sanctuary)
Threatened species are those found only in small numbers or those on the verge
of extinction in the country. India has a list of threatened species in Red Data Book,
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
published by the Botanical Survey of India. As per IUCN (International Union for
Conservation of Nature) classification several plant species of global importance are
found in the Bhainsroadgarh sanctuary which needs immediate actions to protect them
against threats of extinction. A list of such species is as follows:
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
Scientific Name
Sterculia urens
Dendrocalamus
strictus
Phoenix sylvestris
Chlorophytum
borivillinum
Gloriosa surpenses
IUCN Category
Threatened
Rare
Threatened
Rare
Intermediate
Distribution Area
Parajhar Gorge Revajhar Gorge
Kalsiya Gorge, Riccha Gorge
Kolgarh and Parajhar Block
Valley and villages
Parajhar Block
Kolagarh, Parajhar Block
These species may not survive if timely action is not taken against threat of
extinction. Due to small population and restricted distribution they require intensive care
and habitat management and may survive only with human support. The series of gorges
situated in the sanctuary are very important for conservation of bio-diversity as well as for
protection of rare and threatened plants species. Every effort should be made to make
them free from human interference and restore moisture required through drainage line
treatment. The rare and threatened birds species found in the sanctuary are as follows.
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
English Name
Red Spurfowl
Common Peafowl
White nacked vulture
Long tailed griffon
King vulture
Open billed stork
Painted stork
Black ibis
Adjutant stork
Spoon Bill
Scientific Name
Galloperdrix Spadicea
Pavo cristatus
Gyps bengalensis
Gyps indicus
Sarcogyps calvus
Anastomus oscitans
Mycteria leucocephala
Pseudibis papillosa
Leptoptilos dubius
Platalea leucorodia
ICUN Category
Endangered
Threatened
Vulnerable
( i n
it ii
( i n
« »
Near threatened
Threatened
K i i
Source : Management Plan for Bhainsroadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary of Year 2003-2004
(Chittorgarh Forest Division)
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.5.10 Fishes
Rana Pratap Sagar dam constructed over the Chambal River lies on the eastern
limits of the Bhaisroadgarh Sanctuary. Rajasthan Atomic Power station is only one Km
away from the Sanctuary on opposite bank of the Chambal river. Major carps recorded in
Rana Pratap sagar dam are Catla , Rohu, Mrigal, Calbasu and Mahseer. Last ten year
data (1991-2001) of major carps percentage in total production of Rana Pratap Sagar
dam is depicted in the Table 2.5.16. There is a fish seed farm on the right bank of canal
at Rawatbhata. The average fish catch at Rana Pratap Sagar is estimated to be
545.5 tonnes /year.
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Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
29*9
73" 90'
N
7 9 I 0O KM
LE OE HD
SAMPLING LOCATIONS
TAR ROAD
E ART HE R N NOAO
RAN A PRATAP 9A8AR
Fig. 2.5.1 : Sampling Locations for Biological Environment
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.1
List of Sampling Locations for Biological Environment
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Name of Sampling
Location
Padachar
Jawahar Sagar
Bhainsroadgarh
Aklingpura
Borabas
Nalikheda
Gandhisagar
Distance from
Plant Site (km)
7.5
8.5
12.0
12.5
18.0
19.0
20.0
Direction
NNW
NNE
N
SW
NW
E
ES
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.2
Formulae for Analysing Phytosociological Characteristic of Vegetation
Density
Relative Density
Dominance
Number of individuals of species A
Area Sampled
Relative dominance =
Frequency
Relative Frequency =
Abundance/Quadrat =
Density of species A
Total density of all species
Total cover or basal area of species
Area sampled
Dominance of species A
x100
X 100
Total dominance of all species
Number of plots in which species A occurs
Total number of plots sampled
Frequency value for species A
X 100
Importance Value Index
Simpson's Diversity Index
Total frequency values of all species
Total number of Species A occur in all quadrates
Total number of quadrat in which species A occur
R. Density + R. Dominance + R. Frequency
n
I
i = 1
ni (ni -1)
n ( n -1)
ni - is the number of individuals of the i
th
species in the sample
n - is the total number of individuals in the sample .
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
(a)
1
2
3
4
5
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
List of Plant
Local Name
Trees
Aam
Amaltas
Amla
Bad
Bahera
Bija
Bilh
Bor
Churel
.Dhola
Dhaura
.Dhokra
Ghat ber
Gurjan
Goya Khair
Gular
Haldu
Hingoca
Imli
Jamun
Jhingha
Kakon
Kada
Karaya
Khair
Khirni
Kohra
Table 2.5.3
Species Recorded from
Botanical Name
Mangifera indica
Cassia fistula
Emblica officinalis
Ficus bengalensis
Terminalia bellerica
Pterocarpus massupium
Aegle marmelos
Zizyphus mauratiana
Holoptelea integrifolia
Butea monosperma
Anogeissus latifolia
Anogeissus pendala
Zizyphus xylocarpa
Lannea coromanadalica
Dichrostachys cinerea
Ficus racemosa
Adina cordifolia
Balanites aegyptica
Tamarindus indica
Syzygium cumini
Bauhinia racemosa
Flacourtia indica
Mitragyna parvifolia
Sterculia urens
Acacia catechu
Wrightia tinctoria
Terminalia arjuna
Study Area
Family
Anacardiaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Moraceae
Combretaceae
Fabaceae
Rutaceae
Rhamnaceae
Moraceae
Fabaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae
Rhamnaceae
Lamiaceae
Cyperaceae
Moraceae
Rubiaceae
Asclepiadiaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Sterculiaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Flacourtiaceae
Rubiaceae
Sterculiaceae
Mimosaceae
Apocynaceae
Combretaceae
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr. Local Name
No.
Botanical Name Family
28 Mahua
29 Mokua
30 Neem
31 Paras papal
32 Pipal
33 Rojjh
34 Rohan
35 Sadera
36 Salar
37 Semal
38 Serjna
39 Siris (Kala)
40 Khadi (Safed Siris)
41 Tendu
42 Umbia
b) Shrubs and herbs
1. Anwal
2. Amia
3. Bans
4. Besharam
5. Dudhi
6. Jhasber
7. Jhurmari
8. Jhan
9. Karonda
10. KoliKandi
11. Dholi musli
12. Panwar
C) Climbers
1. Aonl bel
Madhuca indica
Cassia fistula
Azadirachta indica
Ficus cordifolia
Ficus religiosa
Acacia leucophloea
Soymida febrifuga
Terminalia tomentosa
Boswellia serrata
Bombax cieba
Moringa oleifera
Albizzia labbeck
Albizzia procera
Diospyrus melanoxylon
Mellotus philipinensis
Cassia auriculata
Olerodendron viscorun
Dendrocalamus strict us
Ipomoea fistula
Euphorbia hirta
Zizyphus mumuleria
Lantena camera
Temarix dioca
Carissa spinarum
Scilla spinarum
Cuculigo orchioides
Cassia tora
Crotolaria orisensis
Sapotaceae
Fabaceae
Meliaceae
Moraceae
Moraceae
Mimosaceae
Meliaceae
Combretaceae
Burseraceae
Bombacaceae
Moringaceae
Mimosaceae
Mimosaceae
Ebnaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
Asteraceae
Poaceae
Apocyanaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Rhamnaceae
Lamiaceae
Tamaricaceae
Apocyanaceae
Liliaceae
Hypoxidaceae
Fabaceae
Fabaceae
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
(d)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Local Name
Chirmu
Dudhi
Kakoda
Kenwach
Bichhubel
Narkanta
Neemgiloy
Palasbel
Grasses
Baru
Polda
Bharut
Buhari
Dab
Garra
Gandel
Makra
Karad
Lampals
Ratda
Seran
Surwala
Botanical Name
Abrus precatorius
Ichnocarpus frutes cens
Momordica charantia
Mucuna prarita
Cryptolepis bunchanani
Asparagus dumosus
Tinospora cordifolia
Butea superba
Sorghum habepensa
Alphuda mutica
Cenchrus setigerus
Eremopogon foreolatus
Imperata cylindrica
Aristida setacea
Aseilema laseum
Dactyloctenium
aglypticum
Dichanthium annulalum
Aristida depressa
Themeda quadrivalvis
Chrysopogon fulvus
Heteropogon contortus
Family
Fabaceae
Asteraceae
Cucurbitaceae
Fabaceae
Periplocaceae
Liliaceae
Tiliaceae
Fabaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.4
List of Families with Species Count
Sr. No. Family No. of Species
1
3
1
2
1
1
3
5
1
1
1
2
9
1
1
2
2
2
4
5
1
1
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
Anacardiaceae
Apocyanaceae
Asclepiadiaceae
Asteraceae
Bombacaceae
Burseraceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Combretaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Cyperaceae
Ebnaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
Flacourtiaceae
Hypoxidaceae
Lamiaceae
Liliaceae
Meliaceae
Mimosaceae
Moraceae
Moringaceae
Periplocaceae
Rhamnaceae
Rubiaceae
Rutaceae
Sapotaceae
Sterculiaceae
Tamaricaceae
Tiliaceae
2.138
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.5
Simpson's Diversity Index of Plant Species in Study Area
Sr. No Name of the location Tree Shrub Herb
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Padachar
Jawahar Sagar
Bhainsroadgarh
Aklingpura
Borabas
Nalikheda
Gandhisagar
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.035
0.020
0.023
0.026
Table 2.5.6
0.023
0.024
0.025
0.026
0.033
0.030
0.024
0.027
0.034
0.025
0.029
0.031
0.027
0.033
Density of Plant Species in Study Area
Sr. No. Name of the location Tree/ ha Shrub/ ha Herb/ ha
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Padachar
Jawahar Sagar
Bhainsroadgarh
Aklingpura
Borabas
Nalikheda
Gandhisagar
320
335
475
120
531
390
324
3733
6133
6133
3200
5733
5067
3508
5067
6715
7118
4804
8000
6889
9333
2.139
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.7
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Bhainsroadgarh
Sr.
No.
Name of Species
Trees
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Azadirachta indica
Moringa tinctoria
Pterocarpus marsupium
Flacourtia indica
Anogeissus pendulata
Emblica officinalis
Acacia leucophloea
Casuarina equisetifolia
Acacia catechu
Mangifera indica
Shrubs
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Antigonum leptopus
Ipoemia fistulosa
Calotropis procera
Cassia auriculata
Oleodendron viscorum
Tamarix dioca
Ricinus communis
Datura stramonium
Lantana camara
Jatropha gossipifolia
Herbs
21
22
23
24
25
26
Amaranths spinosa
Andropogon contortus
Croton sparciflorus
Cyanodon dactylon
Celosia argentea
Eclipta alba
D/ha
20
15
10
15
20
10
15
25
15
20
267
267
267
400
400
267
400
267
533
400
296
222
222
370
222
444
RD
5.13
3.85
2.56
3.85
5.13
2.56
3.85
6.41
3.85
5.13
5.264
5.264
5.264
7.896
7.896
5.264
7.896
5.264
10.52
8
7.896
4.302
3.226
3.226
5.377
3.226
6.452
F
0.22
0.66
1
0.66
1
1
0.33
0.33
0.22
0.44
0.66
0.33
0.66
0.33
0.33
0.33
1
0.33
0.66
1
0.66
1
1
1
1
0.33
RF
0.99
2.96
4.48
2.96
4.48
4.48
1.48
1.48
0.99
1.97
4.735
2.367
4.735
2.367
2.367
2.367
7.174
2.367
4.735
7.174
4.233
6.414
6.414
6.414
6.414
2.117
Dm
0.066
0.024
0.025
0.071
0.317
0.017
0.057
0.053
0.047
0.046
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.079
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.053
0.105
0.079
0.043
0.032
0.032
0.054
0.032
0.065
R Dm
6.61
2.44
2.53
7.09
31.71
1.73
5.70
5.27
4.66
4.59
5.263
5.263
5.263
7.895
7.895
5.263
7.895
5.263
10.526
7.895
4.301
3.226
3.226
5.376
3.226
6.452
I VI
4.241
3.079
3.192
4.631
13.773
2.925
3.674
4.386
3.162
3.896
5.087
4.298
5.087
6.053
6.053
4.298
7.655
4.298
8.596
7.655
4.279
4.289
4.289
5.723
4.289
5.007
2.140
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
27
28
29
30
Name of Species
Sida cordifolia
Parthenium hysterophorus
Phyllanthus niruri
Tridax procumbens
D/ha
370
296
593
370
RD
5.377
4.302
8.603
5.377
F
0.33
1
0.22
1
RF
2.117
6.414
1.411
6.414
Dm
0.054
0.043
0.086
0.054
R
5.
4.
8.
5.
Dm
376
301
602
376
I VI
4.290
5.006
6.206
5.723
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
2.141
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.8
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Jawahar Sagar
Sr.
No.
Trees
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Name of Species
Aegle marmelos
Acacia nilotica
Dendrocalamus strictus
Butea monosperma
Bauhinia racemosa
Ficus racemosa
Mangifera indica
Pithocelobium dulce
Wrightia tinctoria
Anogeissus pendula
Shrubs
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Herbs
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Calotropis gigantia
Calotropis procera
Datura stramonium
Cassia occidentalis
Caesealpinia bonducella
Lantana camara
Opuntia dilleni
Solanum hispidum
Thespesia lampas
Indigofera tinctoria
Abutilon polyandrum
Aerva lanata
Coccinia indica
Eclipta alba
Croton sparciflorus
Chenpodium album
Boerhaavia diffusa
Parthenium
hysterophorus
Tephrosia purpurea
Tridax procumbens
D/ha
10
20
15
15
10
10
10
10
15
15
500
333
333
167
333
333
167
167
333
333
400
267
400
267
400
533
267
267
400
267
RD
3.13
6.25
4.69
4.69
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.13
4.69
4.69
11.111
7.407
7.407
3.704
7.407
7.407
3.704
3.704
7.407
7.407
7.894
5.263
7.894
5.263
7.894
10.526
5.263
5.263
7.894
5.263
F
1
0.66
1
0.33
1
1
1
0.22
0.66
1
1
0.66
0.33
1
0.66
1
1
0.66
1
1
0.22
0.33
1
0.33
1
0.66
1
0.33
0.66
1
RF
3.75
2.47
3.75
1.24
3.75
3.75
3.75
0.82
2.47
3.75
8.532
5.631
2.816
8.532
5.631
8.532
8.532
5.631
8.532
8.532
1.590
2.384
7.225
2.384
7.225
4.769
7.225
2.384
4.769
7.225
Dm
0.026
0.072
0.058
0.144
0.032
0.038
0.054
0.060
0.058
0.123
0.111
0.074
0.074
0.037
0.074
0.074
0.037
0.037
0.074
0.074
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.105
0.053
0.053
0.079
0.053
R Dm
2.58
7.17
5.81
14.35
3.23
3.81
5.45
6.00
5.81
12.26
11.111
7.407
7.407
3.704
7.407
7.407
3.704
3.704
7.407
7.407
7.895
5.263
7.895
5.263
7.895
10.526
5.263
5.263
7.895
5.263
I VI
3.152
5.299
4.749
6.758
3.369
3.560
4.107
3.316
4.324
6.898
10.252
6.815
5.877
5.313
6.815
7.782
5.313
4.346
7.782
7.782
5.793
4.303
7.671
4.303
7.671
8.607
5.917
4.303
6.853
5.917
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
2.142
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.9
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Borabas
Sr. No.
Trees
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Shrubs
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Herbs
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Name of Species
Azadirachta indica
Moringa tinctoria
Ceiba pentandra
Anogeissus pendula
Aegle marmelos
Emblica officinalis
Acacia leucophloea
Flacourtia indica
Bauhinia racemosa
Cassia fistula
Antigonum leptopus
Caesealpinia bonducella
Calotropis procera
Cassia occidentalis
Nerium indicum
Carica papaya
Ricinus communis
Datura stramonium
Lantana camara
Jatropha gossipifolia
Amaranths spinosa
Andropogon contortus
Croton sparciflorus
Cyanodon dactylon
Celosia argentea
Eclipta alba
Sida cordifolia
D/ha
10
15
15
15
15
15
20
20
15
15
267
267
267
400
400
267
400
267
533
400
296
222
222
370
222
444
370
RD
2.15
3.23
3.23
3.23
3.23
3.23
4.30
4.30
3.23
3.23
5.264
5.264
5.264
7.896
7.896
5.264
7.896
5.264
10.528
7.896
4.302
3.226
3.226
5.377
3.226
6.452
5.377
F
1
0.33
0.66
0.33
0.22
0.22
1
1
0.66
0.66
0.66
0.33
0.66
0.33
0.33
0.33
1
0.33
0.66
1
0.66
1
1
1
1
0.33
0.33
RF
2.77
0.91
1.83
0.91
0.61
0.61
2.77
2.77
1.83
1.83
4.735
2.367
4.735
2.367
2.367
2.367
7.174
2.367
4.735
7.174
4.233
6.414
6.414
6.414
6.414
2.117
2.117
Dm
0.023
0.060
0.029
0.067
0.049
0.078
0.233
0.049
0.049
0.027
0.053
0.053
0.053
0.079
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.053
0.105
0.079
0.043
0.032
0.032
0.054
0.032
0.065
0.054
R Dm
2.32
5.96
2.86
6.75
4.86
7.81
23.31
4.86
4.86
2.73
5.263
5.263
5.263
7.895
7.895
5.263
7.895
5.263
10.526
7.895
4.301
3.226
3.226
5.376
3.226
6.452
5.376
I VI
2.413
3.365
2.640
3.630
2.898
3.882
10.128
3.977
3.305
2.596
5.087
4.298
5.087
6.053
6.053
4.298
7.655
4.298
8.596
7.655
4.279
4.289
4.289
5.723
4.289
5.007
4.290
2.143
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr. No. Name of Species D/ha R D F R F Dm R Dm I V I
28 Parthenium hysterophorus 296 4.302 1
29 Phyllanthus niruri 593 8.603 0.22
30 Tridax procumbens 370 5.377 1
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
6.
1.
6.
414
411
414
0.
0.
0.
043
086
054
4.
8.
5.
301
602
376
5
6
5
.006
.206
.723
2.144
NEERi Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.10
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Gandhi Sagar
Sr. No.
Trees
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
JVame of Species
Azadirachta indica
Holoptelia integrifolia
Tamerindus indica
Sterculia urense
Bauhinia racemosa
Ficus racemosa
Mangifera indica
Aegle marmelos
Ficus benghalensis
Boswellia serrata
Shrubs
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Herbs
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Jatropha gossipifolia
Calotropis procera
Datura stramonium
Cassia occidentalis
Caesalpinia cristata
Lantana carnara
Capparis aphylla
Solanum hispidum
Vitex negundo
Ricinus communis
Achyranthes aspera
Aerva lanata
Cyanodon dactylon
Eclipta alba
Croton sparciflorus
Chenpodium album
Boerhaavia diffusa
Butea superba
Lawsonia inenvis
Tridax procumbens
D/ha
13
25
19
13
19
19
25
19
19
31
267
267
267
267
400
133
133
267
267
267
400
267
400
267
400
533
267
267
345
267
RD
2.94
5.88
4.41
2.94
4.41
4.41
5.88
4.41
4.41
7.35
7.143
7.143
7.143
7.143
10.715
3.572
3.572
7.143
7.143
7.143
7.894
5.263
7.894
5.263
7.894
10.526
5.263
5.263
7.894
5.263
F
1
1
0.33
1
0.33
0.66
1
0.22
0.22
1
1
0.33
0.22
0.33
0.44
1
1
0.22
0.44
0.77
0.22
0.33
1
0.33
1
0.66
1
0.33
0.66
1
RF
4.50
4.50
1.48
4.50
1.48
2.97
4.50
0.99
0.99
4.50
8.787
2.900
1.933
2.900
3.866
8.787
8.787
1.933
3.866
6.766
1.590
2.384
7.225
2.384
7.225
4.769
7.225
2.384
4.769
7.225
Dm
0.016
0.249
0.072
0.025
0.064
0.031
0.052
0.052
0.083
0.200
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.107
0.036
0.036
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.105
0.053
0.053
0.079
0.053
R Dm
1.62
24.87
7.20
2.47
6.35
3.06
5.18
5.18
8.33
20.00
7.143
7.143
7.143
7.143
10.714
3.571
3.571
7.143
7.143
7.143
7.895
5.263
7.895
5.263
7.895
10.526
5.263
5.263
7.895
5.263
I VI
3.020
11.748
4.365
3.303
4.083
3.478
5.187
3.528
4.577
10.615
7.691
5.729
5.407
5.729
8.432
5.310
5.310
5.407
6.051
7.018
5.793
4.303
7.671
4.303
7.671
8.607
5.917
4.303
6.853
5.917
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
2.145
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.11
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Akiingpura
Sr. No.
Trees
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Shrubs
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Herbs
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Name of Species
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia nilotica
Acacia auricutoformis
Butea monosperma
Bauhinia racemosa
Ficus racemosa
Mangifera indica
Pithocelobium dulce
Leucena leucocephala
Prosopis juliflora
Jatropha gossipifolia
Calotropis procera
Datura stramonium
Cassia occidentalis
Nyctathus arbor-tristis
Lantana camara
Apluda mutica
Solanum hispidum
Sida rhombifolia
Indigofera tinctoria
Cassia tora
Aerva lanata
Coccinia indica
Eclipta alba
Croton sparciflorus
Chrysopogon fulvus
Boerhaavia diffusa
Parthenium hysterophorus
Tephrosia purpurea
Blumea virens
D/ha
10
20
15
15
10
10
10
10
15
15
117
78
104
52
13
91
52
143
65
156
400
267
400
267
400
533
267
267
400
267
RD
3.13
6.25
4.69
4.69
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.13
4.69
4.69
5.883
3.922
5.229
2.615
0.654
4.576
2.615
7.190
3.268
7.844
7.894
5.263
7.894
5.263
7.894
10.526
5.263
5.263
7.894
5.263
F
1
0.66
1
0.33
1
1
1
0.22
0.66
1
0.75
0.5
0.08
0.33
0.58
0.58
0.33
0.91
0.41
1
0.22
0.33
1
0.33
1
0.66
1
0.33
0.66
1
RF
3.75
2.47
3.75
1.24
3.75
3.75
3.75
0.82
2.47
3.75
6.019
4.013
0.642
2.648
4.655
4.655
2.648
7.303
3.291
8.026
1.590
2.384
7.225
2.384
7.225
4.769
7.225
2.384
4.769
7.225
Dm
0.026
0.072
0.058
0.144
0.032
0.038
0.054
0.060
0.058
0.123
0.059
0.039
0.052
0.026
0.007
0.046
0.026
0.072
0.033
0.078
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.053
0.079
0.105
0.053
0.053
0.079
0.053
R Dm
2.58
7.17
5.81
14.35
3.23
3.81
5.45
6.00
5.81
12.26
5.882
3.922
5.229
2.614
0.654
4.575
2.614
7.190
3.268
7.843
7.895
5.263
7.895
5.263
7.895
10.526
5.263
5.263
7.895
5.263
I VI
3.152
5.299
4.749
6.758
3.369
3.560
4.107
3.316
4.324
6.898
5.928
3.952
3.700
2.626
1.987
4.602
2.626
7.228
3.276
7.904
5.793
4.303
7.671
4.303
7.671
8.607
5.917
4.303
6.853
5.917
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
2.146
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table: 2.5.12
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Nalikheda
Sr. No
Trees
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
• Name of Species
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia nilotica
Acacia catechu
Butea monosperma
Bauhinia racemosa
Ficus racemosa
Mangifera indica
Adina cordifolia
Balanites aegyptica
Anogeissus latifolia
Shrubs
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Herbs
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Jatropha gossipifolia
Asparagus dumosus
Tinospora cordifolia
Cassia occidentalis
Caesealpinia bonducella
Lantana camara
Scilla spinarum
Solanum hispidum
Thespesia lampas
Woodfordia fruticosa
Achyranthes aspera
Aerva lanata
Coccinia indica
Eclipta alba
Croton sparciflorus
Chenpodium album
Boerhaavia diffusa
Parthenium hysterophorus
Tephrosia purpurea
Tridax procumbens
D/ha
10
20
15
15
10
10
10
10
15
15
267
267
267
267
400
133
133
267
267
267
333
667
833
333
167
500
167
333
500
500
RD
3.13
6.25
4.69
4.69
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.13
4.69
4.69
7.143
7.143
7.143
7.143
10.715
3.572
3.572
7.143
7.143
7.143
5.128
10.256
12.821
5.128
2.564
7.692
2.564
5.128
7.692
7.692
F
1
0.66
1
0.33
1
1
1
0.22
0.66
1
1
0.33
0.22
0.33
0.44
1
1
0.22
0.44
0.77
1
0.33
0.33
0.66
1
0.66
1
1
1
1
RF
3.75
2.47
3.75
1.24
3.75
3.75
3.75
0.82
2.47
3.75
8.787
2.900
1.933
2.900
3.866
8.787
8.787
1.933
3.866
6.766
8.532
2.816
2.816
5.631
8.532
5.631
8.532
8.532
8.532
8.532
Dm
0.026
0.072
0.058
0.144
0.032
0.038
0.054
0.060
0.058
0.123
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.107
0.036
0.036
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.053
0.105
0.132
0.053
0.026
0.079
0.026
0.053
0.079
0.079
R Dm
2.58
7.17
5.81
14.35
3.23
3.81
5.45
6.00
5.81
12.26
7.143
7.143
7.143
7.143
10.714
3.571
3.571
7.143
7.143
7.143
5.263
10.526
13.158
5.263
2.632
7.895
2.632
5.263
7.895
7.895
I VI
3.152
5.299
4.749
6.758
3.369
3.560
4.107
3.316
4.324
6.898
7.691
5.729
5.407
5.729
8.432
5.310
5.310
5.407
6.051
7.018
6.308
7.866
9.598
5.341
4.576
7.073
4.576
6.308
8.040
8.040
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.13
Floristic Characteristics of Dominant Flora of Padachar
Sr. No
Trees
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Name of Species
Acacia catechu
Albizzia lebbek
Dendrocalamus strictus
Cassia fistula
Azadirachta indica
Sterculia urens
Aegle marmelos
Sygygium cumini
Terminalia belehca
Anogeissus pendulata
Abutilon indicum
Acacia concinna
Adhatoda vasica
Barteria prionotis
Cassia auriculata
Euphorbia nerifolia
Solanum indicum
Thespesia lampas
Woodfordia fruiticosa
Zizyyphus rugosa
Aegeratum conyzoides
Aerides crispum
Alternanthera sessilis
Alysicarpus pubescens
Dipcadi montanum
Gnaphaliurn luteo-album
Lagascea mollis
Leucas aspera
Polygonum glabra
Striga gesneroides
D/ha
15
10
15
10
10
15
10
5
5
5
RD
6.82
4.55
6.82
4.55
4.55
6.82
4.55
2.27
2.27
2.27
Shrubs
267
133
400
267
267
133
267
267
400
133
1
333
667
833
333
167
500
167
333
500
500
9.092
4.546
13.638
9.092
9.092
4.546
9.092
9.092
13.638
4.546
terbs
5.128
10.256
12.821
5.128
2.564
7.692
2.564
5.128
7.692
7.692
F
0.44
0.66
0.88
0.88
0.22
1
0.22
1
1
0.66
0.33
0.66
1
0.33
1
1
1
0.66
0.33
1
1
0.33
0.33
0.66
1
0.66
1
1
1
1
RF
2.77
4.16
5.54
5.54
1.39
6.30
1.39
6.30
6.30
4.16
3.824
7.648
11.587
3.824
11.587
11.587
11.587
7.648
3.824
11.587
8.532
2.816
2.816
5.631
8.532
5.631
8.532
8.532
8.532
8.532
D
0.111
0.013
0.074
0.023
0.128
0.087
0.101
0.017
0.014
0.045
0.091
0.045
0.136
0.091
0.091
0.045
0.091
0.091
0.136
0.045
0.053
0.105
0.132
0.053
0.026
0.079
0.026
0.053
0.079
0.079
R Dm
11.10
1.35
7.43
2.29
12.84
8.72
10.11
1.72
1.41
4.49
9.091
4.545
13.636
9.091
9.091
4.545
9.091
9.091
13.636
4.545
5.263
10.526
13.158
5.263
2.632
7.895
2.632
5.263
7.895
7.895
I VI
6.90
3.35
6.60
4.13
6.26
7.28
5.35
3.43
3.33
3.64
7.336
5.580
12.954
7.336
9.923
6.893
9.923
8.610
10.366
6.893
6.308
7.866
9.598
5.341
4.576
7.073
4.576
6.308
8.040
8.040
*D/ha - Density per hectare *RD - Relative Density * F - Frequency *RF - Relative Frequency
*Dm - Dominance *R Dm - Relative dominance *IVI - Importance value index
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.14
Details of Plantation Carried out by RAPS
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Item
Area covered with lawns and
gardens
Area having tree density more
than 200 trees /hectare
Total area of the plant including
attached housing colony site
Area of the building and roads
Area which could not be used for
plantation lawn for the reasons
such as existing water body,
safety or security requirements
or any other such reasons
No. of trees planted in the year
2001
No. of trees planted in the year
2000
No. of trees planted in the year
1999
Percentage of trees surviving at
the end of 2001
Percentage of trees surviving at
the end of 2000
Percentage of trees surviving at
the end of 1999
RAPS 3 & 4
1.83 hectare of plant + 9.69
hectares of colony = 11.52
hectares
7.923 hectares
339 hectares
96.39 hectares
4.98 hectares
100
1029
610
100%
98%
70%
RAPS 1 & 2
9.2 hectares
20 hectares
150 hectares
90 hectares
32 hectares
45
45
42
90%
70%
60%
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Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
List of Fauna
English Name
Panther
Jungle cat
Jackal
Indian fox
Stipped
Indian wildboar
Hedgehog
Indian mongoose
Hare
Stripped Squirrel
Indian porcupine
Blue bull
Indian gazelle
Four horned antilope
Common Langur
Common wearver
Koel
Babbler
King crow
Indian great Owl
Sarus
Little egeret
Gray jungle fowl
Gray Partridge
Common Peafowl
Green Pigeon
Crocodile
Lizard
Pythons
King Kobra
Table 2.5.15
Present in the Study Area
Hindi/Local Name
Adhbesra
Ban Bilav
Gidar
Lomri
Hyaena Jarakh
Sooar
Jhanmusa
Nevla
Khargosh
Gillahari
Sehi
Nilgai
Chinkara
Bhedal
Langur
Baya
Kokila
Satbhai
Bhujanga
Ghughu
Sarus
Safed Bagula
Jungli Murga
Titar
Mor
Harrial
Magar
Agra monitor lizard
Ajgar
Nag
Scientific Name
Panthera pardus
Felis chaus
Cam's aureus
Vulpesrulpes
Hyaena hyaena
Sus scrofa cristatus
Hemiechinus auritus
Herpes tededwardsi
Lepus nigricollis
Gunanibuluss pehnanoti
Hystrix Indica
Boselaphus tragocamelus
Gazella gazella
Tetracenis quadri
Presbytis entellus
Polceus phillippinus
Kokila edynamis
Turdoides somervilei
Dicrusus mucrocercus
Bubo bubo
Antigone antigone
Egre garzettle
Gulus Senneratii
Rancolinus pandicerianus
Pavo cristatus
Crocopus phonicopterus
Crocodylus palustries
Pata goe
Python morolus
Naja naja
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.5.16
Major Carps Percentage in Total Fish Production
Years
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
2000-01
Average
Species
Catla
3.0
2.2
7.5
12.0
7.4
6.2
14.5
13.4
7.2
8.15
Rohu
2.2
16.4
0.7
13.5
10.5
6.3
7.4
5.7
6.3
7.66
Mrigal
0.8
2.7
1.1
3.8
4.2
3.1
3.2
2.5
3.9
2.81
Calbasu
27.7
28.3
27.7
20.2
27.5
28.2
19.3
16.0
13.0
23.10
Mahseer
1.0
2.7
2.0
2.4
2.7
4.4
3.0
1.0
2.2
2.4
Groups wise percentage in the
catch
Major
carps
34.8
52.4
39.1
52.1
52.5
48.3
47.4
38.7
32.6
44.2
Minor
Carps &
Other
54.6
26.1
41.3
22.6
30.3
32.0
25.7
32.4
39.7
31.3
Cat
Fishes
10.6
21.5
19.6
25.3
17.2
19.2
26.9
28.9
27.7
24.5
Total fish
Production
(tonnes/year)
353.6
730.3
386.6
340.0
605.0
446.7
625.3
585.5
837.2
545.5
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
2.6 Socio-Economic Environment
2.6.1 Reconnaissance
Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), proposes to install unit 7 & 8
of nuclear power plant near Rawatbhata in Begun tehsil of Chittodgarh district in
Rajasthan.
