2012-2013

NUCLEAR BATTERY
A Seminar Report on
NUCLEAR
BATTERY

Submitted By
PRATIK PATIL
(A. I. T. M., Belgaum
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
2012-2013
NUCLEAR BATTERY
ABSTRACT
Nu!lear "atterie# $ar%e#t energ& 'rom ra(ioa!ti%e #pe!)# an( #uppl& po*er to mi!ro
ele!trome!$ani!al #&#tem# (MEMS. T$i# paper (e#!ri"e# t$e %ia"ilit& o' nu!lear
"atterie# 'or po*ering reali#ti! MEMS (e%i!e#. Nu!lear "atterie# are not nu!lear
rea!tor# in miniature#, "ut t$e energ& !ome# 'rom $ig$+energ& parti!le# #pontaneou#l&
emitte( "& ra(ioa!ti%e element#. I#otope# !urrentl& "eing u#e( in!lu(e alp$a an( lo*
energ& "eta emitter#. ,ama emitter# $a%e not "een !on#i(ere( "e!au#e t$e& *oul(
re-uire a #u"#tantial amount o' #$iel(ing. T$e #our!e# are a%aila"le in "ot$ #oil an(
li-ui( 'orm. Nu!lear "atterie# u#e t$e in!re(i"le amount o' energ& relea#e( naturall&
"& tin& "it# o' ra(ioa!ti%e material *it$out an& 'i##ion or 'u#ion ta)ing pla!e in#i(e
t$e "atter&. T$e#e (e%i!e# u#e t$in ra(ioa!ti%e 'ilm# t$at pa!) in energ& at (en#itie#
t$ou#an(# o' time# greater t$an t$o#e o' lit$ium+ion "atterie#. Be!au#e o' t$e $ig$
energ& (en#it& nu!lear "atterie# are e.tremel& #mall in #i/e. Con#i(ering t$e #mall
#i/e an( #$ape o' t$e "atter& t$e #!ienti#t# *$o (e%elope( t$at "atter& 'an!i'ull& !all it
a# 01AINTIEST 1YNAM20. T$e *or( 3(aint&3 mean# prett&.

D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
Table of Contents
Chapters Page
No.
4. INTRODCTION !"#
5. $ISTORICA% D&'&%OP(&NTS !)#
6. &N&R*+ PRODCTION (&C$ANIS( !,#
7 -&% CONSID&RATIONS !./#
8. AD'ANTA*&S !."#
9. DISAD'ANTA*&S !.)#
). APP%ICATIONS !.,#
:. CONC%SION !00#
;. R&-&R&NC&S !01#
4<. %IN2S !01#
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
INTRODCTION
A "urgeoning nee( e.i#t# to(a& 'or #mall, !ompa!t, relia"le, lig$t*eig$t an( #el'+
!ontaine( rugge( po*er #upplie# to pro%i(e ele!tri!al po*er in #u!$ appli!ation# a#
ele!tri! automo"ile#, $ome#, in(u#trial, agri!ultural, re!reational, remote monitoring
#&#tem#, #pa!e!ra't an( (eep+#ea pro"e#. Ra(ar, a(%an!e( !ommuni!ation #atellite#
an( e#pe!iall& $ig$ te!$nolog& *eapon plat'orm# *ill re-uire mu!$ larger po*er
#our!e t$an to(a&=# po*er #&#tem# !an (eli%er. >or t$e %er& $ig$ po*er appli!ation#,
nu!lear rea!tor# appear to "e t$e an#*er. ?o*e%er, 'or interme(iate po*er range, 4<
to 4<< )ilo*att# ()@, t$e nu!lear rea!tor pre#ent# 'ormi(a"le te!$ni!al pro"lem#.
Be!au#e o' t$e #$ort an( unpre(i!ta"le li'e#pan o' !$emi!al "atterie#,
$o*e%er, regular repla!ement# *oul( "e re-uire( to )eep t$e#e (e%i!e# $umming.
Al#o, enoug$ !$emi!al 'uel to pro%i(e 4<< )@ 'or an& #igni'i!ant perio( o' time
*oul( "e too $ea%& an( "ul)& 'or pra!ti!al u#e. >uel !ell# an( #olar !ell# re-uire little
maintenan!e, an( t$e latter nee( plent& o' #un.
