ANSWERS MUST BE WRITTEN IN INK.

EXCEPT
WHERE THEY ARE EXPRESSLY REQUIRED,
PENCILS MAY ONLY BE USED FOR DRAWING,
SKETCHING AND GRAPHICAL WORK




THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES

FINAL EXAMINATION

JUNE 2002



ELEC3005

ELECTRICAL ENERGY 1






Time allowed - 3 hours


(1) Total number of questions - 6

(2) Attempt 5 questions ONLY

(3) All questions are of equal value.

(4) Candidates may bring drawing instruments into the examination.

(5) The following aids will be supplied by the examinations unit: Graph
paper; electronic calculator.

(6) This paper may be retained by the candidate.





A SEPARATE BOOK MUST BE USED FOR EACH QUESTION
QUESTION 1

The parameters of the equivalent circuit of a 3-phase, star connected 415V, 50Hz, 4-
pole induction motor, in Ohms/phase, with all quantities referred to the stator, are:

R
1
= 0.2Ω, X
1
=

X
2
= 0.15Ω, R
2
= 0.3Ω, X
m
= 10Ω.

(R
m
may be neglected)

(i) For a full load slip of 0.04, calculate the kVAR rating and capacitance/phase of
a delta connected capacitor bank to correct the overall power factor to 0.95.

(16 marks)

(ii) What would be the benefit of increasing the power factor to 0.95 from its initial
value in the above case? Illustrate your answer with a sketch.

(4 marks)


QUESTION 2


(a) With the aid of a sketch or sketches describe the mechanism by which the
primary of a transformer is aware of the presence of current in the secondary
of the transformer.

(8 marks)
(b)
A
V
240V
40Ω


Question 2 continued on next page…
(b) The primaries of three identical single-phase transformers are connected in
series to a 240V supply as shown. The secondaries of the transformers are
also connected in series but with the polarity of one of the secondary windings
reversed. A 40Ω resistance is connected to the secondaries of the
transformers as shown. If the primary to secondary turns ratio of the
transformers is 2 what is the voltage which appears across the switch in the
secondary of the transformers when the switch is open and what is the
secondary current when the switch is closed? Show all of your working.

(12 marks)

QUESTION 3

(a) With the aid of a simple sketch or sketches describe the advantages of using
full-pitch coils in the armature of DC generators and DC motors.

(5 marks)


(b) Two DC series motors have total resistance of 1Ω and 3Ω respectively. When
they are connected in series across a 250V supply and suitably loaded, they
draw a current of 15A and the voltage across the first motor is found to be
150V. The speeds of the two motors are 300 and 400 rev/min respectively.
The motors are now mechanically geared together so that the second motor
rotates twice as fast as the first and the supply voltage is increased to 300V. If
the load on the motors is adjusted so that the supply current is unaltered, find
the speeds at which the motors will run.

(15 marks)


QUESTION 4


(a) Explain the purpose of the auxiliary winding in a single-phase induction motor.
Sketch a typical torque-speed characteristic of the motor when:

(i) only the main winding is connected to the supply,
(ii) both the main and auxiliary windings are connected to the supply.

Why is the auxiliary winding sometimes disconnected once the machine has run
up to speed?
(6 marks)

(b) A 240-volt, 50Hz, 4-pole capacitor start single-phase induction motor has the
following parameters and losses:

r
1
= 3Ω, x
1
= x
2
= 4Ω, r
2
= 6Ω, x
m
= 100Ω.

Question 4 continued on next page…
Core loss = 20 watts. Friction and windage loss = 15 watts. All constants are
associated with, or referred to, the main stator winding.

For a slip of 0.04, with respect to the forward rotating magnetic field, calculate
the following:

(i) the relative speed between the rotor and the stator backward rotating
field,
(ii) the stator current,
(iii) the shaft torque,
(iv) the efficiency.
(14 marks)

QUESTION 5

(a) With the aid of a sketch or sketches describe why it is necessary for the semi-
conductor devices in power electronic converters to be operated as switches
where they are either “on” or “off.”

(5 marks)
(b)
i
i
i
T1
T2
o
T
T
2
1
v
o
v = V
m
sin ωt
L
R


For the AC voltage regulator shown above, sketch the voltage output, v
o
, and
the current output, i
o
, as a function of ωt for a firing delay angle
α > tan
-1

ωL
R
.

For the special case when L = 0, derive an expression for the following:

(i) the mean half-cycle voltage;
(ii) the RMS output voltage;
(iii) the output power.
(15 marks)

Please see over for question 6...
QUESTION 6

(a) An electrical busbar system has a total power loss of P watts and a heat
dissipation coefficient to the ambient of h watts/m
2
/°C. Derive an expression
for the dynamic temperature rise of the busbars, above ambient, in terms of
the power loss in the busbars, the surface area of the busbars, the mass,
specific heat and the heat dissipation coefficient of the busbars.

(10 marks)


(b) Discuss briefly any one of the following:

(i) The principle of operation of the AC series commutator motor..

(ii) Harmonics in transformers.

(10 marks)




- END OF PAPER -