The ecological setting near Rawatbhata (proposed site) involves wildlife
sanctuaries viz. Darrah Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawaharsagar Sanctuary and Bhensrordgarh
Sanctuary, Bhainsrordgarh fort etc. As such, it becomes imperative to predict the impacts
of the proposed unit 7 & 8, of power plant on socio-economic environment. This is so,
because project of such magnitude would trigger off multiple impacts hampering as well
as benefiting the environment at local and regional level and likely impacts would relate to
physical, biological and socio-economic environment. Such as exercise of impact
assessment would help in formulating an effective Environment Management Plan which,
if properly implemented would help mitigating adverse impacts on the socio-economic
environment.
Keeping Rawatbhata Atomic Power Plant (NPP) site as a focal point, a 25 km.
radius area was delineated as a study area, which incorporates mainly five districts from
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh States. Out of these five districts four are from
Rajasthan and one i.e. Neemuch is from M.P. Significantly two rivers namely Chambal
and Brahmni passes through the study area. New expansion units are proposed to be
set up in the existing premises. Since the land is already acquired and available for
expansion, activities like displacement, compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement do
not figure in study.
2.6.2 Baseline Status
The administrative set up in the study area is delineated below :
District
Chittorgarh
Bhilwara
Bundi
Kota
Neemuch
Tehsil
Begun
Mandalgarh
Bundi
Ramganjmandi
Lad pura
-
Panchayat Samitee
Bhainsrorgarh
Mandalgarh
Talera
Chechat
Lad pura
-
No. of Villages
208
14
37
34
75
-
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
The entire study area comprises total 368 no. of villages from five tehsils of four
districts in Rajasthan. A small portion of Madhya Pradesh (Neemuch district) falls in
study area.
Baseline data has been collected from several primary and secondary sources,
viz. Census record, statistical handbook, village administrative office, primary health
centres, district medical office etc.
In all 14 villages as listed in Table 2.6.1 along with their distance and direction
were surveyed within 25 km. radial distance from the proposed site. Villages identified for
collection of socio-economic environment have been shown in Fig. 2.6.1.
The survey has been carried out with the help of predesigned set of questionnaire.
Adult male and female representing various communities were interviewed on judgmental
and purposive basis. Data on following parameter has been collected for the study
region.
> Demographic structure
> Infrastructure resource base
> Economic attributes
> Health status
> Cultural & aesthetic attributes
> Socio-economic Status with reference to QoL (Quality of Life Index)
2.6.2.1 Demographic Structure
The demographic structure of the study area is presented in Table 2.6.2 which
gives information on population, employment, household, literacy, community structure
and demography at a glance is shown in Table 2.6.3. The salient features of the area
studied are as follows :
> The entire study area covers 2870 sq.km area from all the four districts of
Rajasthan state under study area. In the 25 km. radial study area the largest
contribution of area is from Chittodgarh district 48% followed by Kota 31%, Bundi
19%, and Bhilwara 2%
> The total population of study area is 1,65,013 with population density of 57
persons per sq.km as against the population density 129 persons per sq.km for
state. Thus as compared to state the study area is very sparsely populated
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
> Sex ratio (no. of females/1000 males) is 872, which indicates that females are less
in number than their male counterpart in the study area and lower as compared to
state 910 females/1000 males
> The overall literacy rate in the study area is 20% which is less than the state
average 38.5%
> The employment rate in the study area is 40.2%
2.6.2.2 Infrastructure Resource Base
The Infrastructure resource base of the villages in the study area with reference
to education, medical, water resource, post and telegraph, transportation and power
supply based on census data, 1991 is presented in Table 2.6.4
The significant features are:
> Maximum villages have primary and middle school. There are 11 high schools and
2 pre university/ junior colleges. The education facilities are not satisfactory in the
study area which is already reflected in Literacy rate of 20%
> Medical facilities in terms of community health workers and registered medical
practitioners are available in most of the villages
> In the study area 3 PHC and 18 PHS are available and most of the villages avail
this facility within a distance of 5 to 10 kms
> The rural people from all district use untreated well water for drinking purpose.
Near plant side village people using treated water provided by RAPP water supply
facility
> Communication is very poor in the study area. Very few villages have post office
facilities. More than 90% villages in study area use these services within 5 to 10
km. distances
> Bus is the main mode of transport and most of the villages are connected through
road network and also approachable through public transport
> Most of the villages are electrified. Power supply is available for both domestic as
well as agriculture purposes
2.6.2.3 Economic Attributes
The main occupation of the people in the area is based on agriculture. Sixty seven
percent of main workers are engaged in agricultural and alied activities. The food crops
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
grown in all districts are Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Wheat, Barley, Pulses, Oil seeds,
Sugarcane and Cotton. Besides, livestock play an important role in the economy of the
study area. Five percent of the main workers are engaged in this activity.
Study area is famous for tourist centres, archeological importance and for
handicraft. 19% people are engaged in the household industries. A fabric well known by
the name "Kota fabric" is exported. This gives revenue to the Govt. and enhances the
economy of people engaged in this business.
The forest - based resources also supports the economy in the study area. There
are no major industries in the study area. The employment pattern in the study area is
shown in Fig. 2.6.2.
2.6.2.4 Health Status
Health of the people is not only a desirable goal, but is also essential investment
in Human Resources. As per the National Health Policy (1983), primary health care has
been accepted as a main instrument for achieving this goal. For the development and
strengthening of rural health infrastructure through a three-tier system, viz. Sub-centres,
primary health centre (PHCs) and community health centre have been established.
Lack of buildings, shortage of manpower and inadequate provision of drug
supplies and equipments constitutes major impediments to full operationalisation of these
units. The standards for need of medical infrastructures and personnel according to
National Health Policy are given below:
Population Infrastructure Personnel
25,000-30,000 1 PHC, 6 beds 2 Medical officers
3,000-5,000 1 Subcentre 1ANM
1,00,000 Rural Medical superintendent
Health Status in the Study Area
According to district census handbook 1991, there are three Primary Health
Centres in the study area viz., Bhainsrorgarh, Lamba Khoh, and Jawahar Sagar, besides
medical facility in the form of maternity and child welfare units (MCW). All PHCs are well
maintained but shortage of personnel and equipment has adversely affected the
performance of sub-centre. The information regarding morbidity pattern, from PHCs are
presented in Table 2.6.5.
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Reviewing the morbidity reports of primary health centres and socio-economic
survey, it is revealed that respiratory infections, diarrhoea, and dysentery are the most
prevailing diseases in the area, which leads to health impairment. Besides this other
diseases are dermatitis, anemia and gastroenteritis.
As per the discussion with medical officer at PHCs, it was revealed that there was
no report of death due to project related activity except old age and natural death, project
activity did not contribute reasons for the death
Health care infrastructure in the study area is good. In some villages, private
practitioners are providing health services. Most of the villagers visit Bhainsrorgarh PHC
and Kota, hospital as it is well maintained with all infrastructure equipments and drugs.
Also in case of emergency they visit to Kota for availing advanced medical facilities.
For the workers, periodically annual health check up is conducted under
occupational health and the reportable cases are sent for the treatment.
2.6.2.5 Cultural and Aesthetic Attributes
The study area has its archaeological importance, the fort at Bhaisrorgarh,
Parajhar Mahadev cave, Geparnath Mahadev attracts many tourists & most important is
Baroli old temple in study area. Shiv Temple in Gepernath is now under the control of the
Archaeological Department.
2.6.3 Socio-economic Survey
2.6.3.1 Sampling Method
In order to assess and evaluate the likely impacts arising out of any
developmental projects on socio-economic environment, it is necessary to gauge the
apprehensions of the people in the project area. Socio-economic survey serves as an
effective tool for fulfilling this requirement.
Socio-economic survey was conducted in the study area in 14 villages located in
all directions with reference to project site by interviewing sarpanch of each village and
respondent (adults male-female) chosen by using judgmental or purposive sampling
methods representing various socio-economic sections of the community.
The salient observations recorded during the survey are :
> Literacy level amongst the respondents is poor. This is mainly because of lack of
educational facilities. Most of the respondents are hardly educated upto primary
level. Literacy rate in the study area is low i.e. 20%
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
> Wood and kerosene are the fuels mainly used for cooking purposes and very few
are using LPG fuel.
> Wells and Hand-pumps are the main sources of drinking water supply. Potability
also appear to be satisfactory. Sanitation facilities are very poor in the villages
surveyed
> Due to improper planning of drainage system respondents have reported the
problems related to mosquito nuisance
> Milk product is another important activity in the study area
> In case of emergency, villagers have to go to nearby town Kota to avail medical
facilities
> In most of the villages, respondents reported that their monthly income is nearly
Rs. 2000 - 4000. Unemployment problem is grave in the study area
> A discussion with Medical officer and residents at Rawatbhata revealed that, TB is
widely spreading disease
> The mode of transport is Bus and the buses are most frequent. The respondents
expressed satisfaction with respect to transportation facility
> More than 80% of the respondents are having electricity facility in their houses
Project Awareness and Opinion
Querries were made to the local people of villages surveyed for their awareness
about the project in general and their apprehensions about safety and health aspects of
Atomic Power Plant operation in particular. During discussions, following observations
were recorded.
Project awareness amongst the public is quite high in the villages surveyed
because of:
> Existing project activity
> Campaign by the RAPP personnel
> RAPP Multiple Units Activity and its facilities
Inspite of this high awareness about the project, nearly one fourth of the
respondents have not been able to express their opinion about the project, being "good"
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
or "bad" for the area. Amongst the remaining three fourth, opinion is divided equally in
favour of and against the project.
Inability to express their view as mentioned above can be attributed to:
- Lack of any knowledge about the very concept of Nuclear Power
Inspite of the efforts put in by the NPC personnel, the message has not
reached the masses effectively
> The respondents from Bhainsrorgarh and Shripura reported unfavorable opinion
about the project. This can be attributed to the fact that these two villages are very
close to the Chambal river and project site, and their apprehension is that
Chambal water may get polluted leading to water born diseases
> Misapprehensions leading the people in believing that the project would pollute the
water and air in the environment and radiation hazards would increase the cancer
prevalence in the area. These conditions are also responsible for an unfavorable
opinion in the rural area surveyed
> A large fraction of the group, expressing unfavorable opinion about the project,
can be accounted for the misapprehensions about the safety aspects of the power
plants. Nearly 60% of the respondents emphatically voiced their opinion about the
nuclear power plants being unsafe. This opinion is a result of intensive anti-
nuclear lobby/interested activities and influence of media
> However, job opportunities already given to the local people during construction
have resulted in the nearly 25% of the respondents expressing favorable opinion
about the project. This favorable opinion can also be attributed to improvement in
transportation and communication as well as the welfare activities in the rural area
2.6.3.2 Quality of Life
Quality of life (QoL) is a term, which indicates overall status of socio-economic
environment in a given area. Quality of life (QoL) is defined as a function between
"objective conditions" and "subjective attitudes" involving a defined "area" of concern.
The "objective conditions" are defined as numerically measurable artifacts of a
physical, sociological event or economic event. Objective conditions may be defined as
any number, which stands for a given quantity of a variable of interest so long as it is
independent of subjective opinion.
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NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Subjective attitude" is primarily concerned with affective and cognitive dimensions.
It is specifically concerned with 'how aspects of cognition vary as objective conditions
vary'.
Once objective measures are obtained for each factor they are transformed to a
normal scale varying from 0 to 1 (value function curve) in which 0 corresponds to the
lowest or least satisfactory measure, and 1 corresponds to the highest. The weights
assigned to each factor by ranked-pairwise technique, by the expert group based on the
secondary data and general observations.
For each objective measure, a corresponding subjective measure is developed for
each individual of the sample population by asking one to rate one's satisfaction. Scale
(value function curve) is used such that 0 corresponds to the lowest level of attitudinal
satisfaction and 1 corresponds to the highest level of satisfaction. Weights are assigned
to each factor using ranked - pairwise comparison techniques.
The Socio-economic Indicators for QoL Assessment are :
1. Income, Employment and Working Condition
2. Housing
3. Food
4. Clothing
5. Water Supply and Sanitation
6. Health
7. Energy
8. Transportation and Communication
9. Education
10. Environment and Pollution
11. Recreation
12. Social Security
13. Human Rights
2.159
NEER1 Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
I. Subjective quality of life
m p
QoL
s
= 1/p I I Qlj, X Wi 2.6.1
i =1 j=1
Where,
QoL
s
= Subjective quality of life index
p = No. of respondents, j = 1 , p
m = No. of factors, i = 1, m
Qly = Subjective quality index for i
th
factor assigned by j
t h
respondent
Z Qiij = Subjective quality index for i
th
factor assigned by all
respondents in an area
Wi = Relative weightage of the i
th
factor
II. Objective quality of life
i=n
QoL
o
= 1 Ql, X W, - - - 2.6.2
i=1
Where,
QoL
o
= Objective quality of life index
n = No. of QoL Factors
i = 1 , n
Qli = Satisfaction level (assigned by the expert group) for the i
th
objective indicator
W| = Normalized weight for i
m
factor
III. Quality of Life (Cumulative Index)
QoL
o
+ QoL
s
QoL
c
= 2.6.3
2
The subjective and objective QoL indices prior to commissioning of the project are
presented in Table 2.6.6.
The average QoL index values are estimated as :
QoL
(
s)
QoL
{0)
QoL
Ir
.\
0.51
0.53
0.52
2.160
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
The average QoL index value for the study area is leaning towards satisfactory
level due to good economic status like income, employment and also availability of basic
needs, viz. food, clothing, housing. The area lacking with medical, educational facilities
and social security, besides water scarcity, inadequate irrigation, lack of sanitation, which
are subjective conditions and are not much satisfactory as compared to objective
conditions.
Information Gathered from RAPP Management
The design of Station has been done to meet the international standards and are
designed such that exposure to the personnel working will receive a dose as low as
reasonably achievable. Annexure - A gives detailed information.
Similarly health and safety provision inside plant and nearby area is detailed in
Annexure - B.
Annexure - C focuses upon the category wise employment statistics and
infrastructure facilities provided inside township.
Annexure - D Provides information over the morbidity pattern of RAPP as well as
Non-RAPP Population.
2.161
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Annexure - A
Health & Safety at NPP
During the operation of the nuclear power plant, main health hazard that is
encountered is radiation hazard apart from the any normal industrial hazard. This is a
very clean industry chemically, as no chemical pollutants are released. In these plants,
there are three sections to take care of all these problems. They are :
1. Health Physics Division
2. Industrial Safety Division
3. Sanitary Division
The design of the station has been done to meet the international standards. NPP
is designed such that the the personnel working will receive a radiation dose as low as
reasonably achievable. Health Physics Division is an independent division directly
working under BARC and are administratively reporting to Station Management. They
are responsible for the radiation dose control of the operating personnel. Activities of this
section are entirely governed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) guidelines
and International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) codes and reports to
BARC and AERB. They are responsible for the radiation dose control of individuals and
are responsible for assessing the working condition and duration at any location within
the power plant.
The design of the plant takes in to account all industrial safety regulations
presently in practice and in force. Industrial safety division is responsible for all the safety
aspects of the power station. They are also responsible for training industrial workers in
using safety appliances during the course of their work. They are responsible for the
inspection and certification of any electrical installation in the plant and are responsible for
qualifying and authorizing the operator for the operation of electrical installations.
Sanitary division is responsible for the hygiene part in the plant site areas. They
are responsible for maintaining the stock of all sanitary requirements and materials and
gadgets required and issue them to the employees. These people are responsible for the
maintenance of all toilets, shower rooms, laundry, and supply of fresh clothes to the
employees going for works inside the reactor building, they are also responsible for
decontamination of contaminated areas.
2.162
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Annexure - B
Health & Safety provision
Inside the Plant and Industrial Premises
The plant locations along with its auxiliary buildings are housed inside a fence
known as operating island. And there is an area of 2 km radius around the plant in which
no habitation is permitted which is known as Exclusion Boundary.
Within the plant area just outside the operating island, a dispensary is setup,
which is operational 24 hours with duty staff. During the day, a doctor will be available
and at nights he will be available on call duty. Ambulance will be available throughout at
the site itself. Any patient requiring medical attention immediately can be shifted to the
main hospital at the township
For Nearby Area
For staff of power station, a full-fledged hospital is established near township
with all facilities. The hospital have at least 75 beds, pathological laboratories; X-ray
facility, ENT, Labor ward and operation facilities with 35 number of doctors and nursing.
In case of necessity, the corporation doctors will refer cases to approved institutions for
necessary treatment. The specialist doctors visits twice in a month.
For the population nearby, a base line data on the health of the population is
taken. On a regular basis health surveys are conducted. In addition, with the help of the
State Authorities and Voluntary Organizations, health camps like eye camps, family
planning camps, general checkup camps are conducted. It is also proposed to augment
some medical facilities available in the local Primary Health Centres.
2.163
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
1. Total number of persons employed as
on 01.09.2003
2. Welfare provisions implemented for the
betterment of project affected people :
3. Category-wise employment patters :
Annexure - C
RAPS 1 & 2 RAPS 3 & 4
1550 1108
NA NA
Group - A :
Group - B :
Group - C :
Group - D :
287
505
633
125
216
292
546
54
4. Infrastructure facilities provided inside township :
a) Residential accommodation/parks
b) School
c) Hospital/Dispensaries
d) Sports Complex/ / Welfare Centre / Community Centre
e) Shopping Complex / Cooperative Stores
f) Bank / Post Office
g) Guest House / Training Hostels for trainees i.e. Engineer, Supervisor, Tradesman
h) Petrol Pump
i) Cable TV facilities
j) Craft classes for families of the employees
k) Security arrangement
2.164
5s
Annexure - D
Total Patient's Admitted at RAPS Hospital in Year - From January 2000 to December 2000 (E&F WING)
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total
Total
Admission
92
80
82
90
107
106
149
120
121
124
106
109
1286
Medical
71
55
64
76
86
83
109
98
98
100
93
99
1032
Surgical
17
16
16
10
20
21
37
19
20
22
9
7
214
Ophthalmic
4
9
2
4
1
2
3
2
3
2
4
3
39
Dental
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Nil
-
-
-
1
Cancer
Cases
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
Nil
Nil
1
4
18
TB.
Cases
-
-
1
2
-
3
2
2
Nil
2
Nil
-
12
Non-
RAPP
1
2
2
2
1
5
1
2
6
1
-
3
26
M.L.C.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
Death
-
-
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
15
Referred / Outside To
Kota
2
7
8
5
6
11
12
13
23
17
13
14
131
Jaipur
SDMH
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
6
B.A.R.C.
-
2
Nil
-
-
-
1
2
2
1
2
Nil
10
M.L.C. : Medical Legal Cases
B. A. R. C: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Contd.
5T
ro
Do
Co
I
CD
T3
Yearly Statistics Records of Patients from January 2002 to December 2002 (E&F WING)
ON
ON
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total
Total
Admission
64
57
66
60
51
78
82
80
92
68
73
56
827
Death
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
Nil
Nil
Nil
1
Nil
9
Cardiac
Cases
5
6
5
3
5
3
4
Nil
4
2
1
Nil
38
Neurological
Cases
1
2
2
2
Nil
3
4
2
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
13
Malaria Cases
17
9
9
18
15
15
23
33
34
28
29
19
249
Infected
Cases
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
2
2
4
1
Nil
Nil
Nil
2
11
Non-RAPP
cases
1
3
Nil
Nil
2
3
2
2
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
13
CO
3'
I'
1
I
S
§•
Contd..
ON
Yearly Statistics Records of Patients from January 2003 to August 2003 (E&F WING)
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
Total
Admission
52
52
55
64
69
56
75
109
Medical
38
40
35
40
47
34
51
80
Surgical
14
10
20
24
22
22
24
29
Ophthalmic
Nil
2
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Dental
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Cancer
1
Nil
Nil
1
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
TB. Cases
2
2
Nil
Nil
Nil
1
1
5
Non-RAPP
Nil
Nil
1
2
Nil
Nil
2
3
MLC
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Death
1
1
Nil
1
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Infected
2
5
2
2
1
1
2
6
Malaria
5
3
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
1
3
P. vivex
Nil
Nil
1
2
1
Nil
2
3
P. vivex : Plasmodium vivex
I
CD
S
1
I
CO
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
75° 50'
LEGEND.
O SAMPLING LOCATIONS (1,2,3 )
TAR ROAD
EARTMEHK ROAO
g r g RANA PRATAP SAGAR
Figure 2.6.1 : Sampling Locations for Socio-economic Envirnoment
2.168
Marginal Workers 5.32%
JsJ
ON
Non-workers 54.46%'
Total Main Workers 40.22%
Transport & Communication 2%
Manufacturing & Processing 19%
Agricultural Labours 18%
-Cultivators 54%
Construction and Other 7%
Fig. 2.6.2 : Employment Pattern in the Study Area
o
DO
a>
2.
3'
CD
I
I
3
CO
3
03
CD
a.