T$u# t$e (eman( to e.ploit t$e ra(ioa!ti%e energ& $a# "e!ome ine%ita"l&
$ig$. Se%eral met$o(# $a%e "een (e%elope( 'or !on%er#ion o' ra(ioa!ti%e energ&
relea#e( (uring t$e (e!a& o' natural ra(ioa!ti%e element# into ele!tri!al energ&. A
grape'ruit+#i/e( ra(ioi#otope t$ermo+ ele!tri! generator t$at utili/e( $eat pro(u!e(
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
'rom alp$a parti!le# emitte( a# plutonium+56: (e!a& *a# (e%elope( (uring t$e earl&
4;8<=#.
Sin!e t$en t$e nu!lear $a# ta)en a #igni'i!ant !on#i(eration in t$e energ&
#our!e o' 'uture. Al#o, *it$ t$e a(%an!ement o' t$e te!$nolog& t$e re-uirement 'or
t$e la#ting energ& #our!e# $a# "een in!rea#e( to a great e.tent. T$e #olution to t$e
long term energ& #our!e i#, o' !our#e, t$e nu!lear "atterie# *it$ a li'e #pan mea#ure(
in (e!a(e# an( $a# t$e potential to "e nearl& 5<< time# more e''i!ient t$an t$e
!urrentl& u#e( or(inar& "atterie#. T$e#e in!re(i"l& long+la#ting "atterie# are #till in t$e
t$eoreti!al an( (e%elopmental #tage o' e.i#ten!e, "ut t$e& promi#e to pro%i(e !lean,
#a'e, almo#t en(le## energ&.
Unli)e !on%entional nu!lear po*er generating (e%i!e#, t$e#e po*er !ell# (o not
rel& on a nu!lear rea!tion or !$emi!al pro!e## (o not pro(u!e ra(ioa!ti%e *a#te
pro(u!t#. T$e nu!lear "atter& te!$nolog& i# geare( to*ar(# appli!ation# *$ere po*er
i# nee(e( in ina!!e##i"le pla!e# or un(er e.treme !on(ition#.
T$e re#ear!$er# en%i#ion it# u#e# in pa!ema)er# an( ot$er me(i!al (e%i!e# t$at
*oul( ot$er*i#e re-uire #urger& to repair or repla!e. A((itionall&, (eep+#pa!e pro"e#
an( (eep+#ea #en#or#, *$i!$ are "e&on( t$e rea!$ o' repair, *oul( "ene'it 'rom #u!$
te!$nolog&. In t$e near 'uture t$i# te!$nolog& i# #ai( to ma)e it# *a& into !ommonl&
u#e( (a& to (a& pro(u!t# li)e mo"ile an( laptop# an( e%en t$e #malle#t o' t$e (e%i!e#
u#e( at $ome. Surel& t$e#e are t$e "atterie# o' t$e near 'uture.
$ISTORICA% D&'&%OP(&NTS
T$e i(ea o' nu!lear "atter& *a# intro(u!e( in t$e "eginning o' 4;8<, an( *a# patente(
on Mar!$ 6
r(
, 4;8; to tra!er la". E%en t$oug$ t$e i(ea *a# gi%en more t$an 6< &ear#
"e'ore, no #igni'i!ant progre## *a# ma(e on t$e #u"Ae!t "e!au#e t$e &iel( *a# %er&
le##.
A ra(io i#otope ele!tri! po*er #&#tem (e%elope( "& in%entor Paul Bro*n *a# a
#!ienti'i! "rea) t$roug$ in nu!lear po*er. Bro*n=# 'ir#t protot&pe po*er !ell
pro(u!e( 4<<,<<< time# a# mu!$ energ& per gram o' #trontium +;<(t$e energ& #our!e
t$an t$e mo#t po*er'ul t$ermal "atter& &et in e.i#ten!e. T$e magneti! energ& emitte(
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
"& t$e alp$a an( "eta parti!le# in$erent in nu!lear material. Alp$a an( "eta parti!le#
are pro(u!e( "& t$e ra(io a!ti%e (e!a& o' !ertain naturall& o!!urring an( man Bma(e
nu!lear material (ra(io nu!li(e#. T$e ele!tri! !$arge# o' t$e alp$a an( "eta parti!le#
$a%e "een !apture( an( !on%erte( to ele!tri!it& 'or e.i#ting nu!lear "atterie#, "ut t$e
amount o' po*er generate( 'rom #u!$ "atterie# $a# "een %er& #mall.
Alp$a an( "eta parti!le# al#o po##e# )ineti! energ&, "& #u!!e##i%e !olli#ion# o'
t$e parti!le# *it$ air mole!ule# or ot$er mole!ule#. T$e "ul) o' t$e R C1 o' nu!lear
"atterie# in t$e pa#t $a# "een !on!erne( *it$ t$i# $eat energ& *$i!$ i# rea(il&
o"#er%a"le an( mea#ura"le. T$e magneti! energ& gi%en o'' "& alp$a an( "eta parti!le#
i# #e%eral or(er# o' magnitu(e grater t$an t$e )ineti! energ& or t$e (ire!t ele!tri!
energ& pro(u!e( "& t$e#e #ame parti!le#. ?o*e%er, t$e m&ria(# o' tin& magneti!