I
5'
3
O
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Distance and
Villages
Rawatbhata
Baroli
Khatikhera
Table 2.6.1
Direction of the Villages
Distance
(Km)
5.5
9
11
Bhainsroradgarh 11.5
Deepura
Mandesara
Bhagwatipura
Ekllingpura
Shripura
Borabas
Nalikhera
Jawahar sagar
Gandhi sagar
Borav
12
12
13
14
15
18.5
20
20
23
25
Surveyed
Direction
N
E
ESE
NNW
ENE
W
WNW
ESE
NW
NNE
WNW
NNE
S
WNW
2.170
Table 2.6.2
Demographic Structure in the Study Area
Sr.
No.
A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
2 1.
22.
23.
Village Area
No. of
Residential
Houses
Total Population
TP M F
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
Distt. Chittodgarh
Tehsil:Begun,p.s.:Bhaisrodgarh
Peepalda
Shambhoounathji
Ka Khera
Kishanpuriya
Narhargarh
Pratappura
Gorakiya
Sukhpura
Khumanganj
Bhoonjar Kalan
Nasera
Bhunjar Khurd
Khalgaon
Amba
Bhainsrorgarh
Jagpura
Koriya Khal
Hajipur
Balapura
Jaora Kalan
Jaora Khurd
Barodiya
Neem Ka Khera
Kacholiya
593.11
348.37
390.45
547.68
323.32
580.99
1282.00
1250.00
147.25
29.07
403.10
191.22
37.19
2873.01
818.02
108.56
120.47
122.50
378.17
974.95
232.63
144.02
36.81
106
109
486
524
246
272
240
252
14
23
163
147
56
87
203
175
106
76
177
273
Un-lnhabited
69
97
5
136
48
143
11
81
302
467
23
722
250
638
60
342
156
246
12
394
133
330
36
181
146
221
11
328
117
308
24
161
-
24
-
110
23
-
-
-
298
104
6
216
8
570
60
259
7
144
10
47
49
10
-
34
105
147
7
328
162
186
34
152
73
129
6
-
-
103
-
20
124
191
10
394
88
349
26
170
Un-lnhabited
16
884
114
2
9
10
79
87
156
11
12
67
4396
593
9
43
43
435
502
859
60
63
32
2335
301
4
22
23
230
255
460
34
38
35
2061
292
5
21
20
205
247
399
26
25
-
463
21
-
-
-
57
38
216
5
-
16
820
281
9
11
43
293
431
502
36
63
14
1882
85
-
9
-
67
49
170
2
1
23
1718
326
2
15
12
247
168
428
17
21
-
21
-
-
2
1
-
39
55
14
16
44
2657
267
7
26
30
188
295
376
29
26
DO
03
Co
CD.
3'
CD
I
CD
3
Sr.
No.
Village Area
No. of
Residential
Houses
Total Population
TP M
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
24.
Saneeta 418.70 27 137 68 69 55 20 32 27 78
25.
Teendwa 80.86 Un-lnhabited
26.
Deopuriya 201.26 30 179 92 87 30 55 38 38 103
27.
Sankhalon Ka
Dundha
362.76 135 570 355 215 66 20 377 229 339
2 8.
Mahupura 196.77 35 155 80 75 19 9 34 46 18 91
29.
Shyampura 45.46 Un-lnhabited
30.
Bhwanipura 325.48 54 234 123 111 10 109 23 94 140
31.
Udpuria 127.12 40 206 106 100 129 28 69 137
32.
Bakhtpura 765.94 121 540 293 247 76 301 33 245 295
33.
Peerpura 97.59 Un-lnhabited
34.
Shripura 1410.10 249 1206 629 577 89 488 232 458 225 523
CO
03
2
3
| at
Co
ll
35.
Lothiyana 452.15 112 446 244 202 17 390 44 133 313
36.
Dhagadmau
Kalan
388.28 127 628 339 289 403 22 93 301 18 309
37.
Laxmi Khera 404.22 42 242 125 117 59 24 119 27 96
38.
Borao 1465.20 459 2313 1209 1104 309 157 692 868 229 1216
39.
Kema Ka Khera 228.29 43 231 121 110 17 39 77 60 94
40.
Tamboliya 445.74 76 382 211 171 94 29 22 130 108 144
41.
Takarda 469.84 154 776 411 365 80 18 218 224 148 404
42.
Kesharpura 288.59 46 272 127 145 83 14 97 78 97
43.
Ganeshpura 235.10 60 336 171 165 98 122 97 90 149
44.
Kalyanpura 53.17 Un-lnhabited
45.
Bordan 431.05 121 629 332 297 54 45 175 248 123 258
46.
Gopalpura 357.37 144 674 343 331 90 112 188 409 263
47.
Shambhoopura 309.26 41 197 101 96 187 11 65 56 76
48.
Umarcha 1633.51 67 285 153 132 265 20 92 74 119
49.
Jai nagar 91.19 17 64 31 33 64 39 25
50.
Nangpura 1240.46 149 698 376 322 332 76 337 15 346
Sr.
No.
5 1.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
Village
Dhangadmau
Khurd
Mandesara
Ratanpura
Hatholi
Lohariya
Mortooka
Beer Kala Khet
Parajar Khurd
Jhalar Baori
Thamlao
Jalampura
Kishorepura
Kelu Kheri
Khajupura
Bana Ka Khera
Deeppura
Manpura
Jharjhani
Nai Ki Talai
Amarpura
Bhagwatpura
Malpura
Kotra
Bambori Kalan
Badodiya
Menpura
Semaliya
Kherli
Area
6215.83
1888.27
308.17
447.17
1673.54
92.71
313.96
153.84
1743.38
1181.14
170.00
202.46
196.00
88.00
174.00
452.08
102.07
1925.00
96.00
73.00
180.90
329.01
340.22
371.71
634.00
147.13
1067.76
4147.49
No. of
Residential
Houses
151
257
55
35
118
37
21
117
344
143
4
55
10
15
10
79
Total Population
TP
631
1135
268
191
566
171
119
519
1512
794
26
251
81
122
38
376
M
328
612
137
106
301
90
70
281
815
418
14
137
46
66
23
201
F
303
523
131
85
265
81
49
238
697
376
12
114
35
56
15
175
Scheduled
Caste
12
47
112
-
29
107
4
73
252
19
-
-
-
28
-
20
Scheduled
Tribe
597
666
2
189
188
36
56
211
263
190
26
251
-
45
38
219
Literate
25
150
60
3
122
14
5
52
484
137
-
-
22
21
-
52
Main
Workers
320
541
114
47
196
49
37
211
507
358
13
147
31
53
26
144
Marginal
Workers
-
23
-
40
145
35
17
40
1
11
-
-
-
2
-
7
Non
Workers
311
571
154
104
225
87
65
268
1004
425
13
104
50
67
12
225
Un-lnhabited
276
33
1442
137
765
75
677
62
240
134
255
-
317
5
729
88
1
-
712
49
Un-lnhabited
3
34
61
31
240
20
33
15
165
378
158
1245
95
156
6
82
204
85
653
48
74
9
83
174
73
592
47
82
15
6
26
-
350
-
19
-
159
189
55
174
27
42
-
5
35
38
422
4
41
10
98
210
57
465
29
51
-
-
-
-
108
18
-
5
67
168
101
672
48
105
Un-lnhabited
f y
Sr.
No.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
Village
Kundaliya
Emti
Ganga Ka Khera
Sarangpura
Toda Ka Khera
Barwan
Jhoojhala
Lasana
Chenpura
Kushalgarh
Khera Veeran
Nali
Paral Banda
Phootpal
Kolpura
Ajpura
Dhuniya
Bargaon
Rawatpura
Kharnai
Kripapur
Agra
Ogadiya
Rajpura
Arena Kalan
Ganeshpura
Arena Khurd
Doodi Talai
Area
57.00
228.28
87.84
238.78
174.91
1412.02
40.18
205.27
112.22
178.52
20.12
829.78
203.87
504.47
1366.33
369.46
450.70
329.59
239.63
2037.50
1217.89
1284.60
257.22
759.36
710.28
41.84
104.37
1657.35
No. of
Residential
Houses
Total Population
TP M F
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
38
56
74
68
30
71
1
41
104
26
150
265
358
316
131
294
10
195
473
111
78
145
188
173
66
167
6
99
244
58
72
120
170
143
65
127
4
96
229
53
6
-
20
5
5
1
-
-
-
7
144
226
239
311
-
293
10
169
442
95
-
15
25
17
8
2
2
4
54
4
69
112
159
174
76
135
6
107
223
64
-
42
6
-
-
1
1
1
14
1
81
111
193
142
55
158
3
87
236
46
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
43
116
38
120
257
609
221
580
131
313
109
294
126
296
112
286
-
11
-
9
257
498
221
544
12
32
-
22
152
357
104
236
-
1
19
7
105
251
98
337
Un-lnhabited I
63
110
296
537
148
275
148
262
-
3
163
426
19
27
152
218
-
-
144
319
Un-lnhabited II
Un-lnhabited I
121 572 292 280 38 533 13 324 2 246
8
•8
00
3
s
Is;
Co
Sr.
No.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
Village
Ratoli
Baheliya
Kesha Ka Khera
Manoli
Chhatarpura
Dabarwas
Raipur
Bheempura
Ren Khera
Halsera
Ladpur
Jal Khera
Bambori Khurd
Dhardi
Karanpura
Dhawad Khurd
Dhawad Kalan
Mohanpur
Khati Khera
Vijaipur
Eklingpura
Dholai
Matasara
Charmi
Banda
Antraliya
Goyat
Arniya
Area
1853.66
614.49
217.82
727.94
94.22
88.82
2405.42
340.72
938.49
400.29
684.43
391.68
232.37
504.83
206.00
226.17
777.69
560.39
1077.45
241.22
1088.32
953.49
3785.40
359.38
356.50
204.00
230.32
171.64
No: of
Residential
Houses
Tota
TP
Population
M F
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
Un-lnhabited
60 445 222 223 52 183 61 237 7 201
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
35
176
34
177
147
19
90
24
38
163
127
272
37
293
62
179
877
196
1016
810
89
444
168
199
1042
657
1405
181
1456
292
96
463
100
539
426
46
224
88
100
547
349
725
108
763
157
83
414
96
477
384
43
220
80
99
495
308
680
73
693
135
-
375
123
159
225
-
135
29
-
332
84
86
5
161
29
65
47
8
-
17
89
52
56
199
118
137
21
162
173
58
32
160
28
272
142
-
109
20
3
261
143
580
29
406
74
60
442
68
510
456
45
245
98
100
532
365
567
68
671
85
-
-
-
16
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
42
-
-
59
119
435
128
490
354
44
199
70
99
509
292
796
113
785
148
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
2
•8
ry
CD
0)
CO
CD
Q.
o
5T
Sr.
No.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
160.
161.
Village
Kerpura
Chak Baori Ki Mai
Thah Ka Khera
Mordi
Amlat
Anandpura
Arniya
Motipura
Neem Ka hera
Rooppura
Upuriya
Narayanpura
Malgarh
Talar
Jaswantpura
Jagliya Rundi
Dareeba
Bassi
Parlai Khurd
Bhanda Kuri
Tolon Ka Luhariya
Gujaron Ki
Morvan
Semliya
Hado Ki Morvan
Hamerganj
Kewaron Ka
Lahuriya
Daulpur
Area
132.00
145.03
207.53
343.02
230.95
626.18
273.70
83.78
148.29
713.51
247.66
483.49
33.15
207.20
331.24
118.22
148.25
1491.28
681.33
610.72
267.36
388.18
173.24
72.22
79.26
1256.42
448.39
No. of
Residential
Houses
Tota
TP
1 Population
M F
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
62 246 121 125 - 243 6 137 1 108
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
50 247 145 102 158 15 106 141
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
42
118
31
56
101
82
39
46
45
34
25
219
497
189
295
529
362
165
249
268
154
157
109
264
103
144
272
199
83
133
138
81
84
110
233
86
151
257
163
62
116
130
73
73
8
106
-
-
57
41
-
14
9
27
7
169
287
121
285
135
139
7
-
6
75
2
7
78
40
5
139
41
28
71
90
11
53
67
238
98
183
191
234
63
106
125
76
59
53
-
-
-
65
11
14
-
27
-
-
99
259
91
112
273
117
88
143 I
116
78
98
5
•8
Do
&>
I
S
1
I
Co
55"
E?
C/j
CD
Sr.
No.
162.
163.
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
Village
Kharama
Jawada
Laxmipura
Neemoda
Bagpura
Gurha Khera
Arniya
Barodia
Mai Khera
Balkundi Khurd
Balkundi Kalan
Amarpura
Balaganj
Neemri
Gopalpura
Deopura
Kherat
Kanwarpura
Bakhari
Meghpura
Khangarpura
Baori Khera
Menpura
Prempur
Doongariya
Anwalhera
Jheenkra
Peepali Khera
Area
550.34
1406.43
755.10
730.58
153.70
261.94
197.31
240.15
496.54
326.79
825.55
372.06
79.03
349.14
466.03
1557.27
427.58
842.72
72.14
96.19
424.43
714.61
1061 20
254.20
142.48
805.46
1424.67
40.15
No. of
Residential
Houses
43
288
132
100
20
35
3
Total Population
TP
216
1427
634
530
107
178
22
M
109
727
350
265
58
85
11
F
107
700
284
265
49
93
11
Scheduled
Caste
21
232
75
108
-
-
-
Scheduled
Tribe
48
3
380
120
31
135
-
Literate
37
499
105
128
17
29
15
Main
Workers
86
737
214
273
39
55
6
Marginal
Workers
-
2
161
-
38
33
8
Non
Workers
130
688
259
257
30
90
8
Un-lnhabited
80
28
92
88
398
140
465
401
207
69
252
216
191
71
213
185
48
38
225
13
107
52
54
325
51
14
91
34
147
68
282
240
151
-
-
-
100
72
183
161
Un-lnhabited
12
14
185
71
60
997
44
33
541
27
27
456
-
-
3
40
59
222
12
-
258
35
34
356
-
-
-
36
26
641
Un-lnhabited
94 470 249 221 73 123 66 154 177 139
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
53
32
54
282
214
249
153
110
145
129
104
104
66
-
36
216
3
154
49
30
-
152
70
139
-
57
-
130
87
110
Un-lnhabited I
55
11
292
66
144
34
148
32
-
-
191
-
5
5
152
18
-
19
140
29
Un-lnhabited I
8"
Go
Sr.
No.
190.
191.
192.
193.
194.
195.
196.
197.
198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
B)
209.
210.
211.
212.
213.
214.
215.
Village
Muwada
Govindpura
Kuakhera
Latoor
Nayagaon
Chittoriya
Kethoola
Rampuriya
Kanti
Dotara
Peeplda
Bar Khera
Kanwarpura
Rodi
Mahana
Rooppura
Gilota
Manya Kheri
Shogarh
Total
Area
1628.72
313.93
3172.23
85.82
1556.63
457.76
517.22
1299.18
343.19
3375.55
1079.28
2614.62
121.16
6733.58
2095.55
1057.81
596.77
529.59
399.90
137019.60
No. of
Residential
Houses
54
20
113
Total Population
TP
286
98
543
M
154
57
287
F
132
41
256
Scheduled
Caste
-
-
125
Scheduled
Tribe
133
69
70
Literate
47
17
147
Main
Workers
134
60
176
Marginal
Workers
17
-
12
Non
Workers
135
38
355
Un-lnhabited
22
14
100
58
43
31
57
27
59
-58
-
5
19
19
27
3
8
36
65
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
20
15
38
136
116
69
153
623
72
38
77
337
44
31
76
286
-
-
-
29
65
69
147
201
-
-
2
92
29
14
45
290
27
15
40
87
60
40
68
246
Un-lnhabited
297
124
56
145
93
79
12966
680
616
305
830
532
430
63941
484
323
151
444
268
223
33823
196
293
154
386
264
207
30118
25
73
13
27
35
12
7583
19
123
66
164
247
152
22483
36
182
39
182
102
70
12822
432
263
135
239
223
171
27868
-
-
2
93
83
78
3949
248
353
168
498
226
181
32124
Distt Bhilwara
Tehsil:Mandalgarh,P.S.: Mandalgarh
Baniyon Ka Talab
Katwara
Ker Khera
Surajbilas
Haripura
Ant
Bheroopura
680.00
495.00
408.00
236.52
26.42
366.00
103.00
169
126
128
39
3
70
24
713
611
538
183
14
337
138
375
317
287
98
6
169
74
338
294
251
85
8
168
64
310
18
12
11
-
32
87
8
205
236
21
14
183
-
156
31
32
27
-
18
6
278
330
157
105
7
189
86
2
1
188
-
1
-
-
433
280
193
78
6
148
52
S
1
I'
3
CD
52
CO
CD
a
I"
CD
Sr.
No.
216.
217.
218.
219.
220.
221.
222.
C)
223.
224.
225.
226.
227.
228.
229.
230.
231.
232.
233.
234.
235.
236.
237.
238.
239.
Village
Resunda
Kalighati
Jaloo Ka
Dhoondha
Danpura
Ummedpura
Anti
Gudha
Total
Area
522.00
163.00
24.33
234.56
152.44
1436.03
1233.46
6080.76
No. of
Residential
Houses
49
54
10
58
71
106
273
1180
Tota
TP
258
291
42
268
369
465
1291
5518
Population
M
139
143
20
137
187
263
715
2930
F
119
148
22
131
182
202
576
2588
Scheduled
Caste
42
59
-
-
75
5
199
850
Scheduled
Tribe
80
208
42
170
77
131
255
1630
Literate
63
5
-
14
50
43
299
744
Main
Workers
144
184
2 4
144
221
179
488
2536
Marginal
Workers
-
-
-
-
-
140
-
332
Non
Workers
114
107
18
124
148
146
803
2650
Distt. Bundi
Teh sil: Bundi, P.S.:Talera
Shyopuriya
Dora
Kachhalya
Palka
Gardara
Parana
(Karadonka)
Fatehpura
Deogarh
Laxmipura
Gopalpura
(Barad)
Dhorela
Gordhanpura
Budhpura
Barfoo
Ratanpura
Peepalda
Dhakran
Lambakhoh
976.95
2119.01
2604.66
3678.00
5068.00
1295.00
401.86
339.95
319.71
418.86
1341.59
381.22
664.09
1603.00
75.00
468.00
1581.00
37
135
177
73
521
303
87
55
73
116
191
128
1047
188
15
77
1353
318
658
1000
386
2761
1283
471
267
369
606
768
517
4640
862
75
266
4887
163
347
505
190
1497
713
236
139
192
324
430
281
2548
449
38
164
2900
155
311
495
196
1264
570
235
128
177
282
338
236
2092
413
37
102
1987
-
117
61
29
374
170
88
46
63
203
129
160
1245
62
-
19
1095
-
143
166
85
495
306
206
162
23
52
308
141
804
226
-
123
1188
-
110
27
25
352
67
34
10
146
25
62
61
737
58
-
26
854
84
295
453
197
957
602
196
155
191
345
380
164
1931
385
24
126
2306
1
58
103
7
171
128
-
-
-
3
20
19
71
-
-
2
20
233
305
444
182
1633
553
275
112
178
258
368
334
2638
477
51
138
2561
CD
Q]
Co
SL
3'
CD
i
1
CD
SL
SI
a
3
Q.
!
00
o
Sr.
No.
240.
2 41.
242.
243.
244.
245.
246.
247.
248.
249.
250.
2 5 1.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.
259.
D)
I)
260.
2 61.
262.
263.
264.
265.
Village
Ganeshpura
Chhant Ka Khera
Naroli
Rajpura
Bakchanch
Gurha
Dasalya
Daboosar
Beodiya
Dabi
Thari
Sootra
Bhawapura
Bhagwanpura
Kanwarpura
Bijari
Ohanesar
Karoo ndi
Jawahar Sagar
Khadipur
Total
Area
369.00
413.00
743.00
1211.26
2619.45
656.00
691.00
149.00
1602.96
1431.04
982.00
848.48
437.73
302.37
2549.96
1588.07
5892.82
1559.13
3059.32
5173.02
55614.51
No. of
Residential
Houses
257
21
66
811
12
143
143
20
102
873
132
375
39
165
208
138
433
208
622
121
9451
Total Population
TP
1261
109
209
3255
44
526
690
70
594
3677
709
1785
188
762
1090
708
1963
1160
2805
812
42551
M
665
60
134
1892
27
227
387
37
304
2068
366
949
100
454
546
369
1049
621
1539
432
23392
F
596
49
75
1363
17
249
303
33
290
1609
343
836
88
308
544
339
914
539
1266
380
19159
Scheduled
Caste
7
5
17
804
-
51
40
-
2
459
16
135
-
134
22
-
173
4
752
14
6496
Scheduled
Tribe
1172
7
40
1427
44
126
331
70
48
1133
408
550
188
141
490
155
1017
326
76
386
12563
Literate
47
37
55
388
-
72
58
-
15
887
66
194
12
131
223
8
195
9
1592
58
6641
Main
Workers
464
38
118
1690
14
183
319
22
180
1387
245
816
61
329
294
228
776
368
763
248
17334
Marginal
Workers
132
-
-
25
11
58
27
-
-
124
53
140
48
-
94
180
8
1
-
195
1699
Non
Workers
665
71
91
1540
19
285
344
48
414
2166
411
829
79
433
702
300
1179
791
2042
369
23518
Distt. Kota
Tehsil :Ramganj Mandi, P.S. .Ladpur
Rath Kankra
Jamoonya
Banda
Dharmpura
Pachankui
Ranpur
1879.75
235.49
2367.94
993.17
1539.07
3859.06
96
41
174
88
60
310
569
368
964
504
468
1809
297
185
516
261
237
984
272
183
448
243
231
825
2
-
126
56
-
139
275
-
410
140
-
335
8
13
61
68
43
509
203
126
276
170
135
576
-
-
-
76
119
-
366
242
688
258 j
214
1233
m
TO
'3
It
hv
CO
8
IS"
S
1
3
at
00
5T
c?
Sr.
No.
266.
267.
268.
269.
270.
271.
272.
273.
274.
275.
276.
277.
278.
279.
280.
281.
282.
283.
284.
285.
286.
287.
288.
289.
290.
291.
292.
293.
Village
Baori khera
Kolana or
Laxmipura
Pachpahar
Renkya Kheri
Kasar
Chorda
Chandreshl
Dhani
Barodliya
Arlya Jageer
Peepalheri
Chhipanheri
Khanpuriya
Shankarpura
Charanheri
Parlya
Arand Khera
Keetalhera
Deeppura
Baniyani
Seemalheri
Mandana
Mukundpura
Hanotiya
Sarangpura
Hirapura
Jodhpur
Mandalya
Area
724.99
1445.96
1849.99
772.26
1778.28
347.14
236.51
858.09
1234.68
630.96
105.60
364.69
1442.84
1032..02
340.18
245.04
1284.05
311.76
685.20
2487.14
1217.72
3619.39
264.20
349.61
386.66
651.26
657.35
1147.76
No. of
Residential
Houses
174
225
89
102
476
Total Population
TP
1015
1744
449
604
2695
M
546
893
244
323
1401
F
469
851
205
281
1294
Scheduled
Caste
104
21
16
224
355
Scheduled
Tribe
78
103
160
39
11
Literate
215
219
80
92
746
Main
Workers
305
710
234
267
702
Marginal
Workers
46
13
4
38
194
Non
Workers
664
1021
211
299
1799
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
139
186
166
32
23
42
132
67
52
397
84
134
349
71
860
23
132
53
70
52
200
771
1041
1004
219
139
219
747
457
307
2239
496
871
1887
393
4786
112
738
300
347
352
1152
402
559
539
117
74
111
373
245
160
1203
265
443
977
204
2516
53
393
164
180
190
624
369
482
465
102
65
108
374
212
147
1036
231
428
910
189
2270
59
345
136
167
162
528
27
230
231
-
30
-
17
47
87
476
60
56
434
32
1191
-
133
5
108
7
359
300
62
6
-
-
136
176
-
-
299
332
167
150
96
159
112
20
256
-
300
270
31
335
271
37
' 24
7
87
98
34
811
123
265
567
15
2043
1
125
1
23
101
349
256
305
290
69
67
76
271
121
97
724
144
251
512
236
1255
33
223
134
144
86
479
-
-
93
-
-
-
-
-
-
128
5
2
138
-
45
26
-
4
2
75
13
515
736
621
150
72
143
476
336
210
1387
347
618
1237
157
3486
53
515
162
201
191
660
c?
I
3'
oo
Sr.
No.
294.
295.
296.
297.
298.
299.
300.
301.
302.
303.
304.
305.
306.
307.
308.
309.
310.
311.
312.
313.
314.
315.
316.
317.
318.
319.
320.
321.
Village
Rel
Dolya
Akhawa
Borawas
Tholanpur
Kot Baori
Gadon Ka Gaon
Kolipura
Ratariya
Deopura
Neem Khera
Shyodanpura
Roopura
Borkui
Bachhriya
Bugchhach Kalan
Bugchach Khurd
Ummedpura
Girdharpura
Haripura
Chand Baori
Sabalpura
Kishanpura
Motipura
Bhagwanpura
Udpura
Prithvipura
Amarpura
Area
6489.10
3462.75
8938.76
4583.23
724.43
440.14
320.60
245.11
82.97
120.48
145.35
143.42
464.98
327.90
207.96
287.73
96.19
56.58
2241.48
213.91
72.79
36.91
1047.45
60.59
43.31
94.56
308.99
119.63
No. of
Residential
Houses
Total Population
TP M F
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
Un-lnhabited
176
11
506
872
119
2133
472
61
1147
400
58
986
142
-
243
181
-
538
185
9
195
310
26
658
109
1
87
453
92
1388
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
39 168 92 76 - 138 15 58 49 61
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
142 563 299 264 233 156 90 226 140 197
Un-lnhabited
83 542 282 260 7 131 16 285 58 199
Un-lnhabited
42 221 118 103 - 46 27 129 - 92
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
2 18 7 11 - - 3 18 - -
Un-lnhabited
3
CD
a>
Co
SL
CD
I
I
Q]
0 0
Sr.
No.
322.
323.
324.
325.
326.
327.
328.
329.
330.
331.
332.
333.
334.
D)
ii)
335.
336.
337.
338.
339.
340.
341.
342.
343.
344.
345.
346.
347.
Village
Khanagarpura
Dohniya
Indarpura
Jaspura
Narayanpura
Ganeshpura
Ama Ka Pani
Kharli Baori
Keshopura
Rojhala
Mandirgarh
Zaiimpura
Damodarpura
Total
Area
152.40
411.35
228.01
521.35
500.18
271.37
179.99
523.54
177.09
192.54
2132.18
86.92
605.87
74705.60
No. of
Residential
Houses
Total Population
TP M F
Scheduled
Caste
Scheduled
Tribe
Literate
r
Main
Workers
Marginal
Workers
Non
Workers
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
56 277 147 130 3 225 4 186 - 91
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
Un-lnhabited
2
26
20
81
11
148
100
459
4
93
53
253
7
55
47
206
-
-
-
-
-
148
32
459
-
11
4
3
2
70
55
149
2 .
-
-
-
7
78
45
310
Un-lnhabited
39
6324
176
35573
87
18794
89
16779
18
5219
21
6467
10
7884
53
11702
37
1504
86
22367
Distt. Kota
Tehsil :RamganjMandi,P.S.:Chechat
Balkoo
Ghatoli
Hatona
Sandya Kheri
Deori Kalan
Arlai
Khera Rudha
Phawa
Alod
Motipura Khurd
Neemoda
Mawasa
Zaiimpura Khurd
847.21
1341.28
575.18
256.25
813.23
557.20
467.65
293.09
828.25
170.23
474.13
653.20
169.22
22
163
126
134
208
137
294
76
249
43
83
89
16
93
784
771
831
1140
689
1515
447
1242
229
418
485
143
55
417
415
441
624
351
805
239
645
115
227
262
66
38
367
356
390
516
338
710
208
597
114
191
223
77
-
124
155
186
406
189
368
209
259
6
137
169
5
92
77
106
145
2
4
136
-
12
-
21
-
1
-
208
208
206
401
230
573
125
392
69
118
177
5
56
292
236
216
394
311
547
232
574
88
199
204
49
-
148
148
1
-
39
28
1
199
59
79
-
-
37
344
387
614
746
339
940
214
469
82
140
281
94
5
•8
C6
5"
I'
3
CD
OO
Source : District Census handbook 1991, Chittodgarh, Bhilwara, Kota, Bundi
Sr.
No.
348.
349.
350.
351.
352.
353.
354.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360.
361.
362.
363.
364.
365.
366.
367.
368.
Village
Phanda
Kalya Kheri
Motipura Kalan
Chandrapura
Jagpura Khurd
Salera Khurd
Reenchhi
Khani
Rajpura Khurd
Borina
Hathiya Kheri
Gulabpura
Amiawad Khera
Madanpura
Rooppura
Raghunathpura
Sohanpura
Jodhpura
Noopura
Bordi
Dudiyaheri
Total
Grand total
Area
168.65
117.18
187.21
520.50
264.12
353.22
366.12
768.28
209.18
280.18
540.18
228.30
110.20
55.15
140.15
280.18
359.20
182.09
646.20
204.34
149.13
13575.88
286996.35
No. of
Residential
Houses
115
68
28
93
Total Population
TP
702
349
156
564
M
364
176
82
304
F
338
173
74
260
Scheduled
Caste
257
-
114
15
Scheduled
Tribe
-
-
5
-
Literate
164
3
82
223
Main
Workers
223
156
36
172
Marginal
Workers
193
-
-
-
Non
Workers
286
193
120
392
Un-lnhabited
162
188
124
42
101
74
42
862
967
668
266
641
422
179
465
501
357
134
328
224
93
397
466
311
132
313
198
86
274
174
83
120
83
107
-
-
135
392
129
7
-
-
208
314
84
45
185
177
4
488
380
377
125
192
119
35
12
125
-
-
117
-
36
362
462
291
141
332
303
108
Un-lnhabited
139 965 502 463 42 59 343 272 57 636
Un-lnhabited
95
56
596
371
304
192
292
179
141
79
107
-
130
73
280
201
-
-
316
170
Un-lnhabited
58
85
34
3144
33065
304
447
184
17430
165013
163
233
108
9192
88131
141
214
76
8238
76882
56
116
52
3926
24074
9
-
-
1439
44582
18
68
26
4859
32950
119
259
97
6929
66369
50
2
-
1294
8778
135
186
87
9207
89866
CD
a>
Co
2.
3'
CD
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.6.3
Summary of Demographic Structure at a Glance
Demographic parameters Details
Number of State 2
Number of District 4
Number of Tehsil 5
Number of Panchayat samiti 5
Number of Villages 368
Total area in Sq.km 2870
Total No. of residential households 33065
Total population 165013
Density of population (persons per sq.km) 57
Sex ratio (No. of females per 1000 males) 872
Scheduled Castes (%) 24074(14.6)
Scheduled Tribe (%) 44582(20.0)
Literate (%) 32950 (20)
Main workers (%) 66369 (40.2)
Marginal workers (%) 8778 (5.3)
Non workers (%) 89865 (54.4)
Source : District Census Hand Book 1991, Dist.: Chittordgarh, Kota, Bundi,
Bhilwara
2.185
Table : 2.6.4
Sr.
No.
A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18:
19.
20.
2 1.
22.
23.
24.
Name of Village
Socio -economic Profile of the Study Area
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication
- Basic Amenities
Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
Distt. Chittodgarh
Tehsil:Begun,p.s,:Bhaisrodgarh
Peepalda
Shambhoounathji
Ka Khera
Kishanpuriya
Narhargarh
Pratappura
Gorakiya
Sukhpura
Khumanganj
Bhoonjar Kalan
Nasera
Bhunjar Khurd
Khalgaon
Amba
Bhainsrorgarh
Jagpura
Koriya Khal
Hajipur
Balapura
Jaora Kalan
Jaora Khurd
Barodiya
Neem Ka Khera
Kacholiya
Saneeta
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W,HP,N
W,HP,N
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
KR
KR
EAG
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(D
-(-5)
P(1)
-(5-10)
P(1)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
W,TK,HP,C,N,O
W,HP,N
W,N
W,HP,TK,N
W.HP.N
W,HP
W
W
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-
KR
-
KR
PR.KR
-
KR
-
EAG
ED.EAG
EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
-
EA
UN- INHABITED-
-(-5)
P(2),M(2),H(2),
PUC(1),O(1)
P(1)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
HC(1),PHC(1),PH
S(1),FPC(1)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W
T,R
HP
W
O
HP
HP.R.O
W,TK,HP,N
W,HP,S,N
HP,R
C,N
HP,R
-(-5)
PO.PHONE
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
BS
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-
PR
-
KR
-
-
PR
KR
PR
-
-
-
-
EA
EAG
-
EAG
-
ED.EAG
-
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
EAG
ED.EAG
CD
o>
CO
2.
CD
i
1
I'
3
£8
i"
Sr.
No.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
5 1.
52.
53.
Name of Village
Teendwa
Deopuriya
Sankhalon Ka
Dundha
Mahupura
Shyampura
Bhwanipura
Udpuria
Bakhtpura
Peerpura
Shripura
Lothiyana
Dhagadmau Kalan
Laxmi Khera
Borao
Kema Ka Khera
Tamboliya
Takarda
Kesharpura
Ganeshpura
Kalyanpura
Bordan
Gopalpura
Shambhoopura
Umarcha
Jai nagar
Nangpura
Dhangadmau Khurd
Mandesara
Ratanpura
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
R
R
R ,0
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
BS
PR
-
PR
ED.EAG
EAG
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
HP
W.HP
HP
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
EAG
ED.EAG
-
UN- INHABITED
P(1),M(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1),H(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1),M(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
! _ -(10+)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PHS(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W.HP
W.HP.R
W.HP.R.N
W.HP.N
W,HP,R,N
W.HP.R
W.HP.R.N
W.HP.N
W.HP.R.N
W.HP.R
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
PO
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
PR
PR.KR
PR.KR
KR
PR.KR
PR
PR
KR
PR
KR
EA
-
ED.EAG
EAG
EA
EAG
EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
P(2)
M(2)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(2)
P(1)
P(1).M(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
PHS(1)
-(-5)
W,HP
W.HP.N
W,HP
W.N
W.HP
W.HP
W.HP
W.HP
HP
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
in
"
-(5-10)
BS
-(-5)
KR
KR
-
KR
-
KR
-
PR.KR
-
ED.EAG
EA
EAG
-
ED
-
-
ED.EAG
EAG
Sr.
No.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
Name of Village
Hatholi
Lohariya
Mortooka
Beer Kala Khet
Parajar Khurd
Jhalar Baori
Thamlao
Jalampura
Kishorepura
Kelu Kheri
Khajupura
Bana Ka Khera
Deeppura
Manpura
Jharjhani
Nai Ki Talai
Amarpura
Bhagwatpura
Malpura
Kotra
Bambori Kalan
Badodiya
Menpura
Semaliya
Kherli
Kundaliya
Emti
Ganga Ka Khera
Sarangpura
Education
Facilities
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
AC(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
Medical
Facilities
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
Drinking Water
W
W.HP
HP
O
N
T,W,N,0
W.TK.HP
W
W.HP
HP,N
W,HP,N
W,HP
W.TK.HP
Communication
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
Transportation
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
BS
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
Approach Road
-
-
-
-
-
PR
PR
-
PR.KR
-
-
PR.KR
PR
Power Supply
-
ED.EAG
-
EAG
-
ED.EO
-
-
ED.EAG
-
EA
-
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
P(1)
-(10+)
-(-5)
W.TK.HP
W,HP
-(-5)
-(10+)
BS
-(-5)
PR
-
EA
-
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1),H(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
D(1),PHS(1),
RP(1)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
HP,0
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP,N
W,HP
HP
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
-(5-10)
KR
PR
-
-
KR
PR.KR
-
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
S
I
00
CD
CO
Si.
CD
I
I
c?
st
5'
g^
3'
T3
O^
CO
ST.
No.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
Name of Village
Toda Ka Khera
Barwan
Jhoojhala
Lasana
Chenpura
Kushalgarh
Khera Veeran
Nali
Paral Banda
Phootpal
Kolpura
Ajpura
Dhuniya
Bargaon
Rawatpura
Kharnai
Kripapur
Agra
Ogadiya
Rajpura
Arena Kalan
Ganeshpura
Arena Khurd
Doodi Talai
Ratoli
Baheliya
Kesha Ka Khera
Manoli
Chhatarpura
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(D
P(D
-(-5)
P(D
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
W
W
W.TW.HP
HP
W
HP
W
W.TK.HP
HP
W,HP
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-
-
PR
PR
PR
PR.KR
-
KR
KR
KR
-
EAG
EO
-
ED.EAG
EAG
-
-
-
-
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
W,HP
W.HP
W,HP
W,HP
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
KR
KR
KR
KR
-
-
-
-
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W,HP
W,HP
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
KR
KR
-
-
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
P(1) PHS(1) W,HP -(10+) -(10+) PR -
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(10+) W,HP -(10+) -(5-10) - ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
s
I
CD
3'
CD
I
CD
1
Sr.
No.
112.
113.
114.
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
137
138
139.
140.
Name of Village
Dabarwas
Raipur
Bheempura
Ren Khera
Halsera
Ladpur
Jal Khera
Bambori Khurd
Dhardi
Karanpura
Dhawad Khurd
Dhawad Kalan
Mohanpur
Khati Khera
Vijaipur
Eklingpura
Dholai
Matasara
Charmi
Banda
Antraliya
Goyat
Arniya
Kerpura
Chak Baori Ki Mai
Thah Ka Khera
Mordi
Amlat
Anandpura
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1),M(1)
P(1)
-(5-10)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1),M(1.)
P(1)
P(1),M(1),H(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
PHS(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
PHS(1)
-(-5)
H(1),HC{1)
-(-5)
HP
W,TK,HP,TW
HP
W,HP
HP.W.N
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
HP
W.TK.HP
HP
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
PO
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
BS
BS
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
-
KR
-
KR
KR
-
-
-
-
KR
KR
PR
-
PR
KR
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
EA
-
EA
ED.EAG
EAG
EA
EA
EA
EA
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
03
QJ
Co
3L
3"
CD
i
1
f
CO
5T
Q.
I
Sr.
No.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
Name of Village
Arniya
Motipura
Neem Ka hera
Rooppura
Upuriya
Narayanpura
Malgarh
Talar
Jaswantpura
Jagliya Rundi
Dareeba
Bassi
Parlai Khurd
Bhanda Kuri
Tolon Ka Luhariya
Gujaron Ki Morvan
Semliya
Hado Ki Morvan
Hamerganj
Kewaron Ka
Lahuriya
Daulpur
Kharama
Jawada
Laxmipura
Neemoda
Bagpura
Gurha Khera
Arniya
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5) -(-5) W.HP -(10+) -(10+) PR -
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5) -(10+) W,N -(10+) -(10+) - -
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
M(1),H(1)
P(1),M(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
H(1),PHS(1),
CHW(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
W,N
W.HP
W.HP
W,HP
W.HP
W,HP
W
W,HP
W,HP
W.HP.C
W
W.HP.C
W.HP.C
W,HP
W
W
W,HP
W,HP,R
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-
-
-
-
KR
KR
KR
-
-
-
-
-
KR
KR
KR
-
KR
-
-
ED.EAG
EA
-
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
EA
-
EA
EA
EAG
ED
EA
EA
Sr.
No.
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
183.
184.
185.
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
Name of Village
Barodia
Mai Khera
Balkundi Khurd
Balkundi Kalan
Amarpura
Balaganj
Neemri
Gopalpura
Deopura
Kherat
Kanwarpura
Bakhari
Meghpura
Khangarpura
Baori Khera
Menpura
Prempur
Doongariya
Anwalhera
Jheenkra
Peepali Khera
Muwada
Govindpura
Kuakhera
Latoor
Nayagaon
Chittoriya
Kethoola
Rampuriya
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
W,HP
W.HP
W,HP
W.HP.R
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
KR
KR
KR
KR
-
EA
EA
EA
UN- INHABITED
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
P(1),M(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
H(1)
W,R
W
W, 0
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-
-
KR
EA
-
EA
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(-5) W,R,O -(-5) -(-5) - EA
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
HP.N
W.HP.N
W,R
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-
-
-
-
-
-
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
R
HP,R,N
-(10+)
-(10+)
-
-
-
-
EA
-
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1).M(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
R,N
W,R,N
W,R,C,N,0
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-
-
KR
-
-
EA
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W,R
R,N
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-
-
-
-
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
S"
CD
Q)
Co
CD.
5^
CD
S
1
I
CD
00
5T
S"
CO
as
cf
o'
3
3"
"CD
CD
O
Sr.
No.
198.
199.
200.
201.
202.
203.
204.
205.
206.
207.
208.
B)
209.
210.
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
C)
223
Name of Village
Kanti
Dotara
Peeplda
Bar Khera
Kanwarpura
Rodi
Mahana
Rooppura
Gilota
Manya Kheri
Shogarh
Education
Facilities
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
P(1)
Medical
Facilities
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
Drinking Water
W
TK
TK,0
W,N
Communication
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
Transportation
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
BS
Approach Road
KR
KR
KR
KR
Power Supply
-
-
-
-
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(5-10)
H(1)
-(-5) '
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
N,0
TK.HP
W.HP
W.HP
W,HP
W,HP
-(5-10)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
BS
-(-5)
PR
KR
-
-
KR
KR
-
EA
-
EA
EA
-
Distt Bhilwara
Tehsil:Mandalgarh,P.S.: Mandalgarh
Baniyon Ka Talab
Katwara
Ker Khera
Surajbilas
Haripura
Ant
Bheroopura
Resunda
Kalighati
Jaloo Ka Ohoondha
Danpura
Ummedpura
Anti
Gudha
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1),M(D
PHS(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
D(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PHS(1)
W.HP.N
W,HP
W,HP
HP
W,HP
HP
W,HP
HP
W.HP
W,HP,N
W.HP.TW
HP
W,HP,R
W,TK,TW,HP,N
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
BS
BS
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
PR.KR
PR.KR
PR.KR
-
-
-
-
KR
-
-
-
-
PR
PR.KR
ED
-
-
EA
-
-
-
ED.EAG
-
-
-
-
-
EA
Distt.Bundi,P.S.:Talera
Teh sil: Bundi,P.S.:Talera
Shyopuriya -(5-10) -(10+) W,HP,P,N -(5-10) -(5-10) - -
o
Sr.
No.
224.
225.
226.
227.
228.
229.
230.
231.
232.
233.
234.
235.
236.
237.
238
239.
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
Name of Village
Dora
Kachhalya
Palka
Gardara
Parana (Karadonka)
Fatehpura
Deogarh
Laxmipura
Gopalpura (Barad)
Dhorela
Gordhanpura
Budhpura
Barfoo
Ratanpura
Peepalda Dhakran
Lambakhoh
Ganeshpura
Chhant Ka Khera
Naroli
Rajpura
Bakchanch
Gurha
Dasalya
Daboosar
Beodiya
Dabi
Thari
Sootra
Education
Facilities
P(1).M(1)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1),M(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1)
P(D
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(D
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1),H(1),AC(
1)
P(1),AC(1)
P(1)
Medical
Facilities
H(1)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
H(1)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
D(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
FPC(12),CHW(1)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
D(1),PHC(1),RP(1
)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
H(1),D(1),HC(1),P
HC(1), RP(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
Drinking Water
W.HP.N
HP
W,TK,HP,N
W.HP.R
W.HP
W.TW.HP
W.HP
W.TW.HP
W.HP
W,HP
W.HP
T.W.TWHP
HP
R
HP
W,HP,R
W..TW
W,TW,HP,R
W,HP,R
W,HP,R,N
W
W,HP,R
W,HP,R
TK,R
W,HP,R,C
T,W,TK,HP,C,N
W,TK,HP,N
W,HP
Communication
PO
-(5-10)
-(10+)
PO
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PTO.POHNE
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
PO
PO
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PTO.PHONE
-(-5)
-(5-10)
Transportation
BS
-(5-10)
-(10+)
BS
BS
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
BS
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(10+)
BS
BS
-(-5)
-(10+)
Approach Road
PR
-
KR.PR
PR
PR
PR.KR
PR.KR
PR.KR
PR.KR
KR
PR.KR
-
-
PR
KR
KR
PR.KR
KR
KR
-
KR
-
-
PR.KR
PR.KR
KR
PR
Power Supply
ED
-
-
ED
ED
ED
ED
ED.EAG
ED
ED
ED
ED
ED.EAG
-
-
EA
ED.EAG
EA
-
EA
-
ED
-
EAG
EA
EA
EA
ED
8
0)
5
CD
I
1
§
CO
sr
|
I
I
I "
I
Sr.
No.
252.
253.
254.
255.
256.
257.
258.
259.
D)
i)
260.
261.
262.
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
Name of Village
Bhawapura
Bhagwanpura
Kanwarpura
Bijari
Dhanesar
Karoo ndi
Jawahar Sagar
Khadipur
Education
Facilities
P(1)
-(-5)
P(D
-(5-10)
P(1),M(1)
-(5-10)
P(1),M(1),H(1)
P(1)
Medical
Facilities
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
CHW(1)
-(5-10)
H(2),D(2),HC
(1)PHC(1),
SMP(1)
H(1)
Drinking Water
W,HP
W.HP
W,HP
O
W,HP
W,HP
T,R
T.TK.HP
Communication
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
PO
-(5-10)
PTO.PHONE
PO
Transportation
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
BS
-(10+)
Approach Road
KR
KR
KR
-
PR
-
PR
-
Power Supply
-
ED
ED
-
ED
-
EA
Distt. Kota
Tehsil :Ramganj Mandi.P.S.:Ladpur
Rath Kankra
Jamoonya
Banda
Dharmpura
Pachankui
Ranpur
Baori khera
Kolana or Laxmipura
Pachpahar
Renkya Kheri
Kasar
Chorda
ChandreshI
Dhani
Barodliya
Arlya Jageer
Peepalheri
Chhipanheri
P(D
-(5-10)
P(1),O(1)
-(5-10)
P(1)
P(1),M(1),H(1),AC(
3)
P(1)
P(1)
AC(1)
P(1)
P(1),M(1)
-(10+)
-(10+)
CHW(1)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
H(1),PHS(1)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
D(1),PHS(1)
T,O,HP,N
W
W,HP
W,HP,N
W,HP
W,HP,TK,N, TW
W,HP
W,HP,N
W,C,HP,R
W.HP
W,HP,TK,TW
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
PO
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
BS
BS
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS.RS
PR
KR
-
-
-
PR
PR
-
-
-
PR
ED
-
-
ED
ED
ED.EO
ED.EAG
-
ED
-
EA
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
P(1),AC(1)
M(2),AC(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-
W,HP,C
W,C,TW,N,HP
W,N,HP,C
W,HP
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-
PR
PR
PR
-
-
EA
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED
CD
CD
Co
CD
I
§
5
I
or.
No.
278.
279.
280.
281.
282.
283.
284.
285.
286.
287.
288.
289.
290.
291.
292.
293.
294.
295.
296.
297
298
299.
300.
301.
302
303
304
305
Name of Village
Khanpuriya
Shankarpura
Charanheri
Parlya
Arand Khera
Keetalhera
Deeppura
Baniyani
Seemalheri
Mandana
Mukundpura
Hanotiya
Sarangpura
Hirapura
Jodhpur
Mandalya
Rel
Dolya
Akhawa
Borawas
Tholanpur
Kot Baori
Gadon Ka Gaon
Kolipura
Ratariya
Deopura
Neem Khera
Shyodanpura
Education
Facilities
-(-5)
P(D
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1),H(1)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1),M(1),O(1)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1), AC(10)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1),M(1),AC(1)
Medical
Facilities
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
D(1),PHS(1)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(10+)
PHS(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
PHS(1)
Drinking Water
W,HP,TK,C,N
HP,N,C,S
W,C,TK,N,HP
W,N,HP,C
W,C,TW,NtHP
W,N,HP,C
TW.HP.C
W,TW,C,HP,N
W,C,TK,N,HP
T.TW.W.HP,
TK,N
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP,R
W.HP.R
W.HP.R
Connmunication
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
Transportation
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
BS
BS
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
Approach Road
-
-
KR
KR
PR
KR
PR
PR
-
PR
-
PR
-
-
-
PR
Power Supply
-
-
ED
ED
EA
ED.EAG
EA
ED.EAG
-
EA
-
EA
-
-
-
EA
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
-(10+)
P(1),M(1)
CHW(1)
-(10+)
H(1),PHS(1)
W,HP
W.N.TK.HP
T,HP,W,N,TK,O,
TW
-(10+)
"(10+)
PO
-(10+)
-(10+)
BS
KR
KR
KR
-
-
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(5-10) W,HP -(5-10) BS PR -
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
CD
a>
2.
3'
CD
I
03
5"
I'
I
CD
Sr.
No.
306.
307.
308.
309.
310.
311.
312.
313.
314.
315.
316.
317.
318.
319.
320.
321.
322.
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
Name of Village
Roopura
Borkui
Bachhriya
Bugchhach Kalan
Bugchach Khurd
Ummedpura
Girdharpura
Haripura
Chand Baori
Sabalpura
Kishanpura
Motipura
Bhagwanpura
Udpura
Prithvipura
Amarpura
Khanagarpura
Dohniya
Indarpura
Jaspura
Narayanpura
Ganeshpura
Ama Ka Pani
Kharli Baori
Keshopura
Rojhala
Mandirgarh
Zalimpura
Damodarpura
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(10+) W,N,TK,HP -(10+) -(10+) KR EA
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(10+) W,HP -(10+) -(10+) KR -
UN- INHABITED-
P(1) -(5-10) W,HP -(10+) -(10+) KR -
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(5-10) -(10+) W,HP -(10+) -(10+) KR
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(10+) W,HP -(10+) -(10+) KR -
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
UN- INHABITED
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
W
W,HP
W
W,HP
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(10+)
-( 10+)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-
KR
-
KR
-
-
-
-
UN- INHABITED
P(1) -(10+) W,HP -(10+) -(5-10) - -
s
•8
CD
O>
Co
2.
CD
I
i
C/3
ST
ET
CO
Q>
Q .
5
CD
I
CD
I"
Sr.
No.
D)
N)
335.
336.
337.
338.
339.
340.
341.
342.
343.
344.
345.
346.
347.
348.
349.
350.
351.
352.
353.
354.
355.
356.
357.
358.
359.
360
Name of Village
Education
Facilities
Medical
Facilities
Drinking Water Communication Transportation Approach Road Power Supply
Distt. Kota
Tehsil :RamganjMandi,P.S.Chechat
Balkoo
Ghatoli
Hatona
Sandya Kheri
Deori Kalan
Arlai
Khera Rudha
Phawa
Alod
Motipura Khurd
Neemoda
Mawasa
Zalimpura Khurd
Phanda
Kalya Kheri
Motipura Kalan
Chandrapura
Jagpura Khurd
Salera Khurd
Reenchhi
Khani
Rajpura Khurd
Borina
Hathiya Kheri
Gulabpura
Amlawad Khera
-(-5)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1)
P(1).M(1)
P(1)
P(1),H(1),O(1)
-(-5)
M(1)
P(1),M(1).H(1),
PUC(1),C(1),
Tr(1),AC(1)
P(D
P(1)
-(-5)
P(1),AC(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
H(1),D(1),PHS(1),
NH(1),RP(2)
-(-5)
HC(1)
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W,TK,HP,O
W.TK.HP
W,HP,R
W,HP
W,HP,R
W,HP
W.HP.R
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP,N
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP,R
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
-(-5)
PO
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
BS
BS
BS
-(-5)
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
BS
-
KR
-
-
PR
PR
KR.PR
-
PR
-
-
KR
KR.PR
-
-
KR.PR
ED
ED.EAG
EA
ED
EA
EA
EA
ED.EAG
EA
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
EAG
ED.EAG
EA
UN- INHABITED
P(1)
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
P(1),M(1)
AC(1),P(1)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
CHW(1)
-(5-10)
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP,N
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
W,HP
-(5-10)
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(-5)
PO
-(-5)
BS
BS
-(-5)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
KR.PR
PR
-
-
KR.PR
PR
KR
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
EA
ED.EAG
-
UN- INHABITED
o
0)
Sr.
No.
361.
362.
363.
364.
365.
366.
367.
368.