'iel(# e.i#ting at an& time !annot "e in(i%i(uall& re!ogni/e( or mea#ure(. T$i# energ&
i# not !apture( lo!all& in nature to pro(u!e $eat or me!$ani!al e''e!t#, "ut in#tea( t$e
energ& e#!ape# un(ete!te(.
Bro*n in%ente( an approa!$ to Dorgani/eE t$e#e magneti! 'iel(# #o t$at t$e
great amount# o' ot$er*i#e uno"#er%a"le energ& !oul( "e $arne##e(. T$e 'ir#t !ell
!on#tru!te( (t$at melte( t$e *ire !omponent# emplo&e( t$e mo#t po*er'ul #our!e
)no*n, ra(ium+559, a# t$e energ& #our!e.
T$e main (ra*"a!) o' Mr. Bro*n=# protot&pe *a# it# lo* e''i!ien!&, an( t$e rea#on
'or t$at *a# *$en t$e ra(ioa!ti%e material (e!a&#, man& o' t$e ele!tron# lo#t 'rom t$e
#emi!on(u!tor material. @it$ t$e en$an!ement o' more regular pitting an(
intro(u!tion "etter 'uel# t$e nu!lear "atterie# are t$oug$ to "e t$e ne.t generation
"atterie# an( t$ere i# $ar(l& an& (ou"t t$at t$e#e "atterie# *ill "e a%aila"le in #tore#
*it$in anot$er (e!a(e.
&N&R*+ PRODCTION (&C$ANIS(
Beta3oltai4s
Beta%oltai!# i# an alternati%e energ& te!$nolog& t$at promi#e# %a#tl&
e.ten(e( "atter& li'e an( po*er (en#it& o%er !urrent te!$nologie#. Beta%oltai!# are
generator# o' ele!tri!al !urrent, in e''e!t a 'orm o' a "atter&, *$i!$ u#e energ& 'rom a
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
ra(ioa!ti%e #our!e emitting "eta parti!le# (ele!tron#. T$e 'un!tioning o' a
"eta%oltai!# (e%i!e i# #ome*$at #imilar to a #olar panel, *$i!$ !on%ert# p$oton#
(lig$t into ele!tri! !urrent.
Beta%oltai! te!$ni-ue u#e# a #ili!on *a'er to !apture ele!tron# emitte( "& a
ra(ioa!ti%e ga#, #u!$ a# tritium. It i# #imilar to t$e me!$ani!# o' !on%erting #unlig$t
into ele!tri!it& in a #olar panel. T$e 'lat #ili!on *a'er i# !oate( *it$ a (io(e material
to !reate a potential "arrier. T$e ra(iation a"#or"e( in t$e %i!init& o' an( potential
"arrier li)e a p+n Aun!tion or a metal+#emi!on(u!tor !onta!t *oul( generate #eparate
ele!tron+$ole pair# *$i!$ in turn 'lo* in an ele!tri! !ir!uit (ue to t$e %oltai! e''e!t. 2'
!our#e, t$i# o!!ur# to a %ar&ing (egree in (i''erent material# an( geometrie#.
A pi!torial repre#entation o' a "a#i! Beta%oltai! !on%er#ion a# #$o*n in
'igure 4. Ele!tro(e A (P+region $a# a po#iti%e potential *$ile ele!tro(e B (N+region
i# negati%e *it$ t$e potential (i''eren!e pro%i(e( "& me !on%entional mean#.
-igure .
T$e Aun!tion "et*een t$e t*o ele!tro(e# i# !ompri#e( o' a #uita"l&
ioni#a"le me(ium e.po#e( to (e!a& parti!le# emitte( 'rom a ra(ioa!ti%e #our!e.
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
T$e energ& !on%er#ion me!$ani#m 'or t$i# arrangement in%ol%e# energ& 'lo*
in (i''erent #tage#F

Stage .56 Be'ore t$e ra(ioa!ti%e #our!e i# intro(u!e(, a (i''eren!e in potential
"et*een to ele!tro(e# i# pro%i(e( "& a !on%entional mean#. An ele!tri! loa( R
L
i#
!onne!te( a!ro## t$e ele!tro(e# A an( B. Alt$oug$ a potential (i''eren!e e.i#t#, no
!urrent 'lo*# t$roug$ t$e loa( R
L
"e!au#e t$e ele!tri!al 'or!e# are in e-uili"rium an(
no energ& !ome# out o' t$e #&#tem. @e #$all !all t$i# groun( #tate E
<
.