Name of Village
Madanpura
Rooppura
Raghunathpura
Sohanpura
Jodhpura
Noopura
Bordi
Dudiyaheri
Education
Facilities
P(1),M(1)
Medical
Facilities
H(1)
Drinking Water
W.HP
Communication
-(-5)
Transportation
-(10+)
Approach R oad
KR
Power Supply
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
P(D
P(1)
-(-5)
-(-5)
W,HP,R
W,HP,R
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-( 5 -10)
-( 5 -10)
-
-
ED.EAG
ED.EAG
UN- INHABITED
P(D
P(1)
-(-5)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
-(5-10)
W.HP
W.HP
W,HP
-(10+)
-(-5)
-(10+)
-(10+)
-( -5 )
-( -5 )
KR
-
-
ED.EAG
EA
ED.EAG
Source : District Census handbook 1991, Chittodgarh, Bhilwara, Kota, Bundi
- (-05): not available within 5 km area; - (5 -10): available within 5 - 10 km
Education
P = Primary or elementary school
M = Middle school
H = Matriculation or secondary
POC = Higher secondary/lntermediate/Pre
University/Junior
C = College, any college (Graduate level &
above) like Arts, Science, Commerce
Tr = Training school
AC = Adult literacy class/centre
Power Supply
EAG = Electricity for agriculture
ED = Electricity for domestic purpose
EA = Electricity for all purpose
EO = Electricity for other purpose like
Industrial, Commercial etc
Medical
PHC = Primary health centre
PHS = Primary health sub-centre
FPC = Family planning centre
HC = Health centre
D = Dispensary
RP = Registered private practitioner
H = Hospital
CHW = Community health worker
SMP = Subsidized medical practitioner
HN = Nursing home
Drinking Water
W = Well water
HP = Hand pump
N = Nallah
C = Canal
TK = Tank water
O = Other
TW = Tube well water
R = River
S = Spring water
T = Tap water
Communi cati on
PO = Post office
PTO = Post and telegraph office
Phone = Telephone connection
Transportation
BS = Bus
RS = Railway station
Approach to Village
PR = Pacca road
KR = Kachcha road
I
5T
NEERI
Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.6.5
Morbidity Status as available in PHC at BHAISRODGARH
Period January 2002 to December 2002
Months
2002
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total
Cough
204
237
219
191
143
156
197
188
217
265
217
185
2419
Blood
Pressure
21
15
18
20
20
13
23
26
22
17
28
23
246
STD
4
6
140
-
13
22
-
6
15
6
6
16
224
Diarrhoea
14
12
46
32
16
31
67
50
24
10
17
15
334
TB
1
1
1
2
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
8
RTI
5
2
8
2
3
7
3
2
7
6
8
-
53
Injuries
98
64
56
78
70
45
116
69
114
129
76
87
992
Total No. of Sub center under this PHC = 11
Total no. of villages attached to PHC = 75
STD: Sexually Transmitted Disease
TB: Tuberculosis
RTI: Respiratory Tract Infection
2.200
NEERI Chapter 2: Baseline Environmental Status and Identification of impacts
Table 2.6.6
Quality of Life E xisting in th e Villag es Surv ey ed
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Villag es
Rawatbhata
Baroli
Khatikhera
Bhainsroradgarh
Deepura
Mandesara
Bhagwatipura
Ekllingpura
Shripura
Borabas
Nalikhera
Jawahar sagar
Gandhi sagar
Borav
Av erag e
QoL
( s)
0.58
0.48
0.49
0.56
0.47
0.47
0.44
0.50
0.50
0.49
0.46
0.57
0.58
0.56
0.51
QoL(
O)
0.61
0.50
0.50
0.58
0.48
0.49
0.45
0.51
0.52
0.52
0.49
0.59
0.60
0.57
0.53
QoL
( c)
0.59
0.49
0.49
0.57
0.47
0.48
0.44
0.50
0.51
0.50
0.47
0.58
0.59
0.56
0.5 2
QoL
(s)
= Subjective Quality of Life
QoL
(O
) = Objective Quality of Life
QoL(
C
) = Cumulative Quality of Life
2.201
Chapter J
Prediction of Impacts
apter3
3.1 Air Environment
The impacts from nuclear power projects are of mainly radiological type because
of the release of radioactive materials during normal operation as well as in emergencies.
The effects of radioactive material on human population and surrounding ecosystem
differ from conventional chemical pollutants in the form of cumulative radiation doses
over long periods, since many of the radioactive nuclides have long half life.
In the proposed nuclear power plant, major point sources emitting gaseous
pollutants include one stack from Unit # 1 and Unit # 2 and one stack from units 3 & 4,
and one from units 5 & 6. Topography is steeply sloping with a slope of 1 in 20.
Dispersion characteristics can be considered to be good. A stack height of 100 m
adopted, as standard would suffice. There is no population center having population
more than 5000 in the predominant wind direction
3.1.1 Radioactive Pollution
The radioisotopes causing irradiations in human body can enter the body through
different pathways (routes) as explained in previous sections. The radiation dose
received can be classified as external and internal according to the location of the
radioactive material irradiating the tissue. External radiation dose is received from the
isotopes in the radioactive cloud as it passes over the receptors, from the material
deposited on surfaces around the receptors and on receptor body itself as the cloud
passes. Internal exposure can result from inhaling the radioactive material in the air as
the cloud passes or by ingesting contaminated food stuff and drinking contaminated
water.
|\|££g| Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
Release of radioactive material to atmosphere can occur almost instantaneously
or on continuous basis from nuclear power plants. The resulting exposure in downwind
direction due to the air borne radioactive material will be of short or long duration,
depending upon the release time, the wind speed, the nature of the material, the
geometry of the source and the dispersion of the cloud as it travels. The final effect of
radioactive material on a receptor is a function of the total radiation received from
different isotopes with variations in concentrations during exposure. In this
circumstances the integral of the concentration vs. time curve at the point of receipt is a
measure of the total dose.
External Dose to Members of Public Due to Ar-41 and FPNG Releases
Through Stack
At RAPS site, Ar-41 and FPNG are released through 93 m stack at RAPS 1 & 2,
whereas through 100 m stack at RAPS 3 & 4 to the environment. Following release, Ar-
41 and FPNG undergo atmospheric diffusion and dispersion under prevailing
meteorological conditions, resulting in possible external exposure to members of the
public. External dose estimates in the RAPS environment were computed using gaseous
stack release data. The computed external doses for the year 2002 at various distances
and sectors are given in Table 3.1.1. At site boundary the effective dose for 2002 due to
Ar-41 and FPNG varied from 17.9 to 53.3 uSv with sector averaged value of 34.2 uSv.
An isodose curves for the year 2002 for annual gamma doses of the values 9, 5, 3, 2 and
1.0 uSv are given in Figure 3.1.1, 3.1.2 and 3.1.3.
3.1.2 Radiation Dose and Public Health
The estimation of intake of radionuclides by population around the plant is made
by measurements of concentrations of radionuclides in air, water, vegetables, cereals,
milk, meat, fish, egg etc. and dose is computed (BARC, 2003). The concentrations of
radiocesium and radiostrontium in various environmental samples including dietary items
were observed to be at global fallout levels and thus contribution from RAPS released
effluents is mainly due to Tritium (internal dose), Ar-41 & FPNG (External dose).
Following Table gives the internal committed dose (uSv) to the members of public
due to intake of tritium through air and water.
3.2
NEERI
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
^• - \Zone
Medium
Air
Water
1.6 km
1.4
2.9
1.6-5 km
0.6
2.1
5-10 km
0.2
1.3
10-15 km
0.2
0.8
15-20 km
0.1
0.6
The average total (Internal + External) effective dose (uSv) in various zones
during the year 2002 is given in following table.
Dose
Internal
External
1.6 km
2.9
34.2
1.6-5.
2.
15
0 km
1
.4
5-10
1.
5.
km
2
9
10-15 km
0.7
2.4
15-20 km
0.8
1.4
For comparison, the effective committed doses (uSv) at RAPS site boundary
(1.6 km) for the period 1998-20002 are given in following table.
Dose
Internal
External
1998
9.2
45.5
1999
4.9
130
2000
3.6
102.2
2001
3.5
32.7
2002
2.9
34.2
The results of the environmental surveillance programme carried out during 2002
at Rawatbhata site show that the doses received even by a hypothetical man staying at
fence post (1.6 km) is 37.1 uSv, which is less than 4% of the dose limit of 1000 uSv per
year prescribed by AERB/ICRP for the member of public. At farther distances the doses
are observed to be still less.
3.1.3 Occupational Exposure : Radiation Monitoring and Alarms
A number of installed area radiation monitors will be provided in the Reactor
Building, Spent Fuel Storage and Service Building areas. These monitors provide
continuous measurement of the area radiation fields and also are useful in alarming the
personnel when the area radiation fields rise significantly during their occupancy.
3.3
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
Portable monitors will be provided for checking the radiation status of these areas
or work locations when the fixed monitors are not available and for supplementing field
monitoring data. As per the plant procedures as a normal routine each individual who is
required to work in active areas will be provided with personal dosimeters to measure the
dose received during his stay in these area.
Evacuation from area of the plant, if required, can also be called for by the
operator in the control room using public address network
3.1.4 Emissions of Radioactivity
The radiological air quality monitoring showed that the GM values for gross alpha
and beta and radiocesium was below the detection limit in quarterly cumulative samples.
Tritium in air and rainwater were observed to be below the stipulated limits.
Annual cumulative rainwater sample contained below detectable limits of radiocesium
and radiostrontium.
3.1.5 Micro-Meteorology
The hourly wind speed, solar insolation and total cloudiness during day time and
wind speed and total cloudiness during night time were used to determine the hourly
atmospheric stability class (Pasquill and Gifford) viz., A to F. The hourly stabilities were
determined based on the technique suggested by Turner.
Turner's system used for determining the stability classes is as follows:
- For day or night: If total cloud cover (TC) = 10/10 and ceiling <7000 ft (2134 m),
NR=0
- For night-time (defined as period from one hour before sunset to one hour after
sunrise):
a) lfTC<4/10, useNR = -2
b) lfTC>4/10, useNR = -1
- For day time: Determine insolation class number (IN)
a) If TC<5/10, useNR=IN
b) If TO5/10, modify IN by the sum of the following applicable criteria
If ceiling<7000 ft (2134m), modification = -2
3.4
NEERI Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
If ceiling>7000 ft but <16000 ft (4877 m), modification = -1
If TC=10/10 and ceiling>7000 ft, modification = - 1 , and let modified value of
IN=NR, except for day-time NR cannot be <+1
During study period in winter season the winds were recorded from WSW sector
thereby projecting the impact zone in NEN sector with respect to the location of nuclear
power plant as the zone of impacts. The wind speed has been recorded high during most
of the study period with low calm condition prevailing at the site. The diurnal variations in
winds were insignificant at the project site.
3.1.6 Conventional Air Pollution
As such, there is no possibility of emissions of conventional air pollutants from
nuclear power plants except during construction phase. Hence, the impacts of the
proposed nuclear power plant on ambient air quality due to conventional air pollutants in
that region will be insignificant. There will be marginal increase in conventional air
pollutants levels due to increase in vehicular traffic and urbanization, which can be
attributed to indirect impacts of the project in that region. However, these concentrations
shall be within the prescribed limits of CPCB (Annexure I) as the proposed nuclear
power project is not the source of conventional air pollution and present levels of
conventional air pollutants are very low.
3.5
NEER1
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
NW
WNW
W
WSW
NNW
NNE
NE
ENE
ESE
SE
SW
SSW
Seal* I on* 4-00 km
SSE
» 10-00 C S» • 100 U- Sv
• 500 ft Sv O 0-50tt.$»
A 300 ll Sv
Figure 3.1.1 : Annual Gamma Iso Dose Curves Due to Argon - 41 and
FPNG
3.6
NEERI
Chapter 3: Prediction of Impacts
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NEERI
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts

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3.8
NEERI
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
Table 3.1.1
Computed External Dose Due to Ar-41 and FPNG Release from RAPS 1 to 4
During 2002
Location
1.6 km 510
th
pole
1.6kmNNE
1.6kmNE
1.6kmENE
1.6 km GUARD
HOUSE
1.6 km BACK OF SEF
1.6kmSE
1.6 km UPSTREAM
1.6 km S
1.6kmSSW
1.6kmSW
1.6kmWSW
1.6 km W
1.6 km WNW
1.6 km DOWN
STREAM
1.6 km NNW
PHASE 1 STORE
RBT-GS ROAD 44 km
TAMLAO
SADDLE DAM
BHABHA NAGAR
VIKRAM NAGAR
RPS COLONY
RAWATBHATA
Aerial
Distance
from
RAPS
(km)
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
2.5
5
5
5
6
6
6
7.5
Direction
N
NNE
NE
ENE
E
ESE
SE
SSE
S
SSW
SW
WSW
W
WNW
NW
NNW
ENE
N
E
WNW
N
NW
NNW
NNW
Dose (micro Sv)
Ar-41
34.8
33.2
36.2
43.8
37.2
32.9
40.5
31.3
50.2
23.4
32.2
36.0
27.1
19.9
16.7
18.8
26.3
7.9
9.9
5.2
6.6
3.7
3.5
2.5
FPNG
2.2
2.1
2.5
3.0
2.8
2.4
2.4
1.8
3.2
1.6
2.4
1.9
1.6
1.2
1.1
1.3
1.8
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.2
Total
(micro Sv)
37.0
35.3
38.7
46.8
40.0
35.3
42.9
33.1
53.3
25.0
34.7
37.9
28.7
21.2
17.9
20.1
28.1
8.5
10.7
5.5
7.1
3.9
3.7
2.7
3.9
NEERI
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
Location
BAHELIYA
BAROLI
JHARJHANI
BHAINSRODGARH
MANDESARA
AKLINGPURA
BARKHEDA
GANDHISAGAR
UDPURA
SECTOR WEIGHTED
BOUNDARY)
Aerial
Distance
from
RAPS
(km)
8
10
10
12
13
15
18
20
20
MEAN (AT SITE
Direction
SW
N
ENE
NNW
W
ESE
S
S
WSW
NNP Units Release Height (meter)
RAPS 1&2
RAPS 3&4
93
100
Dose (micro Sv)
Ar-41
5.7
2.6
4.4
1.0
1.9
1.5
1.9
1.6
1.5
32.1
Release!
Ar-41
1.83E08
1.50EO6
FPNG
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
2.1
Total
(micro Sv)
6.2
2.9
4.8
1.1
2.0
1.8
2.2
1.8
1.6
34.2
Rate (Bq/sec)
FPNG
5.5E06
1.65E07
3.10
Chapter 3: Prediction of Impacts
3.2 Noise Environment
3.2.1 Identification of Sources of Noise in the Proposed Plant
The main sources of noise in the nuclear power plant are within operating island.
Observations were taken within 5 km of reactors. The noise levels were found to be
ranging from 73.1 to 90.2 dBA. This value is below the CPCB standard (75 dBA)
(Annexure I I I ) for other areas in nuclear power plant except operating island where 90.2
dBA has been recorded. However, the workers in high noise zones use protective
equipments thus lowering occupational hazard.
3.2.2 Residential Areas
The noise level in residential area within 5 km from NPP is 59.3 dBA, which is at
the threshold level (55 dBA) of CPCB standards.
The residential area in the range 5 - 10 km area around NPP showed noise levels
ranging between 53.2 dBA to 67.3 dBA. These levels were found to be mostly slightly
above the threshold level of CPCB Standards in the area.
The noise levels in residential area within the range 10 - 25 km around NPP
ranged from 59.1 dBA to 75.2 dBA. These values are somewhat above the threshold
level of CPCB standard.
However, equivalent noise levels would be very less when day and night noise
levels are considered for its impact on community. The noise levels during night time in
residential areas are lowest in intensity because of low populated area and absence of
any major human activity.
3.2.3 Commercial Area
The commercial areas are very less as the human activity is less in the area. The
small commercial area present in 5 km to 10 km area around NPP. This area showed the
noise ranging from 69.5 dBA to 83.5 dBA. These values when normalised to equivalent
levels would be well below the stipulated limit of CPCB i.e. 65 dBA.
There are no silence zones in the area.
3.11
NEERI Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
3.2.4 Impact on Occupational Health
In the nuclear power plant, most of the machinery /equipment would generate
noise levels within the range of 90 dBA continuously. This would have adverse effect on
the health of workers working near noise sources. Adequate protective measures such
as ear muffs/ear plugs to the workers working in high noise areas will be provided by
NPCIL to minimize the occupational exposure of noise, besides engineered noise
reducing enclosures will be provided to further attenuate the noise levels from the source.
The exposure of high noise levels to plant workers and operators is within the
stipulated standards of CPCB i.e. 90 dBA for 8 hours exposure. It is necessary to provide
operators cabin with acoustic insulation and with special doors and observation windows,
which will further reduce noise exposure.
3.3 Water Environment
The impact of RAPP would be due to construction activity of units 5,6,7 and 8 in
phased manner for the coming 10 years period and due to radioactive pollution during
plant operation of all the 8 units. The operational phase of the nuclear power plant would
pose long-term adverse impacts due to radioactive pollutants generated through the
water route. Although the NPCIL would be meeting the stringent requirements of ICRP
and AERB, the impact of radioactive water pollutants, in case of accidental releases, on
aquatic biota and members of the public cannot be ruled out. However, the environmental
radioactive surveillance programme as indicated in EMP chapter, if followed scrupulously,
these impacts can be easily mitigated by adopting timely control measures.
The other impact area of concern to the aquatic environment is due to discharge
of condenser cooling water into the reservoir and its consequent adverse impact on
aquatic life. NPCIL has planned the control measures for implementing the same during
operational phase of the project so as to control the temperature of receiving water as
per the requirement of MoEF stipulation. The condensers are designed for a maximum
raise of 8.6 °C. However, this needs to be monitored on continuous basis by NPCIL.
As regards the domestic sewage to be generated from the township, offices and
canteen, NPCIL has planned to treat the sewage so as to meet the requirements of
Rajasthan Pollution Control Board. The treated sewage is proposed to be reused for
development of greenbelt and raising plantations in and around the proposed units of the
NPP. Therefore, the impact of domestic effluents on water resources of the region would
be insignificant.
3.12
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
3.3.1 Impacts of Radioactive Pollutants
The operational phase of the nuclear power plant would pose long-term adverse
impacts due to radioactive pollutants generated through the water route. Although the
NPCIL would be meeting the stringent requirements of ICRP and AERB, the impact of
radioactive water pollutants, in case of accidental releases, on aquatic biota and
members of the public cannot be ruled out. However, the environmental radioactive
surveillance programme as indicated in EMP chapter, if followed scrupulously, these
impacts can be easily mitigated by adopting timely control measures.
The project envisages collection and processing of liquid radioactive wastes
generated during operation of NPP. The liquid waste volume is minimized by
evaporation and the concentrated residue is solidified through cementation and sent for
interim storage in solid waste depository. Monitoring and control of the liquid waste
treatment facility is done through AERMS (Automated Environmental Radiation
Monitoring System). Liquid waste disposal system is equipped with radiation monitoring.
3.3.2 Impact of Th ermal Disch arg e on Water Quality
The effects of thermal pollution on water quality i.e. density, D.O., pH, nutrients
are also involved in biological impact (Langford, 1990). Seasonal fluctuations in water
temperature distribution play an important role in influencing biological processes (Kinne,
1974). Temperature affects the organisms through direct physiological mechanisms.
Temperature related responses affect different species and the repercussions for
ecosystem dynamics depend upon food web interactions (Kinne, 1972; Langford, 1990).
Thus the impact area of concern in case of NPP is discharge of condenser cooling water
into the sea and its consequent adverse impacts on marine life.
At RAPS site, the temperature difference between inlet and outlet varies from
9-7°C during summer and 2-3 °C during winter seasons respectively. The water is drawn
from intake point, at a depth of 8-15 m below depending on lake water level, at a drawl
rate of 105-135 cumsecs. The discharge system located at 0.305 km from intake point is
a surface discharge type through an underground channel. The average water quality at
RAPS site (1979-1981) (Wagh and Singh,2002) is presented in the following Table. It is
observed that there is not any noticeable change in the water quality with respect to
various parameters and was within the acceptable limits. Similar observations are made
in the present investigation.
3.13
NEERI
Chapter 3: Prediction of Impacts
Rana Pratap Sagar Water Quality for Use by the Public ( Average for 3 years 1979-
1981)
Parameters
pH
DO
COD
NO
3
-N
NH3-N
Sampling Locations
Upstream
of Intake
8.6
7.8-9.1
4.8-10.0
0.03-0.08
0.78-1.0
Condenser
Intake Water
8.5
6.4-7.5
5.3-9.0
0.03-0.09
0.67-0.7
Condenser
Discharge
Water
8.2-8.7
8.0-9.3
4.8-9.0
0.06-1.3
0.6-0.96
Drinking
Water
Intake Point
8.6
7.8-9.0
8.8-20
0.08-0.3
0.11-1.0
Permissible
Criteria
6.5-8.5 (max)
75 (max)
75 (max)
10 (max)
0.5 (max)
3.3.3 Compliance of NPP to MoEF Stipulation
Datir et al. (2002), stated that the heat dissipation at Rawatbhata Nuclear Plant is
done by both the systems of the condenser circulating systems (CCW) viz. open (once
through) loop type using reservoir water (RAPS - 1 & 2) and open re-circulation type
using cooling towers (Existing plants: RAPS 3 & 4 ; proposed plants : RAPP 5 to 8) for
cooling the steam coming from turbine. River water is sufficiently available for CCW
system at Rawatbhata. Water body temperature rise for RAPS 1 & 2 is 5-2 °C at 500 m
mixing zone and for RAPS 3 & 4 is 1 °C rise at 250 m mixing zone. Most NPPS are
meeting limits of temperature rise across condenser i.e. 10 °C and earlier stipulation of
temperature rise of 5 °C in water body at 200 - 300m distance from outfall (Annexure V) .
Standards for Temperature Rise Limit
The latest guideline issued by MoEF, Government of India, impose the following
restrictions on temperature rise for discharge of Condenser Cooling Water (CCW) from
thermal plant.
For coastal plants using sea water, rise in temperature of water shall not exceed 7
°C above the ambient temperature of receiving water bodies. Cooling towers shall be
installed for all inland power plants. For existing plants, the rise in temperature of CCW
inlet to outlet of condenser shall not be more than 10 °C.
As per these guidelines, NPCIL decided that the cooling towers shall be installed
at inland power plants to effectively reduce thermal pollution in receiving lakes or rivers.
3.14
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
3.4 Land Environment
The study area is mostly barren with little topsoil, the forest area is present in
some patches. The agriculture and fishing are carried out on a very small scale. The
population density is also very low in study area. The physico-chemical analysis of soil
indicates a moderate quality of soil for the growth of the plants and agriculture
microbiological quality of land reveals that most of the soil samples contain high density
of total viable count (TVC) and fungi, and low density of actinomycetes, rhizobium and
azotobacter. Thus the soils are biologically active but comparatively less productive in
nature.
The precipitation water carries atmospheric radioactivity to the soil and increase
the levels of radioactivity in the soil. However, this area receives low rainfall and will not
contribute to fallout radioactivity in the soils and terrestrial biota.
In general, plants are more resistant to toxicants including radiation than the
animal. Plants can bio-concentrate radionuclides and may pose potential hazard to
human beings and animals if consumed. Greenbelt development around the project site
of NPP using conventional methods may add to mitigate dust and gaseous
concentrations in the inhabited area.
The radiation levels in soil, and in dietary items are negligible and the annual dose
received by hypothetical man staying at plant fence post (1.6 km) is 37.1 uSv, which is
less than 4% of the dose limit prescribed by AERB for the members of public. At farther
distance, these doses are still less. Internal dose is due to inhalation, ingestion and skin
absorption of tritium and external exposure is due to Ar - 41 plumes. The doses due to
ingestion of terrestrial products are due to global fallout activities and are not computed,
as these are not plant related (Annual Reports, BARC).
3.5 Biological Environment
The project site at Rawatbhata and the surrounding area is plain land with dry
climate. The whole area has cultivated fields and barren fields which were observed to be
occupied by scrub and open vegetation. Therefore, the units of the NPCIL at Rawatbhata
may not adversely affect the existing green cover in the area, on the contrary, the
plantations, which are present in the nuclear power plant area, and the residential area
are helpful in increasing green cover in the area.
3.15
NEERI Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
The project area is presently covered by natural scrub forest dominated by
Prosopis sp. and Acacia sp. This natural tree cover forms the microniches of birds and
innumerable organisms apart from playing important role in conservation of soil. Natural
vegetation cover would be fortified by the plantation efforts carried out by NPCIL
authorities.
The discharge of radioactive liquid waste from the existing units of the nuclear
power plant in the Ranapratap Sagar, if not adequately treated, may deteriorate the
quality of the water and affect the biodiversity of flora and fauna in the Ranapratap Sagar
As regards the terrestrial ecosystem, NPCIL has been suggested to raise the
plantations and develop greenbelt in around the project site. If these are implemented, it
should help in mitigate the impact and increase the green cover in the area.
The 25 km radial area around RAPP also covers part of 3 sanctuaries viz.
Bhainrroadgarh Sanctuary, Darrahgam Sanctuary and Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary. The
former two sanctuaries are established for protection of wildlife and Jawahar Sagar
Sanctuary gives protection to crocodiles and gharials. The wild life may be affected if
high level of radioactivity is released in air and water during the operation of NPP and
due to accidental release of radionuclids in the environment.
3.6 Socio-economic Environment
Setting up of 2 additional units of the nuclear power plant (Units 7 & 8) within area
would create certain impacts with beneficial as well as adverse effects on the socio-
economic environment. Some of these impacts would be more effective for the
immediate vicinity with short-term effects whereas the others would be of higher order or
of long-term in nature.
It is necessary to identify the extent of these impacts for further planning of
control measures leading to mitigation of the adverse impacts.
The impacts of NPP (Units 7 & 8) on parameters of human interest have been
assessed in terms of:
• The impact due to acquisition of land needed to set up the plant buildings and
other support facilities
3.16
[SJEERI Chapter 3: Prediction of Impacts
• The potential impacts due to unavoidable releases of radioactive pollutants
from the power plant reaching to the public domain
Beneficial Impacts
The impacts identified as beneficial support the existing project activities. They
are:
Job opportunities for the local people as well as for those from the nearby
surrounding area would increase due to operation and construction of 2 units
of the Nuclear Power Plant
Due to influx of population, the trade, business opportunity for the local people
would increase, raising the economic status of the people around
Establishment of township as well as the influx of working people within the
study area would lead to favourable changes in the existing infrastructure
facilities, which may further improve the quality of life of the concerned study
area
There would be local participation in supply of materials and services for
construction of township and other infrastructure such as access roads, pier,
and fresh water pipeline and warehouses
The proposed 2 units of the NPP, at Rawatbhata, would help partially in
bridging the gap between the demand and inadequate supply of electricity
within the country in general, and the region in particular
The electricity generated by the two units of the NPP will result in
electrification of villages, development of irrigation facilities, drinking water
supply, development of industries etc.
Due to proposed 2 units of the nuclear power plant there would be an overall
development of the area and job opportunities, which may improve the quality
of life of the area
3.17
NEERI Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
Adverse Impacts
The impact identified as adverse would go against the project activities. These
impacts can be minimized by proper follow up of an Environmental Management Plan.
These impacts are:
Influx of workers during the project construction and operation phases would
impose some strain on the existing basic amenities within the study area.
The project activities may disturb the livestock & fishing activity, if appropriate
measures for liquid waste management are not taken as per EMP.
For meeting various demands in the power plant, fresh water would be drawn
from 'Rana Pratap Sagar Dam', which may affect the drinking water & agricultural
needs of the local population. However the impacts may be insignificant
With the above parameters, the qualitative impact on socio-economic
environment is predicted as presented in Table 3.6.1. The expected change is
subjective quality of life and cumulative quality of life is presented in Table 3.6.2
and 3.6.3 respectively. It is observed that with the introduction of the project, the
quality of life will improve further in the study area.
It is anticipated that the adverse impacts on parameters of human interest
could be mitigated by proper fallow-up of the measures indicated in the Environmental
Management plan.
3.18
NEERI
Chapter 3: Prediction of Impacts
Table 3.6.1
Prediction of Qualitative Impacts on Socio - economic Environment
Parameter
Employment
Income
Transport
Education
Medical facilities
Communication
Availability of fuel and
electricity
Sanitation
Housing
Health
Recreation
Agriculture
Cost of living
Business
Per capita income
Pollution
Location
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
#
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
Regional
+
+
*
*
*
+
+
*
-
*
-
*
+
+
-
Direct
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
*
-
*
-
*
+
+
-
Indirect
*
*
*
*
*
*
+
*
*
-
+
*
-
*
*
*
Reversible
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
-
*
*
*
-
Irreversible
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
*
+
-
+
*
*
*
: Positive Impact
: Negative Impact
: Insignificant
3.19
NEERI Chapter 3: Prediction of Impacts
Table 3.6.2
Expected Change in Subjective Quality of Life
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Villages
Rawatbhata
Baroli
Khatikhera
Bhainsroadgarh
Deepura
Mandesara
Bhagwatipura
Ekllingpura
Shripura
Borabas
Nalikhera
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Borav
Average
QoL
( s)
E xisting
0.58
0.48
0.49
0.56
0.47
0.47
0.44
0.50
0.50
0.49
0.46
0.57
0.58
0.56
0.51
QoL
(s)
after
implementation of EMP
and welfare measure
0.59
0.50
0.50
0.58
0.48
0.48
0.45
0.52
0.52
0.51
0.47
0.59
0.60
0.57
0.53
= Subjective Quality of Life
3.20
NEERI
Chapter 3 : Prediction of Impacts
Table 3.6.3
Expected Change in Cumulative Quality of Life
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Villages
Rawatbhata
Baroli
Khatikhera
Bhainsroadgarh
Deepura
Mandesara
Bhagwatipura
Ekllingpura
Shripura
Borabas
Nalikhera
Jawahar Sagar
Gandhi Sagar
Borav
Average
QoL
(c)
Existing
0.59
0.49
0.49
0.57
0.47
0.48
0.44
0.50
0.51
0.50
0.47
0.58
0.59
0.56
0.51
QoL
(c)
after
implementation of EMP
and welfare measure
0.60
0.50
0.50
0.59
0.49
0.49
0.45
0.51
0.52
0.51
0.47
0.59
0.60
0.57
0.53
QoL
(c)
= Cumulative Quality of Life
3.21
Chapter 4
Environmental Impact Statement
Chapter
Environmental Impact Statement
Based on the field environmental quality data collected for three seasons viz.
summer, post monsoon and winter season within the study area as also the prediction of
impacts, an impact statement has been prepared indicating the impact areas under
construction and operational phases of the proposed expansion units 7 to 8 of the nuclear
power project at Rawatbhata. Component wise statement is furnished hereunder.
4.1 Air Environment
As far as conventional air pollutants are concerned viz. SPM, RSPM, SO
2
and NOx,
their concentrations in the ambient air during summer season were observed to be well
within the prescribed limits (Annexure I). However, with the rapid progress in construction
activities of the additional units in phased manner, concentrations of these air pollutants are
expected to increase. Since the existing levels of conventional air pollutants are well below
the stipulated levels of CPCB, the incremental increase in the levels of these pollutants may
not be crossing their respective prescribed limits. However, proper follow-up of measures
outlined in EMP will help in mitigating the adverse impacts, if any.
As regards the radioactive air pollutants, appropriate measures are expected to be
taken by NPCIL in controlling these pollutants and these should form an integral part of
project planning and implementation so as to avoid adverse environmental impacts,
particularly on human, plant and animal life. These releases are monitored continuously and
are governed by limits, set by ICRP and AERB.
Chapter 4: Environmental Impact Statement
4.2 Noise Environment
Present level of noise near operating island is very near to the threshold level but
not high. However, with the progress in construction activities, the baseline noise levels will
increase due to heavy earthmoving machineries and construction equipments as also due
to the movement of heavy vehicles deployed for material handling. However, this increase
in ambient noise levels will be for the duration of construction activities only.
With the commissioning of nuclear power reactors (Units 5 to 8), noise would be
generated by compressors, turbines, fans, pumps, air dryers and ventilators. If proper
preventive and control measures are not taken, the baseline noise levels are expected to
increase. However, operation of these equipments within specially designed buildings
enclosures, boundary walls and the greenbelt development within and around the plant
premises would help in attenuating noise to large extent.
Existing noise levels in the surrounding villages are low as compared to standards
(Annexure II) , considering the low population and low level oi human activity. There will
not be much change in the noise levels in the 5 to 10 years now.
4.3 Water Environment
The baseline data on water quality of groundwater sources indicate good quality of
these resources in the study area and most of the parameters are within the prescribed
limists (Annexure III). Some of the well waters have been detected positive for faecall
contamination due to absence of sanitation facilities and land disposal of domestic sewage.
Due to this, adverse impacts are imposed on groundwater sources and marine waters.
During construction, waste materials and spillages of oils etc. would contribute to
certain amount of water pollution. But these would be for a short duration. This requires
follow-up of control measures during construction to protect the water resources from
occurrence of adverse impacts.
The operational phase of the NPP is expected to generate radioactive as well as
non-radioactive water pollutants. NPCIL has already prepared comprehensive plans for
liquid radioactive waste and gaseous radioactive waste management, which are required to
be scrupulously followed. Due attention is required to be given to heated effluents
discharges to RPS lake from cooling tower blow down as per the requirements of State
PCB and MoEF.
4.2
. irrni Chapter 4: Environmental Impact Statement
4.4 Land Environment
During operational phase, soils may get exposed to radionuclides, which will travel
through food chain and may cause problems to living beings including animals within the
impact zone. With the implementation of control measures for liquid and gaseous
radioactive pollutants as also solid radioactive wastes, the levels of these radionuclides are
expected to be well within the limits as prescribed by the concerned regulatory authorities
and under normal operating conditions, there may not be any significant impact on the land
environment. Similar observations have been recorded at the project site. In case of
unforeseen accidents, radionuclides in excessive concentrations are likely to be generated.
This warrants proper planning to handle emergency situations. Present emergency plan
appears to be capable of handling such situations. The greenbelt development as
suggested in EMP, if implemented by NPCIL, and exclusion zone of 1.6 km radius around
NPP would help to adsorb most to the particulate radionuclides. These measures are
expected to generate insignificant adverse impacts on land environment.
4.5 Biological Environment
The study area around NPP is mostly barren with few forest patches. However, due
to availability of water, there are parts of three sanctuaries in the study area, which are
established for conservation of wildlife, crocodiles and gharials. The area also includes
some agricultural fields. This shows the possibility of radionuclides present in air and water
effluents and in solid waste to enter the food chain and biomagnify in wildlife and human
beings however, the present level of radionuclids discharge is very less and below
stipulated levels. So in future also, there may not be much problem provided all
precautionary measures are undertaken. Present level in different components of biological
environment of radioactivity is recorded to be very low.
4.6 Aesthetics
Aesthetic environment of the whole area is very good and it will not be affected
adversely due to the proposed activity. Topographical features, however, will be affected
due to the construction of structures. Water, air and land aesthetics will show improvement.
4.7 Socio-economic Environment
An increase in the energy input is expected due to the proposed activity leading to
cheap availability of electricity and with little pollution load compared to any other power-
4.3
. irrni Chapter4 : Environmental Impact Statement
generating source. This proposed activity (Units 7 to 8), will contribute to creathn of job
opportunity. Education and transportation facilities will also improve.
The effect on the human health will be negligible as the total dose through various
routes viz. air, water, land will be much below the stipulated dose limits set by ICRP and
AERB for the members of the public.
4.8 Sensitive Habitats
The study area has a number of archaeological monuments, three wildlife
sanctuaries and reservoirs. This area is also visited by the tourists who visit the area for
educational, recreational or religious purpose. These sensitive habitats will not adversely
affected by the activity of RAPP 7 & 8 as there are no discharges of pollutants in the
environment or by any other activity and they are beyond 20 km from the project site,
except Bhainsrodgarh wildlife Sanctuary.
4.4
Chapter 5
Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Management Plan
RAPP is a large Nuclear Power Plant site having 4 operational units, 2 units under
construction and proposed 2 units with a projected total power potential of RAPP being
2880 MWe after addition of additional 4 units. With a view to mitigate the adverse
environmental impacts arising out of existing and proposed RAPP units, strategies are
required to be formulated for various environmental components. With this view an
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) comprising remedial measures and monitoring
requirements has been drawn (Table 1). NPCIL needs to implement and integrate these
measures with project activities by properly incorporating the measures outlined in the
EMP which will considerably reduce environmental stress.
5.1 Earthquake Design Basis for Construction
The site falls in seismic zone II as per seismic zone map of India IS: 1893-2002.
This corresponds to Intensity V on MM scale considering the lineaments around the site,
the past earthquake data and an estimate of the maximum earthquake potential of the
tectonic structure. The peak ground acceleration at the site for safe shutdown earthquake
SSE (S-2) is estimated as 0.1 g and operating basis earthquake OBE (S-1) as 0.05g.
Considering these aspects, the guidelines provided by BARC and AERB must be
followed by NPCIL for safety of the structures.
Due consideration should be given to the water retaining structure such as water
reservoirs which will be built around the project site. This is necessary to account for
induced seismicity and the consequences of dam failure on the safety of present and
proposed Nuclear Power Plant.
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Table 5.1
Summary of Impacts, Problems and Appropriate Management Plan for their
Mitigation
Environmental
Component
Impacts and Problems Inputs : Management Plan for Mitigation of Impact
Earthquake Design
Basis for
construction
Flooding of RAPS
Air Environment
Noise Environment
Water Environment
Land Environment
Biological
Environment
Ecologically
sensitive Areas
Rare and
endangered
species of flora and
fauna
Aesthetics
Socioeconomic
Environment
The site falls in seismic zone II
Flood level at maximum rainfall may be
hazardous to nuclear power plant
Radiological emissions from stacks
Radiological hazard during operation or
accident conditions
Air emissions from solid waste dumping site
Dust pollution pose threat to arblic health
and wildlife
Marginal problems
Pollution due to discharge of domestic
wastewater from township
Discharge of heated water to Rana Pratap
Sagar would affect aquatic flora and fauna
Radioactive liquid discharge in environment
may affect aquatic flora and fauna
Soil may be exposed to radionuclides due
to fall out from atmosphere
Disposal of hazardous solid radioactive
waste
Accidental release of radionuclids would be
hazardous to terrestrial ecosystem and
human being
Exposure of flora and fauna to radionuclids
through different routes
RAPP is present very near to three wildlife
sanctuaries
Deterioration of wildlife habitat
Due consideration should be given to the water retaining structure such
as reservoirs built around RAPP to account for induced seismicity and
the consequences of dam failure units on the safety of present and
proposed Nuclear Power Plant
The elevation from MSL of different units should be decided on the
basis of flood analysis
Appropriate technological measures to meet the limits set by ICRP and
AERB with respect to existing and proposed units.
Development of green belt around nuclear power plant and township
and natural vegetation growth in exclusion zone (within 2 km radial
distance) and sterilizing zone (2 km to 5 km radial distance area) to act
as sink for pollutants
Proper planning for safety approach and protection against common
mode incidents
Adoption of improved treatment, recycling and reuse technology viz.
composting, vermicomposting etc.
Besides accoustic enclosures, Development of green belt would reduce
the noise levels in surrounding area
Development of green belt would reduce the noise levels in surrounding
area
Development of effluent treatment plant (ETP) and reuse of effluent for
irrigation in parks and green belts
Compliance with permissible limits set by MoEF by adoption of cooling
towers would be helpful in reducing thermal pollution.
Specific treatment of radioactive liquid waste to reduce its volume and
containment and secured deposition of concentrated nuclear waste
Compliance to air quality standards related to radioactivity (ICRP and
AERB)
Adoption of appropriate treatment to reduce the volume of radioactive
waste and containment and secured deposition of concentrated
radioactive waste
Proper planning should be ready to handle emergency situations; as
implemented by existing RAPS 1 to A
Compliance to radiological standards for air and water;
containment and secured deposition of radioactive waste
treatment.
Development of green belt around RAPP and natural vegetation in
exclusive zone and sterilizing zone (5 km radial distance area around
NPP) would act as sink for radionuclids as well as conventional air
pollutants
Compliance with regulation (ICRP, AERB & MoEF)
Protection of sanctuaries from anthropogenic actives
Protection of wildlife habitat in wildlife sanctuaries and improvement in
their status with respect to food, feed and shelter.
Topographical features will be altered due There will be improvement in the aesthetic quality of water, air and land
to construction activity of RAPP environment
Beneficial effects outweighs adverse effects Quality of Life (QoL) would be improved due to increase in job
on socio-economic environment opportunities and improved facilities related to transport,
communication, medical, education, electricity and water supply.
5.2
N t b l< I Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.2 Construction Phase
The construction of units 7 & 8 at RAPP is yet to commence and construction of
units 5 & 6 is in progress. The potential for environmental pollution during construction
phase is mainly due to dust pollution, disposal of overburden, exhaust from construction
vehicles and noise due to construction related activities. All proper measures need to be
undertaken to reduce these pollution sources.
> During site preparation, the top soil containing rich humus soil may be removed
and utilized for development of green belt in and around plant area
> Overburdens should be used properly in land filling during construction or for
leveling of low line areas
> The earthmoving stock filling and back filling should be carried out using proper
techniques to control dust pollution. The dust pollution due to excavation, and
transportation should also be controlled by application of water spray and cover
over the overburden in the trucks
> It should be ensured that both gasoline and diesel powered construction vehicles
are properly maintained to minimize smoke in the exhaust emissions
> During construction phase noise resulting from blasting operations and' operation
of construction machinery such as concrete mixers and heavy earth moving
machineries may constitute an additional stress on workers who may be provided
with noise protective devices like earmuffs
> The overburden used for land filling in low lying areas should be stabilized by
putting soil cover and tree plantation to avoid leaching of pollutants and surface
water pollution
> The vehicle maintenance area should be located in such a manner so as to
prevent contamination of ground water by accidental spillage of oil. Unauthorized
dumping of oil should be prohibited
> A construction site is a potentially hazardous environment. To ensure that the
local inhabitants are not exposed to these hazards, the site should be secured by
fencing and manned entry points.
5.3
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.3 Operational Phase
5.3.1 Air Environment
For all practical purposes, the emissions of conventional air pollutants will be
negligible during operational phase of the power plant as there will not be any direct
sources related to processes at project site. However, ambient air concentration with
respect to Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) shall be monitored on 24 hourly basis at
minimum of four sampling stations between 1 to 5 km radial distance (two in upwind
direction and two in downwind direction) at a frequency of four samples a month with
seasonal changes in sampling locations.
The radiological pollution arising from nuclear power plant operations would be
only from the discharge of ventilation air mainly through stack. The ventilation air will be
passed through High Efficiency Particulate Absorber (HEPA) filters with 99.98% efficiency
at 0.3 micron particle size, before its release in to the atmosphere. High efficiency
activated charcoal filter may be used to control radio-iodine releases.
Ventilation air need be monitored on regular basis for H - 3, FPNG, radioactive
Iodine, Ar - 41 and active particulate matter in all ducts connected to each stack. The
monitoring sensors shall be connected to alarming system to indicate the atmospheric
release levels.
The environmental surveillance programme should be adopted along with
diagnostic studies (diagnostic studies in this context are to find out the probable reason
for high concentrations in ambient air through detailed analysis and to find out sources
contributing for high concentrations) and arrangements to communicate results to plants
personnel for taking necessary control measures in plant operations, if needed should be
made.
The exclusion zone (1.6 km radius) around NPP will be strictly fenced. In view of
the existing inhabitation in sterilized zone (5 km radius), NPCIL shall take precautionary
measures such as adoption of proper land-use plans and transport facilities for effective
evacuation under emergency conditions.
During emergency conditions, although the prescribed standards for short-term
doses are to be maintained within exclusion zone, there may be possibility of higher
radiation doses to public immediately beyond the exclusion zone. Under such
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NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
circumstances, the atmospheric releases shall be controlled keeping in view the expected
radiation doses to members of public beyond exclusion zone.
5.3.2 Noise E nv ironment
> All the noise generating machines should be provided with enclosures and should
be maintained properly. Particular attention should be given to mufflers and
silencers
> The operator's cabins should be acoustically insulated with special door and
observation windows in high noise area
> The operators working in high-noise area should be provided with ear-muffs/ear-
plugs and they should be properly trained to use the same.
> The duties of employees working in high noise area be rotated systematically to
avoid occupational exposure.
5.3.3 Water Environment
The stock piling of waste material generated during excavation can pose serious
problems of erosion and leaching which may have impacts on aquatic system and/or
groundwater. Enough care need be taken by soil stabilization and providing trenches all
around the stock pilings.
The vehicle maintenance area should be located in such a manner so as to
prevent contamination of ground water by accidental spillage of oil. Unauthorized
dumping of waste oil should be prohibited.
Care should be exercised in batch concrete plant so that the water is conserved.
The water arising from washing platforms shall be collected separately and settled before
its discharge.
Thermal Regulation
The thermo-regulatory behaviour of aquatic organisms in receiving water is
governed by various factors (other than temperature) such as availability of food,
Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.), absence of predators and parasites, limited gas pressures and
avoidance of high temperatures.
About 65% of heat produced in the nuclear power plant is discharged as unutilized
heat to the environment as condenser effluents and coolant air. The heated waters will
5.5
N11 kl Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
mix with the waters of the RPS and rapidly discharge its heat into the waters. A small rise
in temperatures of the water at outfall has been a matter of concern to the ecologists.
Water Quality Monitoring
The reservoir water quality and groundwater quality of surrounding villages should
be regularly monitored for the physico-chemical parameters as stipulated by the State
Pollution Control Board. In addition, the following should be carried out:
Identification and estimates of total mass in stressed and unstressed areas
for phytoplankton and zooplankton content in water samples
Determination of macrobenthos characteristics
Controlling radioactivity releases into the reservoir with respect to Quantity
and Quality
Wastewater
The purpose of the liquid waste management plan is to hold, control and
dispose off all active liquid effluents from the operation of the plant. A
centralized effluent treatment system need be constructed to process the
liquid effluents generated from both the reactors
Holding tanks should be designed in such a manner that they can hold all
liquid effluents generated both under normal and off-normal conditions.
Provisions for holding the contents of these tanks may be made in case of
rupture or structural failure
Monitoring of radioactivity in effluents should be carried out as per AERB
guidelines in force from time to time. Further, the final effluent should also
conform with the standards for non-radioactive parameters stipulated by the
State Regulatory Board i.e. RSPCB
The treated sewage from the colony should conform to the standards
stipulated by the RSPCB and it should, preferably be reused for gardening
or plantations.
Details of water requirement/wastewater generation and green belt in
respect to DAE residential colonies at Rawatbhata is given in Table 5.3.1. It
appears that the treated wastewater is discharged in nallahs and is not
reused for green belt irrigation. It is suggested that the treated wastewater
should be used for irrigation of lawn area and green belt
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Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Table 5.3.1
Details of water Requirements/Waste Generation and Green Belt in Respect
to DAE Residential Colonies at Rawatbhata
Sr. Type of Ph ase-1 Anu Anu Pratap Sentab Vikram Anu Anu Anu
No. information Kiran Nagar Chaya Deep Asha
1
2
3
4
5
6
a)
b)
c)
Water
requirement (in
MLD)
Waste water
generation (in
MLD)
Water balance
qty.
Wastewater
discharge
pattern
Waste water
treatment
Green belt:
Lawn area
No. of trees
Source of
irrigation
0.825
Nil
50
1.04
0.35 MLD—
(Back water)
0.80 0.97 2.6
0.27 0.165 0.414
Nil
0.23"
Open discharge in natural nallahs after chlorination
Seplic Oxidatrion pond and septic OP
tank tank
Septic OP
37448
Raw water
taken from
RPS lake
14000
5385 "
4860
1100
20900
OP OP&
Sep
tank
44000
OP: Oxidation Pond
Source : BARC, Environmental Survey Laboratory, RAPS, Rajasthan
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Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.3.4 Land Environment
5.3.4.1 Radioactive Solid Wastes
> The construction of trenches and RCC storage vaults should be supervised
critically with extreme care so that the structures may not collapse in the long run.
> The embankment around the RCC trenches should be properly constructed so
that during unfavourable heavy rains, it may not get washed away resulting in the
spread of the wastes around the area.
> Constant vigilance of storage vaults/RCC trenches is necessary, even if the plant
may not be in operation because of the possibilities of nearby groundwater
sources getting polluted due to radionuclides.
5.2.4.2 Township Solid Wastes
Municipal solid waste should be collected and treated. The domestic solid waste
normally constitutes about 50% organic matter. This material can also be composted to
yield the compost, which can be used along with the chemical fertilizer in the surrounding
farms. Studies carried out by various authorities have clearly shown that the yield that is
obtained by using chemical fertilizers along with compost is normally more than the yield
obtained by the use of chemical fertilizer alone. The progressive farmers will hence
readily accept to utilize the produced compost. The quantity of the compost produced is
quite small as compared to the anticipated demand and hence no problem is visualized in
its sale.
A) Composting
As the quantities to be composted are small, the semi-mechanized method of
composting will have to be used. Adequate land (4 ha) for composting will have to be
identified at a low-lying site. The method of operation of the composting plant will be as
given below:
The refuse vehicles coming to the compost plant would directly go to the windrow
site. This will cover 0.6 ha of land with flagstone paving. The material would be directly
put on the ground from where it will be turned at 5 days intervals manually or by using a
front-end loader. The windrow would be 2 m wide, 1 m high and 6 m long. Thus every
windrow would contain about 6 tonnes of material and would be turned 4 times and at the
time of final turn, it will be loaded in a trailor, which would take it to a hopper. The material
5.8
NEERI Ch apters: Environmental M anagement Plan
from below the hopper would fall on a horizontal conveyor belt where workers standing on
either side of it can manually remove glass, plastics, metals etc. The material would then
fall into input hopper of a size reduction unit. As the material has already undergone
decomposition, it would be amenable for disintegration and the size reduction can be
done now with the expenditure of lesser energy. The material after size reduction can be
taken to the maturation pile where it can be stored in 2 m high windrows for a minimum
period of 1 month. At the end of this period, much of the resistant organic matter would
also have been degraded and the material can be conveniently applied on the farms.
The total area that will be required for this composting plant will be 1.5 ha. In
addition to the plant, a building will have to be provided to house the front end loaders
and other equipment's.
Sanitary Land-filling
The non-compatible that will be removed from the township solid waste will have
to be disposed of. Similarly, if for some reasons the composting cannot be carried out, the
whole quantity will have to be land-filled. For the entire operation adequate land must be
available. These materials can be disposed of by using sanitary land-filling.
In general, the process involve filling of low-lying land with refuse in such a
manner as to ensure the process to remain sanitary. Normally, after the material is
deposited at the site, it is spread, compacted and covered at the end of every days
operation with a layer of earth. The earth layer precludes the possibility of rats burrowing
through it, fly breeding etc. Sanitary land-filling is normally carried out in 3 ways :
i) Trench Method
ii) Area Method
iii) Ramp Method
Trench method is normally used in the case of flat terrain or where the soil can be
easily excavated.
Area method is suitable for irregular or marshy waste land having a high level of
groundwater as in such cases excavation for the more orderly method of trench and ramp
types cannot be carried out.
Ramp method is commonly used in the case of flat or gently rolling areas.
5.9
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Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Suggested Land-filling M eth od
In the studies carried out all over India, NEERI has observed that bulky wastes
such as furnitures etc., are absent in Indian solid wastes. Also the initial density of city
refuse in India is observed to be between 500-800 kg/cm
3
as compared to 125-200 kg/m
3
in developed countries. The use of manual labour is quite cheap in India.
1. Selection of site should be made by using the same criteria as in the case of
mechanized method
2. Provide an all weather access road from existing main road to the point at
which filling is to commence. This road can be prepared from construction
and demolition waste, ash, clinker, etc. A small stock of this material should
be maintained at the site for day to day repairs
3. To help guide vehicle to the spot provide flags or pegs on the location which
will help demarcate it. To indicate height to which filling has to be done,
'sight rails' should be provided
4. The filling should start from point nearest to road. The vehicles should
approach the point after reversing. Tipping vehicles can unload faster and
hence assure a quicker out-turn. The dumped material can be spread and
leveled manually by using rakes having a number of teeth. By using Ramp
method, the filling will move progressively inside the site
5. To indicate the point where vehicles should stop for unloading, a strong
heavy wooden bumper bar can be provided
6. To avoid the rear wheels of vehicles from sinking in the newly deposited
mass, cover the area near working face with steel or wooden sleepers.
7. Cover the waste at the end of a days operation
This method needs at the site about 60 to 90 persons/million population and
hence for the NPP township a minimum of about 5 labourers will have to be provided for
carrying out the work at the site.
B) Vermicomposting
This technology is cost effective and is gaining importance. Vermitechnology can
be used to harness the renewable energy of organic waste to fuel the soil process. Soil
fed in this manner can generate balanced nutrients for photosynthetic plant production.
5.10
Ntt KI Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Some species of earthworms (Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellus) can
consume organic wastes and expel the remains as faeces or castings. If conditions are
suitable, they will multiply. Castings once dried have properties, which might make them
a desirable soil amendment. After the worms have fed on the waste and converted it into
castings, they are usually separated from castings. Worms can be recycled into new
vermicomposting beds or possibly marketed in some form. The end products of
vermicomposting therefore are worms, castings and solid waste residue.
Vermicomposting Process
Following steps are necessary for the successful vermicomposting process.
Selection of Species
Vermicomposting is the degradation of organic waste through earthworm
consumption, which converts the material into worm castings. For the successful
implementation of vermicomposting technique, it is very essential to select suitable
species, which should have the following characteristics:
1. Ability to inhabit and feed upon high percentage of organic matter
2. Adjustment to human disturbance, fluctuations in physico-chemical and
other environmental changes and
3. Faster reproduction rate i.e. high rate of cocoon production and a short life
cycle. Some species of earthworms like Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus
rubellus, can consume organic wastes and expel the remains as castings.
The castings have properties that make them desirable soil amendments. In
congenial environment, they multiply. To arrive at the proper selection of the
earthworm species it is very important to study their life cycle.
It is not very difficult to raise and maintain earthworms. They can be reared in
small containers filled with compost, cowdung and kitchen refuse. The rainy season
seems to be the best for culturing earthworms. Sufficient soil moisture and adequate
organic residues are considered to be ideal for their growth and multiplication; if the
culture is properly maintained, within one year, the multiplication may be more than 50
times. The worms may be taken from culture as and when needed, and can be
introduced in the desired fields, gardens etc. The earthworms provide excellent conditions
5.11
NEERI Ch apter 5 : Environmental M anagement Plan
for the build up of a number of useful microorganisms and consequently the soil with its
beaming millions of organisms become highly suitable for plant growth.