Stage 056 Ne.t, *e intro(u!e t$e ra(ioa!ti%e #our!e, #a& a "eta emitter, to t$e
#&#tem. No*, t$e energ& o' t$e "eta parti!le E
"
generate# ele!tron+ $ole pair in t$e
Aun!tion "& imparting )ineti! energ& *$i!$ )no!)# ele!tron# out o' t$e neutral atom#.
T$i# amount o' energ& E
4
, i# )no*n a# t$e ioni/ation potential o' t$e Aun!tion.
Stage 156 >urt$er t$e "eta parti!le impart# an amount o' energ& in e.!e## o' ioni/ation
potential. T$i# a((itional energ& rai#e# t$e ele!tron energ& to an ele%ate( le%el E
5.
2'
!our#e t$e "eta Gparti!le (o#e not impart it# energ& to a #ingle ion pair, "ut a #ingle
"eta parti!le *ill generate a# man& a# t$ou#an(# o' ele!tron+ $ole pair#. T$e total
num"er o' ion# per unit %olume o' t$e Aun!tion i# (epen(ent upon t$e Aun!tion
material.
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
Stage 756 ne.t, t$e ele!tri! 'iel( pre#ent in t$e Aun!tion a!t# on t$e ion# an( (ri%e# t$e
ele!tron# into ele!tro(e A. t$e ele!tron# !olle!te( in ele!tro(e A toget$er *it$ t$e
ele!tron (e'i!ien!& o' ele!tro(e B e#ta"li#$e# >ermi %oltage "et*een t$e ele!tro(e#.
Naturall&, t$e ele!tron# in ele!tro(e A #ee) to gi%e up t$eir energ& an( go "a!) to
t$eir groun( #tate (la* o' entrop&.
Stage /56 t$e >ermi %oltage (eri%e# ele!tron# 'rom t$e ele!tro(e A t$roug$ t$e loa(
*$ere t$e& gi%e up t$eir energ& in a!!or(an!e *it$ !on%entional ele!tri!al t$eor&. A
%oltage (rop o!!ur# a!ro## t$e loa( a# t$e ele!tron# gi%e an amount o' energ& E
6.
T$en
t$e amount o' energ& a%aila"le to "e remo%e( 'rom t$e #&#tem i#
E
6
H E
"
+ E
4
B L
4
+L
5
@$ere L
4
i# t$e !on%erter lo## an( L
5
i# t$e lo## in t$e ele!tri!al !ir!uit.
Stage "56 t$e ele!tron#, a'ter pa##ing to t$e loa( $a%e an amount o' energ& E
7
.'rom
t$e loa(, t$e ele!tron# are t$en (ri%en into t$e ele!tro(e B *$ere it i# allo*e( to
re!om"ine *it$ a Aun!tion ion, relea#ing t$e re!om"ination energ& E
7
in t$e 'orm o'
$eat t$i# !omplete# t$e !ir!uit an( t$e ele!tron $a# returne( to it# original groun(
#tate.
T$e en( re#ult i# t$at t$e ra(ioa!ti%e #our!e a!t# a# a !on#tant !urrent
generator. T$en t$e energ& "alan!e e-uation !an "e *ritten a#
E
<
HE
"
BE
4
BE
6
+L
4
+L
5

Until no* "eta%oltai!# $a# "een una"le to mat!$ #olar+!ell e''i!ien!&. T$e
rea#on i# #impleF *$en t$e ga# (e!a&#, it# ele!tron# #$oot out in all (ire!tion#. Man&
o' t$em are lo#t. A ne* Beta%oltai! (e%i!e u#ing porou# #ili!one (io(e# *a# propo#e(
to in!rea#e t$eir e''i!ien!&. T$e 'lat #ili!on #ur'a!e, *$ere t$e ele!tron# are !apture(
an( !on%erte( to a !urrent, an( turne( into a 6+ (imen#ional #ur'a!e "& a((ing (eep
pit#. Ea!$ pit i# a"out 4 mi!ron *i(e. T$at i# 'our $un(re(+t$ou#an(t$# o' an in!$.
T$e& are more t$an 7< mi!ron# (eep. @$en t$e ra(ioa!ti%e ga# o!!upie# t$e#e pit#, it
!reate# t$e ma.imum opportunit& 'or $arne##ing t$e rea!tion.