Ph ases of Vermicomposting
Vermicomposting involves three major phases as follows:
Phase I - Preprocessing involving collection of waste, shredding, mechanical sorting of
the metals, glass pieces, tin, plastic etc. and separating the easily degradable oganics.
The degradable organics is shredded to known particle size thereby reducing the bulk
volume by 50-70 percent.
Phase II - Vermicomposting involving earthworms is the next phase. Prior subjecting the
organic waste to vermicomposting, biogas can be recovered by fermenting the waste
under anaerobic environment. Digested slurry is then added in the earthworm beds for
vermicomposting. The undigested solid waste may be composted in windrow of about 6 "
in depth, which are irrigated to increase moisture content. Approximately one tonne of
earthworms are required in vermicomposting operation of 500 tonnes over a 12-18
months period.
Phase III - Vermicomposting earthworms can be separated from the vermicompost by
dynamic operation methods involving sieve and photo- or thermal-stimulation.
Vermifertilizer thus obtained can be applied in agro-ecosystems and earthworms can be
utilized for feed for poultry, fish culture, aquaculture or as a pig feed and also it can be
used for vermiculturing purposes.
M ech anism of Vermicomposting
Earthworms are responsible for breakdown of complex substances in the organic
waste into simple water-soluble substances. The enzymes secreted in the long intestine
of the earthworm and the enzymes of the symbiotic microorganisms in their gut cavity are
responsible for this conversion. Only 5-10 of ingested material after the breakdown is
absorbed in to the body for its own activity and the rest is excreted as fine mucus coated
granular aggregates. The complex organic substances are consumed at the mouth and
passes through the tubular gut and the same are released as simple substances through
aggregates of finely ground and chemically degraded organic substances.
5.12
NEERf
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Precautions to be observed during Vermicomposting Process
First and foremost, proper species selection should be done. Continuous supply of
earthworms should be ensured by having continuous culturing under controlled
conditions. Moisture content should be maintained between 40 and 50%. More than this
leads to anaerobic condition, which hampers normal activity of worms, leading to weight
loss and they perish ultimately. Temperature should be around 20-30°C.
Worms should be hand sorted carefully and the injured worms separated to avoid
spreading of infection to other worms.
Culturing beds must be protected from termites, centipedes, toads, rats, cats, and
dogs. Enough space should be provided for the worms to move freely, avoiding crowding.
Generally the minimum space required is 1 m
2
/2000 worms per 9 cm thick bed.
Frequent cast removal should be practiced, as otherwise it would lead to growth
retardation. Culture beds should be protected from direct rains and sunlight.
Vermicomposting M edium
Various combinations of soil and organic matter have been tried for raising worms.
A mixture of 1/3 soil and 2/3 organic matter is considered to be more useful in culture
containers. Beds of plastic or discarded wooden cases are prepared by spreading soil
layer of 2-4 cm in height over which another layer of equal thickness of soil is added.
Organic matter is placed on one side of the container. Water is added to the culture
medium so as to hold 25-30% of moisture. Indoor cultures are preferably kept in a cool
building at a temperature between 10°C to 15°C for the lumbricids (e.g. Eisenia foetida)
and about 20°C for tropical species (e.g. Eudrilus eugeniae and Berionyx excavatus). The
culture boxes or containers should be non-porous to minimize loss of moisture from
culture medium. The containers must be made up of light weighed materials and could be
carried easily from one place to another.
Vermiculture Containers and Beds
The size of the containers may vary. It is considered that a specially designed
wooden box is more convenient and useful. It measures 50 cm in length, 35 cm in width
and 15-20 cm in depth. The bottom of the box is provided with few holes of 50 mm
diameter. Plastic window screen is placed on the inside bottom with a burlap (or Jute
cloth) lining on top of the screened sides before the culture medium is added. This
5.13
NEERI Ch apter 5 ; Environmental M anagement Plan
prevents the culture medium from sticking into the box and escape of worms through the
holes but allows the excess water to drain. Top of the box is covered with a burlap (or
Jute cloth) frame. Earthworms can be cultured in commonly available glazed earthen
pots, plastic tubes, or even discarded wooden cases etc., each box covered with a lid
made up of plastic or iron window screen. Plastic tubes are considered to be
advantageous because these are more durable, lighter in weight and could easily be
arranged one above another in vertical rows on concrete shelves in limited space.
Large outdoor vermiculture beds of convenient dimensions may also be
established on wastelands. An outdoor culture bed is generally prepared with a bottom of
layer of 10 cm high gravel over which plastic window screen is placed with its edges
raised upped 20 cm in height. A layer of 2.4 cm sand is laid down over the window screen
layer. A mixture of 1/3 soil and 2/3 organic matter is spread over the sand layer. The bed
is slightly raised in the middle, which allow drainage of excess of water on sides during
the rains. The bottom layers of gravel and sand also help in maintaining the water content
in the culture. The window screen prevents the escape of worms.
Applications
> Use of Vermicomposting in Agriculture : Vermicompost, which is degraded
organic matter, can be used as top or organic manure in fields to prevent organic
carbon deficiency and soil erosion. The worm cast is a better source of organic
manure over the anaerobically degraded compost because of the following facts:
> The worm cast is loosely packed granular aggregate of semi-digested matter that
provides energy for establishment of various microorganisms.
> Some of the microbes, which are associated with the cast, are responsible for
deodorizing excrement derived from organic wastes with obnoxious odour
> The cast also forms suitable base for free living beneficial microbes whose
activities are essential for releasing of nutrients to higher plants.
> The activated soil or worm cast provides essential nutrients in available form to
plants
> Biochemical activities of established microbes and worm exudes have stimulatory
effect on plant growth
5 .14
NEERI Ch apter 5 : Environmental M anagement Plan
5.3.5 Biological Environment
To diminish radioactive pollutants and to absorb radiation, it is recommended to
develop a greenbelt all round the boundary and at several locations within the Nuclear
Power Plant premises.
For green belt development selection of suitable plant species, proper attention
and management is required to maintain the survival rate of planted species. It has been
observed that proper scientific technique are not employed for plantation of trees and if
planted adequate attentions are not given to maintain the planted species. Post
plantation management is equally important to maintain high survival rate.
Criteria for selection of species for green belt development need to be selected
based on the following criteria
> Fast growing
> Thick canopy cover
> Perennial and evergreen
> Large leaf area index
> High sink potential
> Efficient in absorbing pollutants without significantly affecting their growth.
5.3.5.1Guidelines for Plantation
The plant species identified for greenbelt development should be planted using
pitting technique. The pit size should be either 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm or 60 cm x 60 cm
x 60 cm. Bigger pit size is preferred on marginal and poor quality soils. Soil proposed to
be used for filling the pit should be mixed with well decomposed farm yard manure or
sewage sludge at the rate of 2.5 kg (on dry weight basis) and 3.6 kg (on dry weight basis)
for 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm and 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm size pits respectively. The filling
of soils should be completed at least 5 - 1 0 days before the actual plantation. Healthy
seedlings of identified species should be planted in each pit. Proper density of plants (no.
per hectare) will require to be maintained within the greenbelt.
5.3.5.2 Species Selection
Based on the regional background and soil quality, greenbelt has to be developed.
In greenbelt development, monocultures are not advisable due to its climatic factor and
other environmental constrains. Greenbelt with varieties of species is preferred to
5.15
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
maintain species diversity, rational utilization of nutrients and for maintaining health of the
trees. Prepared in this way, the greenbelt will develop a favorable microclimate to support
different micro- organisms in the soil and as a result of which soil quality will improve
further.
During the course of survey, it has been observed that the soil quality of the plant
site is fairly good and can support varieties of dry deciduous plant species for greenbelt
development. Manure as discussed earlier, may be mixed with the soil used for filling the
pit for getting better result for survival of plant species. Adequate watering is to be done
to maintain the growth of young seedlings. The study area gets low rainfall so the
vegetation is often affected by drought. During drought, tree is the only source to provide
food, fruits and leaf fodder to birds.
Based on the regional background, extent of pollution load, soil quality, rainfall,
temperature and human interactions, a number of species have been suggested to
develop greenbelt in and around the Nuclear Power Plant as reported in Table 5.2. These
species can be planted in staggering arrangements within the plant premises. Some
drought resistant plant species have been identified which can be planted for greenbelt
development if sufficient water is not available (Table 5.2).
The layout plan for greenbelt development near Nuclear Power Plant is shown in
Figure 5 .1. The details of greenbelt, 50 m away from Nuclear Power Plant is shown in
Figure 5.2.
Details about Selected Species
The following trees are recommended towards the plant boundary within 50 m
from the Nuclear Power Plant as per the details shown in Figure 5.1 for greenbelt width
of 100 meters.
Acacia auriculiformis (Seven Row)
On the Nuclear Power Plant side (50 m away from the plant) at a distance of
4 m. horizontally and diagonally.
Cassia Siamea (Seven Row)
The trees should be planted at about five meters horizontally and diagonally.
Dalbergia sissoo (Eight Row)
The trees should be planted at about 5 meters horizontally and diagonally.
Casisa fistula (Eight Row)
The trees should be planted at about 5 meters horizontally and diagonally.
5 .16
N ^ ^ '*' Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Azadirach ta indica may be planted in between the trees.
In addition, a lawn and floral garden with the varieties of small flowering plants
may be developed near the office site to keep aesthetic value of the entire complex. For
other buildings and sites which are away from the reactor at a distance of 50 meters,
suitable sector belts on area available towards NPP may be developed with the same
conceptual species placements as presented in Figure 5.2. The following trees are
recommended towards the boundary of NPP site for greenbelt of 200 m width.
Mangifera indica (one row) on the road side at an interval of 8 m planted
towards road side
Thespesia populnea (4 rows): The trees may be planted at about 4 m intervals
Acacia leucophloea (Six rows) : The trees may be planted at about 5 m Interval
horizontally and diagonally
Dalbergia sissoo (4 rows) : The trees may be planted at about 6 m interval
horizontally and diagonally
Acacia auriculiformis (Five rows) : The trees may be planted at about 5 m.
interval horizontally and diagonally
Cassia biflora (Five rows) : The trees may be planted at about 3 m interval
horizontally and diagonally
Terminalia arjuna (Five rows) : The trees may be planted at about 7 m interval
horizontally and diagonally
Syzgium cumini (Three rows) : The trees shall be planted at about 7 m interval
horizontally and diagonally
Prosopis juliflora (Five rows) : The trees may be planted at 5 m interval
horizontally and diagonally
Azadirachta indica may be planted in between the trees for getting better growth
of trees
Road Side Plantation
Road side plantation plays a very important role for greening the area, increasing
the shady area, increasing aesthetic value and for eco-development of the area. The
approach roads to NPP, colony, hospitals, etc. can be planted with flowering trees.
5.17
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
NPCIL should encourage plantation outside the plant boundary. Adequate care
should be taken to encourage greenbelt development on the road side, however to uplift
the regional ecosystem of the area by greenbelt development, all the voluntary
organizations should take initiative to encourage massive plantation along the road side.
Trees can be planted to increase aesthetic value as well as shady area along the roads
as detailed in Table 5.4. and Table 5.5.
Other Considerations
For Rawatbhata Nuclear Power Plant, proper greenbelt has to be designed to
reduce pollutants arising from the activities of nuclear power plant. Greenbelt has to be
designed to reduce pollutants arising from the vehicular movements. In addition,
greenbelt is necessary for emergency preparedness plans during accidents to reduce
adverse effects of accidents. Proper greenbelt development around Nuclear Power Plant
will reduce the adverse effects of reactor accidents by absorbing significant amounts of
the radio-active materials before they reach the public. The pollution attenuation factors of
three different widths of greenbelt for different considerations are presented in Table 5.6.
The pollution attenuation factor (AF) is given by the equation :
5.1
F{X)
Where,
X
2
= Width of greenbelt (m)
he = Effective height of greenbelt (m)
Af = Pollution Attenuation Coefficient
Xi = Separation distance between the greenbelt and pollution source (m)
o = normal deviation of concentration distribution in vertical (m) at downwind
distance
F
D
= Plume depletion factor for downwind distances
F
D
(XT + X
2
), F
D
(X^ and F
d
(X
2
) are the plume depletion factors due to dry
deposition of pollutant on natural surface for downwind distances (X, + X
2
), X, and X
2
respectively.
5.18
INfccKI Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
The plume depletion factor FD (X) for any distance x need to be calculated using
the following equation :
T<
2
" "
2v
exp 1 /<J
Z
exp -HI2o
z
d
z
. o i 5.2
Where,
H = Release height (m)
Q
z
= Standard deviation of concentration distribution in vertical (m) direction
for downwind distance x
V
d
= Dry deposition velocity (m/s)
u = Mean wind speed (m/s)
The concept of effective height he (which is less than the physical height of the
greenbelt) is introduced to account for reduced wind speed in the greenbelt region; value
of it is to be computed from the following relationship.
U (z) dz = h
e
U
c
5.3
Where,
h = height of greenbelt
U(z) = is the wind speed profile outside the greenbelt
Uc = is the average wind speed inside the greenbelt
The pollution attenuation coefficient (m'
1
) of the greenbelt is given by :
= K Pt Vd/Uc 5.4
Where,
Pt = foliage surface area density of single tree (m
2
xm"
3
)
Pc
l \ —
Pt
Vd = dry deposition velocity of the pollutant (ms'
1
) for the vegetative canopy
Plantation at Proposed Township of NPP
Proper greenbelt has to be developed in the proposed township of Nuclear
Power Plant. Different varieties of species have been suggested keeping in view the
attenuation of dust pollution, vehicular emissions and other environmental pollution. At
township, the goal is to reduce environmental pollution and increase aesthetic value. With
5.19
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
this in view, some of the plant species to be planted along the roadside, park and garden
are reported in Table 5.4. and Table 5.5.
5.3.5.3 Biological Environment
Aquatic Characteristics
Adequate care need be exercised for discharge of domestic wastes to RPS lake
to avoid enrichment of nutrients, which may result in profound algal growth leading to
eutrophication. Increase in pollutant level may also harm the aquatic organisms.
Anthropogenic activities should be prohibited to avoid enrichment of water with nutrients.
Biomagnification Study
It has been observed that NPCIL is monitoring samples for radiological
parameters from different sampling sites. Collection of samples should be done in a
systematic way. Samples should be monitored on monthly basis from the site. It is also
necessary that regular analysis of samples in the study area should be done in the
manner as given below :
At Receptor Sites
Concentration of different radioactive materials in :
- Water
- Land (irrigated, unirrigated)
- Rice, Wheat, Pulses
- Millets
- Milk
- Fruits
- Vegetables
- Phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, big fish, goat (different parts of the
body)
Once such data is generated, the status of food chains should be established
alongwith biomagnification levels due to release of radioactive materials in the
environment.
5.20
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Mitigation Measures
- A protective green belt should be developed around the power plant for air
filtration, and from aesthetic point of view it is essential also. This would also
create a buffer zone
- Regular monitoring of physico-chemical and radiation parameters need to be
carried out in biological samples as a post-project activity
- The wastewater from power plant and residential colonies should be treated to
meet the disposal standards and domestic sewage should be completely
reused for irrigation of plantations and green belt development
- Regular monitoring of diversity and density of marine and terrestrial flora and
fauna needs to be carried out as a part of post-project activity.
5.21
NEERI Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
o
o
PLANT SIDE
P < ® P O P P O P p o P P o #3
o o o o o p p . p p p p p p ^
o o o o o P o 6 o q p p. g o
@ O O ® O P O ^O ® "' o;.^ P-, §& * Q L Acacia auriculiformis
O O P O P P P P O O P O - O - w O f /
5 m
i
n t e r v a
i
O O O O O P O P O P O O - 0 o j d i a a o n a l l v l
a a a -a a a o p a o o o a
o a a a ^ o a a
0 a 0 a a o a a a
a., b D a a
tfX> o a D a o D O a, . , p o a a
o o a a o Q O a Jjffc d a D o a
O D D i ^ a D O a o D * D ^ ^ D
D D o
° °
D
D D O . D . O . D a a j
A A
A
6 A A A f i A 6 A A ^ A
&
&&
A
A fl tftt, A" A A A &
6 A A
A A A A" A A A A
A A A A A A A . A A fi£ A
A A & A A A A A A A A
> Cassia siamea
(5 m interval
horizontally and
diaaonallv)
Dalbergia sissoo
(5 m interval
horizontally and
diaaonallv)
Butea monosperma
(5 m interval
horizontally and
diaaonallv)
, Azadirachta indica
Fig. 5.1 : Green Belt Development Near the NPP Site
5.22
NE
-a
o
CN
o
o
PLANT SIDE
gement Plan
-!- UZ G3 EZ3 G3 E 3 E 3. . ' ^1 E J E 3 E23
G 0 D D D D D O O D 0 0 D D
>
- O D O O D O D
a o a o a o a a a a a . p G a a Q a a o a
D O D O D D D O O - D O D O Q - O D O O D D D
o a o o a o D O o
v
a a a O O D D O D o c r
+ + + + + + + ( 3 > + - 4 - 4 - + '
l
+ + i- + £?> 4 +• + 4
+ + + + + •(- + • + ' + § > ' • + * + • + + +
+ + +
+ + + -
f ^ j 4 +
©
+ • + ' +
• @ t
( S ) 0 O 0 O 0 O 0 © O 0 8 G & . e
O O O 3 © O O O O S O Q 9 ^ ) 8 .
^ g ) 0 o e o 9 « 3 Q © ^ j o o o e
o e o o o @ o o o o o o o o @
^ G O E 8 0 3 0 0 0 0 ® 0 0 0
* • •
« * ©
li • 0
e a t
©
4
.
+ + + +
+ © + +
4 - + @ +
4-4- +
+ f +
- 4- +
4- + + 4-
+ +
4 - 4 - 4 - 4- © 4- +•
+ + - + + - - r + + 4 - © + + + 4 - + + +
0 0 0 ( ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 @ 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 < § 0 0 0 0 - • 0. %0
0 0 0 ( 3 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 © 0 0 0 0 0
X ( Q ) X X X X ( Q X X X » X X X
y X X X X X @ X X X X X X 1 ( 1 ( 6 ) I X X
> X X g ) X X X X X ( 0 ) X X X X
x x x x x x Q x x x x x ' x x x x x i ( Q x
Dalbergia s/ssoo
(6 m interval h & d)
Jcac/a auriquljfqimis
(5m interval^-
u
-*
__,./a b/7(ora
(3 m interval h & d)
,_Terminalia,arjyna
(7 m interval V& a)
m cumim
(7 m interval h & d)
. Prosopia juliflora
(5 m interval h & d)
Azadirachta indica
Figure 5.2 : Section of Green Belt Development 50 m Away from Nuclear
Power Plant
5.23
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Species of Plants
Vernacular Name
-
-
Babul, kikar
-
-
Maharukh
Siris
Safed siris
Neem
Dhak, Palas
Amaltas
Kassodru
Tadwad
Kumbhi
Langali saru
Sisam
Bans
Amla
-
Pipal, Aswatha
Subabul
Mahua
Aam, mango
Banknym
Sainjan
Tut
-
Jungal jalebi
Karanj
Vilayati kikar
Anar
Khejra
Date palm
Badapilu Jhal
Jamun
Arjun
Imli
-
Paras pipal
-
Ber
Table 5.2
Suggested for Greenbelt Development
Botanical Name
Acacia auriculieformis
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia nilotica
Acacia farnesiana
Acacia tortilis
Ailanthus excelsa
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia amara
Azadirachta indica
Butea monosperma
Cassia fistula
Cassia siamea
Cassia auriculata
Careya arborea
Casuarina equisetifolia
Dalbergia sissoo
Dendrocalamus strictus
Emblica officinalis
Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
Ficus religiosa
Leucaena lecocephala
Madhuca latifolia
Mangifera indica
Melia azedarach
Moringa oleifera
Morus alba
Parkinsonia aculeate
Pithecellobium dulce
Pongamia pinnata
Prosopis chilensis
Punica granatum
Prosopis cineraria
Phoenix dactylifera
Salvadora oleoides
Syzygium cuminii
Terminalia arjuna
Tamarindus indica
Tecomeila undulata
Thespesia populnea
Tamarixaphylla
Ziziphus mauritaiana
5.24
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Drought
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
2 1.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Table 5 .3
Resistant Species for Greenbelt Design within the NPP Area
Botanical Name
Acacia auriculaeformis
Acacia farnesiana
Acacia nilotica
Acacia tortilis
Aegle marmelos
Albizia lebbeck
Azadirachta indica
Bougainvillea spectabilis
Butea monosperma
Caesalpinia pulcherrima
Callistemon lanceolatus
Cassia auriculata
Cassia fistula
Cassia siamea
Casuarina equisetifolia
Cochlospermum religiosum
Cordia sebestena
Crataeva nurvala
Dalbergia sissoo
Delonix regia
Dodonaea viscosa
Erythrina viriegata
Eucalyptus citriodora
Ficus benjamina
Grevillea robusta
Kigelia pinnata
Lagerstroemia indica
Melia azedarach
Vernacular Name
-
Vilayati kikar
Babul, Kikar
-
Bael
Siris
Neem
Boungainvillea
Dhak, Palas
Guletura, Gold mohr
Bottle brush tree
Avaram, Tadwad
Amatas
Kassod tree
Jangalisaru
Gejra
-
-
Sisam
Gulmohr
Spmatta, Wilayati mehndi
Panjra
Lemon scented gum
Wad
Silver oak
Sausage tree
Saoni
Bankayan
5.25
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Table 5.2
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
(Contd....)
Botanical Name
Parkinsonia aculeate
Peltophorum pterocarpum
Phoenix dactylifera
Phoenix sylvestris
Pongamia pinnata
Prosopis chilensis
Pterospermum acerifolium
Putranjiva roxburghii
Salvadora persica
Schleichera oleosa
Tamarix aphylla
Tamarix troupii
Thespesia populnea
Thevetia peruviana
Zizyphus mauritiana
Vernacular Name
Vilayati Babul
-
Datepalm
Khajur
Karanj
Vilayati Kikar
Bijasal
Putranjiva
Chota Pilu Jhal
Kusum
Laljhau
Jhau
Paras Pipal
Kaner
Ber
5.26
NEERI Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Table 5.4
Species Selected for Plantation along the Road Side and Township
Based
Yellow
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
on Color
Flowered Trees
Acacia auriculaeformis
Acacia baileyana
Acacia dealbata
Acacia decurrens
Acacia implexa
Anthocephalus chinensis
Bauhinia tomentosa
Cassia calliantha
Cassia fistula
10. Erythrina indica
11. Laburnum anagyroides
12. Michelia champaca
13. Parkinsonia aculeata
14. Peltophorum pterocarpum
15. Pterocarpus dalbergioides
16. Schizolobium excelsum
17. Tabebuia spectabillis
18. Thespesia populnea
Red Flowered Trees
1. Bombax ceiba
2. Brownea grandiceps
3. Erythrina blakei
4. Erythrina laurifolia
5. Erythrina variegata
6. Saraca asoca
7. Spathodea campanulata
8. Wrightia coccinea
Scarlet Flowered Trees
1. Barnngtonia acutangula
2. Brassia actinophylla
3. Brownea coccinea
4. Butea monosperma
5. Callistemon lanceolatus
6. Delonix regia
7. Stenocarpus sinuatus
8. Sterculia acerifolia
Pink Flowered Trees
1. Bauhinia purpurea
2. Cassia javanica
3. Cassia nodosa (Red)
4. Cassia renigera
5. Hibiscus collinus
6. Kleinhovia hospita
7. Lagerstroemia speciosa
8. Samanea saman
Blue Flowered Trees
1. Bolusanthus speciosus
2. Jacaranda acutifolia
3. Solanum grandiflorum
4. Solanum macranthum
White Flowered Trees
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Albizia lebbeck
Bauhinia acuminata
Calophyllum inophyllum
Kydia calycina
Madhuca indica
Magnolia grandiflora
Magnolia pterocarpa
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Mesua ferrea
Millingtonia hortensis
Mimusops elengi
Moringa oleifera
Oncoba spinosa
Plumeria alba
5.27
NEERI
Chapter 5; Environmental Management Plan
Table 5.5
List of Trees Having Peak Flowering Season
Spring
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Season
Acacia baileyana
Bauhinia acuminata
Bombax ceiba
Butea monosperma
Callistemon lanceolatus
Erythrina variegata
Summer Season
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Rainy
1.
Acacia decurrens
Acacia salinga
Albizia lebbeck
Barringtonia acutangula
Bauhinia acuminata
Calophyllum inophyllum
Cassia fistula
Cassia javanica
Cassia renigera
Delonix regia
Season
Acacia auriculaeformis
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
2.
Michelia champaca
Moringa oleifera
Plumeria alba
Saraca asoca
Spathodea campanulata
Sterculia acerifolia
Erythrina parcelli
Jacaranda acutifolia
Laburnum anagyroides
Lagerstroemia speciosa
Magnolia grandiflora
Mesua ferrea
Mimusops elengi
Oncoba speciosa
Stenocarpus sinuatus
Wrightia coccinea
Acacia implexa
5.28
NEERI Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Table 5.6
Pollution Attenuation Factor Af of Green Belt of Different Widths
Stability Category A
f
for Green Belt Width (m)
A
B
C
D
E
F
700
2.31
3.12
3.40
4.71
16.71
27. 69
1 000
2. 37
3.37
3.97
7.75
44. 80
128. 04
1 5 00
2.38
3.39
4.26
12.61
96. 68
1792. 59
5.29
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.4 Socio-economic Environment
A critical review of the socio-economic profile of the study area and the socio-
economic survey conducted in the adjoining rural area of Project has brought forth
following significant observations which need to be considered for preparing the EMP. It
is envisaged that such an EMP would help in mitigating the adverse and unfavorable
reactions of the people in the area towards project. As such the following suggestions
are made :
- The hospital which caters to the needs of the project staff does not extend
medical aid to the local rural inhabitants except in case of emergency. People
expressed that they should be helped by NPC in this regard to some extent by
conducting medical camps, mobile dispensary, donating funds to the local
Gram Panchayats for setting up dispensaries etc.
- It is felt that such welfare activities should be continued or intensified to win
over the people's negative feeling towards the project
- The negative feelings of these people is mainly due to the propaganda carried
out by anti nuclear lobby working in the area. This section of the people has
developed a fear of catastrophies like Bhopal and the health hazards of
radiation in the minds of local people. It is necessary that a proper strategy for
safety, training and awareness about nuclear power amongst local people
should be planned out. To plan the strategy, it is necessary to carry out a
diagnosis of the basic education level of the people concerned, their
misapprehensions about the nuclear power and also the inputs by the
interested activists. Based on these findings audio-visual aids, exhibition
materials and other educational inputs should be developed to create proper
awareness about the very concept of nuclear power in the minds of people
and also to mitigate the fears related to accidents due to nuclear power as well
as health hazards due to radiation
- Provision of some recreational facilities like sponsored sports tournaments,
fairs etc. would also lead to goodwill of the people towards the management
- It is suggested that the project management should allocate some funds
towards welfare activities in the area. This should be in phases and through
proper channel as per requirements and as per the needs of the local people.
This would enhance the goodwill and people's participation in the smooth
running of the project
5.30
NEERI Ch apter 5 : Environmental M anagement Plan
- Medical personnel with adequate facilities for training, adequate equipments
and necessary medication should arrange to deal effectively with the patients
occupationally exposed to radiations.
- Working area must be supplied with filtered air and highly efficient filtration
systems be installed to remove air borne particulates from the exhaust air from
the ventilation systems
- There should be individual monitoring of personnel engaged on operations
{(according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP
publication 12(61)}.
A continuous monitoring of the radiations is required besides the following
measures:
- Monitoring of the working environment to ensure that the design features of
the plant and its mode of operation are such that the personnel are adequately
protected from exposure, both internally from contamination and externally
from penetrating radiations.
- Monitoring of personnel occupationally exposed to radiations to ensure that
the total exposure for each individual is within the prescribed limits and as low
as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for the operations involved.
- Maintaining of records of all such measurements to permit analysis of the
radiological impacts on those employed in the process and the general public.
- Providing safety services, such as protective equipment to safeguard the plant
operations and advice on operating procedures for both normal and abnormal
conditions;
- Deploying medical staff to carry out surveillance of workers; including pre-
employment medical examinations & periodic subsequent examinations to
monitor health of those involved
- Maintaining close interaction and close collaboration with the Health Physics
Department and Medical Services.
5.31
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Training
Working in a nuclear power plant always requires adequate personnel training
with respect to the associated potential hazards with emphasis being placed on the
significance of contamination.
Personnel engaged directly on the process must be trained in the techniques of
material transfer and processing methods to ensure contaminated material within sealed
enclosures at all times. Such techniques should be perfected using inactive materials
prior to starting the work.
5.5 Post Project Environmental Monitoring
5.5.1 Air Quality Monitoring Programme
5.5.1.1 Monitoring Parameters
The ambient air quality monitoring parameters are suspended particulate matter
(SPM), sulphur dioxide (SO
2
) and Nitrogen-dioxide (NO
2
).
5.5.1.2 Sampling Stations
To establish general status of ambient air quality and resulted impact of pollutants,
minimum eight monitoring stations on grid basis within 10 km zone from the source
should be operated. One station on the upwind of the source at a distant location which
shall be treated as a control may be essential. The other stations should be selected on
seasonal basis depending upon the prevalence of wind direction.
5.5.1.3 Sampling Frequency
Sampling duration of each sampling schedule for all 24 hours for 2 days
continuous and twice in a week. The background station may be operated once in 7 days
for 24 hours period. The sampling period for gaseous pollutants shall be decided
depending upon the frequency of change of wind direction and persistence.
5.5.1.4 Air Quality Monitoring - Equipments Required
Impingers 100 Nos.
Chemicals/Glasswares and, other Lab. equipment
Weather Monitoring equipment 1 No.
(continuous recorder type for speed direction and turbulence.)
Sampling pumps 4 Nos.
5.32
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
High Volume Sampler
Blower
Manometer
1.5 m
3
/min capacity with adopter for uniform
suction through filter
A properly calibrated manometer assembly
for the determination of flow rate through
filter paper
Rotameter
Main Housing
SO
2
Analyzer
Minimum Range
Flow Rate
Min. Detectable level
Response Time
NOx Analyzer
Minimum Range
Min. Detectable
Linearity
Accuracy
Response time
Output
Wind Speed
Cupwheel
Distance Constant
Wind Direction
Damping Ratio
Gust Wave length :
: Calibrated rotamete
maintaining flow rat
: Rectangular main h
: 0-100 ug/m
3
: 1 l/min
: 4 ppb
: 1 min
0-100 ug/m
3
5 ug/m
3
+ 2% of full scale
+ 2% of full scale
25 sec
0-10 mv DC
5 to 10 cm diameter
5 m
0.5-0.6
1.0m
Signal output should be electrically connected with microprocessor based data
analyzer.
5.33
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.5.2 Noise Environment
Monitoring of noise levels is essential to assess the efficacy of maintenance
schedules undertaken to reduce noise levels and noise protection measures. A good
quality sound pressure level meter is essential for this purpose.
Sound pressure level meter
Bruel & Kjaer, Denmark made
5.5.3 Water Quality Monitoring
Water quality is to be monitored for assessing potability as well as for its suitability
for general uses. Conventional parameters and health-related parameters are required to
be monitored.
5.5.3.1 Sampling Frequency
Weekly, i.e. One sample from each sampling site every week.
5.5.3.2 Analysis Methodology
The methods prescribed in "Standard Methods for Water and Waste Water
Analysis" published by APHA, AWWA & WPCF should be strictly adhered.
5.5.3.3 Monitoring Laboratory
An independent laboratory with facilities for chemical and bacteriological analysis
should be constructed. The laboratory should have the provision for Fume-hood and
Cold-room. A separate air conditioned dust-proof room should be provided for the
instruments. Following instruments will be required.
i)
ii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii) Flame Photometer (CORNING) 1 No.
5.34
Single Pan Balance
pH Meter
Conductivity Meter
Turbidity meter
(Preferably HACH)
D.O. Analyser
Spectrophotometer(UV & Visible)
Wave-length (preferably Spectronic)
190-1000 nm.
2Nos.
2Nos.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
1 No.
NEERt Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
5.5.4 Staff Requirement for Environmental Quality Monitoring
i) Environmental Engineer (M.E. Env. Engg.) 1 No.
ii) Chief Chemist with Post-graduate Degree 1 No.
in Chemistry, and 10-15 years experience
in Water and Air Pollutants Analysis
iii) Chemist with Post-graduate Degree in Chemistry 2 Nos.
(one each for Air and Water Environment)
iv) Laboratory Technician B.Sc. (Chemistry) 3 Nos.
v) Field Sampling Staff 3 Nos
vi) Horticulturist B.Sc. (Agriculture) 1 No.
with 3-5 years experience
The staff may be deputed to a reputed organization for training in Water and
Waste Water Analysis and instrumental method for analysis. Components of post project
monitoring and organizational set-up required for environmental quality monitoring on
continuous basis, are presented in Figures 5.3.3 and 5.3.4 respectively.
5.5.5 Budgetary Provisions for EMP
Adequate budgetory provisions have to be made by NPCIL for execution of
environmental management plan. The details of capital and recurring (per annum) budget
that needs to be earmarked for pollution control/monitoring equipments and for green-belt
development are as follows :
(i) Pollution Control
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
a. Non-recurring :
b. Recurring / Annum :
Pollution Monitoring
a. Non-recurring :
b. Recurring / Annum
Green-belt development
a. Non-recurring :
b. Recurring / Annum :
Social Welfare Measures
a) Health facilities
Non - Recurring :
Recurring / Annum :
100 Lakhs
25 Lakhs
30 Lakhs
10 Lakhs
30 Lakhs
10 Lakhs
20 Lakhs
4 Lakhs
5.35
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
b) Water Supply & Sanitation
Non - Recurring : 20 Lakhs
Recurring / Annum : 5 Lakhs
Note:- Item at S. N. (I) & (ii) pertain to Non-Radiological Pollution Control. For
radiological pollution control, NPCIL can plan for a budget of its own or in
consultation with agencies like BARC.
5.5.6 Radioactive Monitoring and Surveillance Programme
Assessment of doses to members of the public is done not by individual
monitoring but by assessment through sampling in the environment and statistical
calculations. In order to achieve this, a comprehensive environmental surveillance
programme has to be established at all major facilities. The programme shall have the
following objectives:
i. Baseline radioactivity measurements
ii. Pre-operational studies regarding identification of critical pathways, radionuclides
in air, water and food chain to help in the establishment of authorized limits for
different radiological parameters.
iii. Collection of data to determine the assimilative capacity of the environment
iv. Monitoring during normal operation of the nuclear power plant
v. Provision of monitoring services in cases of uncontrolled releases of radio-activity
into the environment
vi. Establishing a well equipped Environmental Surveillance and Micrometeorological
Laboratory (ESML) with deployment of well trained staff for monitoring of relevant
parameters of nuclear power generation on regular basis.
The surveillance programme is carried out on a permanent basis by Health
Physics Division, BARC (which is outside the control of the plant O & M organization).
The personnel incharge, of the surveillance programme are well qualified and
experienced. The results of all operational aspects of the station are subject to review by
a three tier Safety Committee System of AERB to implement safety regulations. The final
review is by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board.
NPCIL states that experience during the last 15 years of such programmes has
given satisfactory results to contain radioactivity within ICRP limits.
5.36
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Post Project Environmental Monitoring
NPCIL
Air, Noise, Water, Land Environment
Monitoring
Selection of Parameters
Selection of Monitoring System
Equipment Specifications
Frequency of Sampling
Analysis Methodology
Statistical Analysis of Results
Comparison with Standards
Adoption of Additional Mitigation
Measures, if Necessary
Analytical Quality Control
Figure 5.3: Components of Post-Project Environmental Monitoring
Programme for NPCIL
5.37
NEERI
Chapter 5: Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Engineer
Chief Chemist
Chemist for
Air Quality
Chemist for
Water Quality
Laboratory Technicians
Field Sampling Staff
Horticulturist
Staff for
Plantations
Figure 5.4 : Recommended Organizational Set up for
Environmental Quality Monitoring
(For Non-Radiological Parameters) for NPCIL
5.38
BIBLIOGRAPHY
IBLIOGRAPHY
1) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (2004) Meteorological data (Average wind and
Temperature) for October and November 2003. environmental survey laboratory,
RAPS, Bhaba Nagar, via Kota (Rajasthan) 32-3307 (Personal communication)
2) Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (1998-2003) Annual Reports on Off Site
Environmental and Micro Meteorological Studies at Rawatbhata Site. Health
Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai for 1998,1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003
3) Datir, S. K., Murthy, N.R.K., Taswir, Singh. (2002) Thermal discharges at
nuclear power station and effect on the design and adherence to MoEF
stipulation. Proc. DAE-BRNS National Symposium on Thermal Ecology, Feb,
2002, Tirunelveli, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Mumbai and Sri Paramakalyani Center
for Environmental Science, Manonmanian Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, p.
136-139
4) Kinne, O. (1972) Marine Ecology, Vol.1 Environmental Factors Part I Wiley Inter-
science, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York.
5) Malpani, R., (2003) Management Plan for Bhainsroadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary
period 2003-2004 to 2012-2013, Chittorgarh Forest Division Wildlife wing, forest
Department, Govt. of Rajasthan
6) Nuclear power Corporation (2003) Priliminary safety Analysis Report on
Radiation Hazardous Control and Radioactive waste management for KAPP unit
3 &4 700 MWe (Personal communication)
7) Subramoniam, T., Santhisa R., Sunil Lsreal, Munuswamy N., Venugopalan, V.
P., Narasimhan, S. V. (2002) Environmental influence on the population structure
of Emerita asiatica in the sandy beaches of Madras Coast. Proc. DAE-BRNS
National Symposium on Thermal Ecology, Feb. 2002, Tirunelveli, Dept. of Atomic
Energy, Mumbai and Sri Paramakalyani Center for Environmental Science,
Manonmanian Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, p. 95
8) Sukumaran, N., Zahir Hussan, M. I., Anitha, A. and Murugesan A. G. (2002)
Effect of temperature on the growth of marine shrimp Penaeus monodon. Proc.
DAE-BRNS National Symposium on Thermal Ecology, Feb, 2002, Tirunelveli,
Dept. of Atomic Energy, Mumbai and Sri Paramakalyani Center for
Environmental Science, Manonmanian Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, p.
350-353
9) Wagh P. M. and Singh Jitendra (2002) Thermal discharges experiences at Indian
nuclear power stations. Proc. DAE - BRNS National Symposium on Thermal
Ecology, Feb, 202, Tirunelveli, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai and Sri
Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental Science, Mananmanian Sundaranar
University, Tirunelveli, pp 248-256
Annexure
NATIONAL AMBIEKT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS)
(1994)
Concentration in ambient air
Pollutant
Sulphur dioxide
(SO2)
Oxides of Nitrogen
method
(as NO2)
Suspended Particulate
Matter (SPM)
Respirable Particulate
Matter (size less than
10nm)(RPM)
Lead(Pb)
Carbon Monoxide
(CO)
Time weighted
average
Annual average
24 hours
Annual average
24 hours"
Annual average
24 hours"
Annual average
24 hours"
Annual average
24 hours"
8 hours"
1 hour
Industrial Residential, Rural &
area mixed use area
Sensitive
area
Method of measurement
80 ng/m
120 ng/m
3
80 ng/m
3
120ng/m
3
360 ng/m
3
500 ng/m
3
120ng/m
3
150ng/m
3
1.0|ag/m
3
1.5ng/m
3
5.0 mg/m
3
10.0 mg/m
3
60
80
60
140
200
o(j u,Q/m
100 ng/m
3
0.75 ng/m
3
1.00 ng/m
3
2.0 mg/m
3
4.0 mg/m
3
15 \xglm
3
30 ng/m
3
15ng/ m
3
30 ng/m
3
70 (ig/m
3
100ng/ m
3
50 ng/m
3
75
3
0.50 |ig/m
0.75 ng/m
3
1.00 mg/ m
3
2.00 mg/ m
3
- Improved West & Gaeke method
- Ultraviolet fluorescence
- Jacob & Hochheiser(Na-Arsenite)
- Gas phase chemiluscence
- High vol ume sampl i ng (average flow rate
not less than 1.1 m
3
/min)
- Respirable particulate matter sampl er
- AAS method after sampling using
EPM 2000 or equivalent filter paper
- Non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy
* Annual arithmatic mean of mi ni mum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval
** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on two consecutive days
NOTE
1. National Ambi ent Air Quality Standards : The levels of air quality necessary with an adequate margin of safety, to protect the public health, vegetation
and property
2. Whenever and wherever two consecutive values exceeds the limit specified above for the respective category, it woul d be considered adequate
reason to institute regular/continuous monitoring and further investigations
3. The above standards shall be reviewed after five years from the date of notification
>
3
3
(D
X
c
Annexure I I
Noise Standards
Area
Code
A
B
C
D
Category of Area
Industries Area
Commercial Area
Residential Area
Silence zone
Noise Level
Day Time
(6 am to 10 pm)
75
65
55
50
in Leq dB(A)
Night Time
(10 pm to 6 am)
70
55
45
40
* Area up to 100m around premises such as hospitals, educational institutions, and courts
Note:
The silence zones are to be declared by the competent authority. Use of
vehicular horns, loudspeakers, and bursting of crackers are banned in theses
zones
Source
CPCB 1998, Pollution Control Acts, Rules, and Notifications issued
thereunder. Volume-1 p313 New Delhi : Central Pollution Control Board,
Ministry of Environment and Forests 501 pp
INDIAN STANDARDS/SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER
IS : 10500 -1991
S. Substances or
No. Characteristic
Max.
(D (2)
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
(3)
Undesirable
effects out-
side the desi-
rable limit
Permissible
limit in
absence of
alternate source
Method of Test
Cl Ref of IS : 3025
(4) (5) (6)
Remarks
(7)
Essential Ch aracteristics
1. Colour, Hazen unit
2. Odour
Taste
4. Turbidity, NTU
A bove, c onsumer
ac c eptanc e
dec reases
Unobjectionable
Agreeable
Above, consumer
acceptance decreases
25
10
4 of 3025, 1983
5 Of 3025, 1983
8
Extended upto 25
only if toxic substances
are not suspected in
absence of alternate
source
a. Test cold and
when heated
b. Test at several
dilutions
Test to be conducted
only after safety has
been established
(D
X
<D
s.
No.
(D
5.
6.
7.
8.
Substances or
Characteristic
Max.
(2)
pH value
Total hardness,
mg/L as CaCO
3
Iron (as Fe), mg/L
Chlorides (as Cl)m
mg/l
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
(3)
6.5-8.5
300
0.3
250
Undesirable Permissible
effects out- limit in
side the desi- absence of
rable limit alternate source
(4) (5)
Beyond this range No
the water will affect relaxation
the mucous membrane
and/or water supply
system
Encrustation on water 600
supply structure and
adverse effects on
domestic use
Beyond this limit, 1.0
taste/appearance
are affected, has
adverse effect
on domestic uses
and water supply
structures, &
promotes iron
bacteria
Beyond this limit, 1000
taste, corrosion and
palatability are
affected
Method of Test
Cl Ref of IS : 3025
(6)
8
32 of 3025, 1964
32 of 3025, 1988
Remarks
(7)
s.
No.
(D
9.
Substances or
Characteristic
Max.
(2)
Residual free
chlorine, mg/L
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
(3)
0.2
Undesirable
effects out-
side the desi-
rable limit
(4)
Permissible
limit in
absence of
alternate source
(5)
Method of Test
Cl Ref of IS : 3025
(6)
26 of 3025, 1986
Remarks
(7)
To be applicable only
when water is chlorinated
Tested at consumer end,
When protection against
viral infection is required,
it should be min 0.5 mg/L
Desirable Ch aracteristics
10. Dissolved solids,
mg/L
500
11. Calcium (as Ca),
mg/L
75
Beyond this
palatability decrease
and may cause
gastrointestinal
irritation
2000 16 of 3025, 1984
200 40 of 3025, 1984
12. Copper (as Cu),
mg/L
0.05 Astringent, taste
discoloration of
pipes, fitting and
utensils will be caused
beyond this
1.5 36 of 3025, 1964
S. Substances or
No. Characteristic
Max.
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
Undesirable
effects out-
side the desi-
rable limit
Permissible
limit in
absence of
alternate source
Method of Test
Cl Ref of IS : 3025
Remarks
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
13. Manganese (as Mn),
mg/L
0.1
14. Sulphates,
(as SO
4
), mg/L
200
15. Nitrates (as
NO
3
), mg/L
16. Fluoride (as F),
mg/L
45
1.0
17. Phenolic substances, 0.001
mg/L (as C
6
H
5
OH)
Astringent taste, 0.3
discoloration of pipes,
fitting and utensils
will be caused
beyond this
Beyond this 400
causes gastro
intestinal irritation
when magnesium
or sodium are
present
Beyond this 100
methaemoglobinemia
takes place
Fluoride may be kept 1.5
as low as possible.
High fluoride may
cause fluorosis
Beyond this, it may 0.002
cause objectionable
taste and odour
35 of 3025, 1964
24 of 3025, 1986 May be extended upto
400 provided (as Mg)
does not exceed 30 mg/L
23 of 3025, 1964
54 of 3025, 1964
s.
No.
(D
Substances or
Characteristic
Max.
(2)
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
(3)
Undesirable
effects out-
side the desi-
rable limit
(4)
Permissible
limit in
absence of
alternate source
(5)
Method of Test
Cl Ref of IS : 3025
(6)
Remarks
(7)
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Mercury (as Hg),
mg/L
Cadmium (as Cd),
mg/L
Selenium (as Se)
mg/L
Arsenic (As), mg/L
Cyanide (CN), mg/L
Lead (Pb), mg/L
Zinc (as Zn), mg/L
0.001
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.05
5
Beyond this, the water
becomes toxic
Beyond this, the
water becomes toxic
Beyond this, the
water becomes toxic
Beyond this, the
Beyond this, the
water becomes toxic
Beyond this, the
water becomes toxic
Beyond this limit
it can cause astringent
taste and an opalescence
in water
No
relaxation
No
relaxation
No
relaxation
No
No
relaxation
No
relaxation
15
see note mercury
ion analyser
see note mercury
ion analyser
28 of 3025, 1964
37 of 3025, 1988
27 of 3025, 1986
pollution is suspected
See note 86
39 of 3025, 1964
To be tested
when pollution
is suspected
To be tested
when pollution is
suspected
To be tested when
pollution is suspected
To be tested when
To be tested when
To be tested when
pollution plumbosolvency
is suspected
To be tested when
pollution is suspected
s.
No.
(1)
25.
Substances or
Characteristic
Max.
(2)
Anionic detergents,
mg/L (as MBAS)
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
(3)
0.2
Undesirable
effects out-
side the desi-
rable limit
(4)
Permissible
limit in
absence of
alternate source
(5)
Beyond this limit, 1.0
it can cause a light
froth in water
Method of Test
CIRefof I S: 3025
(6)
Methylene blue
extraction method
Remarks
(7)
To be tested when
pollution is suspected
26. Chromium (as Cr
+6
),
mg/L
00
27. Polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons
(as PAH), mg/L
0.01 May be carconogenic
above this limit
May be carcinogenic
0.05 28 of 3025, 1964 To be tested when
pollution is suspected
28. Mineral oil, mg/L 0.01
29. Pesticides, mg/L
30. Radioactive materials
a. Alpha emitters Bq/L
b. Beta emitters pci/L
Absent
Beyond this limit
undesirable taste
and odour after chlo-
rination takes place
Toxic
0.03
0.001
0.1
1.0
Gas chromatographic
method
58 of 3025, 1964
To be tested when
pollution is suspected
S. Substances or
No. Characteristic
Max.
Requirement
(Desirable
limit)
Undesirable
effects out-
side the desi-
rable limit
Permissible
limit in
absence of
alternate source
Method of Test
Cl Ref of IS : 3025
Remarks
0)
(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
31. Alkalinity
(as CaCO
3
), mg/L
200
32. Aluminimum (as Al), 0.03
mg/L
33. Boron (as B), mg/L
Beyond this limit 600
taste becomes
unpleasant
Cumulative effect 0.2
is reported to cause
dementia
13 of 3025, 1964
31 of 3025, 1964
29 of 3025, 1964
Note : Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method may be use
An nexure IV
INDIAN STANDARDS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND SEWAGE EFFLUENTS DISCHARGE
IS:2490-1982
Sr. Parameters
No.
Industrial Effluent
Into Inland
Surface Water
On land for
Irrigation
Into Marine
Coastal Area
Into Public
Sewers
1. Colour/Odour
2. Suspended Solids,
mg/l
3. Particle Size
Suspended Solids
4. Dissolved Solids
5.
(Inorganic) mg/l, Max
pH Value
6. Temperature °C
7. Oil & Grease, mg/l,
Max
8. Total Residual
Chlorine, mg/l, Max
9. Ammonical Nitrogen
(as N) mg/l, Max
100 200
Shall pass
850 micron
IS sieve
2100 2100
5.5-9 5.5-9
Shall not exceed
40 in any section
of the stream within
15 mts downstream
from the effluent
outlet
10 10
50
10. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 100
(as N), mg/l, Max
11. Free Ammonia 5
(as NH
3
) mg/l, Max
100
(For process
waste)
Floatable Solids
Max 3mm
Settleable Solids
Max 850 microns
5.5-9
45 at the point
of discharge
600
2100
5.5-9.0
20
1
50
100
20
50
10
Sr. Parameters Industrial Effluent
No
Into Inland On land for Into Marine Into Public
Surface Water Irrigation Coastal Area Sewers
12. Biochemical Oxygen 30 100 100 350
Demand (5 Days at
20°C), Max
13. Chemical Oxygen 250 - 250
- Demand mg/l, Max
14. Arsenic (as As), mg/l 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Max
15. Mercury(as Hg), mg/l 0.01 - 0.01 0.01
Max
16. Lead (as Pb), mg/l, 0.1 - 1.0 1.0
Max
17. Cadmium (as Cd), mg/l 2 - 2 1
Max
18. Hexavalent Chromium 0.1 - 1 2
(As Cr6+), mg/l, Max
19. Total Chromium (as Cr) 2 - 2 2
mg/l, Max
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Copper (as Cu), mg/l
Max
Zinc (as Zn), mg/l, Max
Selenium (as Se),
mg/l, Max
Nickel (as Ni), mg/l
Max
Boron (as B), mg/l
Max
3
5
0.05
3
2
15 15
0.05 0.05
25. Percent Sodium, Max - 60 60
11
Sr. Parameters Industrial Effluent
No
Into Inland On land for Into Marine Into Public
Surface Water Irrigation Coastal Area Sewers
26. Residual Sodium 50
Carbonate, mg/l, Max
27. Cyanide(as CN), mg/l, 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Max
28. Chloride (as Cl), mg/l, 1000 600 - 1000
Max
29 Fluoride (as F), mg/l, 2 - 15 15
Max
30. Dissolved Phosphate 5 - - -
(As P), mg/l, Max
1000 - 1000
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
Sulphate (as SO
4
)
mg/l, Max
Sulphide (as S)
mg/l, Max
Phenolic Compounds
(as C
6
H
5
OH), mg/l,
Max
Radioactive materials
a) Alpha emitters
fic/ml, Max
b) Beta emitters
|ic/ml, Max
Manganese (as Mn),
mg/l
Iron (as Fe) mg/l
Vanadium (as V) mg/l
Nitrate Nitrogen mg/l
10
2
1
10'
10-
2
3
0.2
18
-7 -in-8 < n-7 *n-l
10'
8
10-
7
10"
10"
7
1Q-
6
10"
6
3 - 3
0.2 0.2
20 - 0.2
12
Annexure V
Information About Various Nuclear Power Plants with Respect to
Environmental Requirement for Discharge of Condenser Cooling
Water System
Plant Project
Operating Plants
TAPS - 1 & 2
RAPS - 1 & 2
MAPS - 1 & 2
NAPS - 1 & 2
KAPS - 1 & 2
RAPP - 3 & 4
KAIGA - 1 & 2
New Plants
TAPS - 3 & 4*
KAIGA - 3 & 4
Temp Rise Limit
Across Condenser
Complying (7.7 °C)
Complying (8.44 °C)
More or less complying
(10.3 °C)
Closed loop temp, rise
not applicable
Closed loop temp, rise
not applicable
Closed loop temp, rise
not applicable
Complying (8 °C)
Complying old limits
(9.3 °C)
Complying (8°C)
Plant Out Fall
Temp. Limit
Complying (7.65
°C)
Complying (7.93
°C)
Complying (8.4
°C)
Blow down flow
temp, rise (10.4
°C)
Blow down flow
temp, rise (11.6
°C)
Blow down flow
temp, rise (5 °C)
Complying
(7.86 °C)
Complying old
limits (9.5 °C)
Complying (7.86
°C)
Reservoir/Lake Sea Temp.
Rise Limit Achieved
5 °C rise within 250-350 m
from out fall; 1
C
C rise at 500 m
mixing zone
5°C rise within 250-350 m
from out fall; 5-2 °C rise in 500
m mixing zone
5°C rise within 250-350 m
from out fall
Temp, rise in PLGC/LGC
negligible (0.8
C
C to 0.6
C
C)
Temp rise in pond 5.6 °C rise
at 200 m from out fall
Expected less than 1 °C rise at
250-300 m mixing zone
5 °C rise within 200-300 m
distance from out fall point
5 °C rise with 100-300 m from
the out fall point
5°C rise within 200-300 m
distance from out fall point
* Environmental Clearance obtained prior to current stipulation
13