Dire4t 4harging generators
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
In t$i# t&pe, t$e primar& generator !on#i#t# o' a $ig$ BI LC tan) !ir!uit. T$e
energ& imparte( to ra(ioa!ti%e (e!a& pro(u!t# (uring t$e #pontaneou# (i#integration#
o' ra(ioa!ti%e material i# utili/e( to #u#tain an( ampli'& t$e o#!illation# in t$e $ig$+I
LC tan) !ir!uit t$e !ir!uit in(u!tan!e !ompri#e# a !oil *oun( on a !ore !ompo#e( o'
ra(ioa!ti%e nu!li(e# !onne!te( in #erie# *it$ t$e primar& *in(ing o' a po*er
tran#'ormer. T$e !ore i# 'a"ri!ate( 'rom a mi.ture o' t$ree ra(ioa!ti%e material#
*$i!$ (e!a& primaril& "& alp$a emi##ion an( pro%i(e# a greater 'lu. o' ra(ioa!ti%e
(e!a& pro(u!t# t$an t$e e-ui%alent amount o' #ingle ra(ioa!ti%e nu!lei.
-igure 1 i# a #!$emati! (iagram o' an LC e-ui%alent re#onant !ir!uit
E-uitant !ir!uit o' t$e (ire!t !$arging generator a# #$o*n in t$e 'igure 6.An
LCR !ir!uit 4 i# !ompri#e( o' a !apa!itor 6, in(u!tor 'ile, tran#'ormer T primar&
*in(ing ; an( re#i#tan!e 44 !onne!te( in #erie#. It i# a##ume( t$at t$e ele!tri!al
!on(u!tor# !onne!ting t$e %ariou# !ir!uit element# an( 'orming t$e in(u!tor 'ile an(
primar& *in(ing ; are per'e!t !on(u!tor#J i.e., no 1C re#i#tan!e. Re#i#tor 44 i# a lump
re#i#tan!e e-ui%alent to total 1C re#i#tan!e o' t$e a!tual !ir!uit !omponent# an(
!on(u!tor#. T$e in(u!tor 8 i# *oun( on a !ore K *$i!$ i# !ompo#e( o' a mi.ture o'
ra(ioa!ti%e element# (e!a&ing primaril& "& alp$a parti!le emi##ion.
@$en t$e !urrent 'lo*# in ele!tri!al !ir!uit, energ& i# (i##ipate( or lo#t in t$e 'orm
o' $eat. T$u#, *$en o#!illation# are in(u!e( in an LCR !ir!uit, t$e o#!illation# *ill
gra(uall& (amp out (ue to t$e lo## o' energ& in t$e !ir!uit unle## energ& i#
!ontinuou#l& a((e( to t$e !ir!uit to #u#tain t$e o#!illation#. In t$e LCR !ir!uit #$o*n
in 'igure 6, a portion o' t$e energ& imparte( to t$e (e!a& pro(u!t# #u!$ a# alp$a
parti!le#. 1uring t$e ra(ioa!ti%e (e!a& o' t$e material# in(u!tor !ore K i# intro(u!e(
into t$e !ir!uit 4, *$en t$e (e!a& pro(u!t# are a"#or"e( "& t$e !on(u!tor *$i!$ 'orm#
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
in(u!tor 8. 2n!e o#!illation# $a%e "een in(u!e( in t$e LCR !ir!uit 4, t$e energ&
a"#or"e( "& t$e in(u!tor 8 'orm t$e ra(ioa!ti%e (e!a& o' t$e !oreK material *ill
#u#tain t$e o#!illation# a# long a# t$e amount o' energ& a"#or"e( i# e-ual to t$e
amount o' energ& (i##ipate( in t$e o$mi! re#i#tan!e o' t$e !ir!uit 4.I' t$e a"#or"e(
energ& i# greater t$an t$e amount o' energ& lo#t t$roug$ o$mi! $eating, t$e
o#!illation# *ill "e ampli'ie(. T$i# e.!e## energ& !an "e (eli%ere( to a loa( 4K
!onne!te( a!ro## t$e tran#'ormer T #e!on(ar& *in(ing 46.
T$e pro!e## in%ol%e( in t$e !on%er#ion o' t$e energ& relea#e( "& t$e
#pontaneou# (i#integration o' a ra(ioa!ti%e material into ele!tri!al energ& are
numerou# an( !omple.. Material# t$at are naturall& ra(ioa!ti%e, (e!a& "& t$e
emi##ion o' eit$er an alp$a parti!le or a "eta parti!le an( gamma ra&# ma& a!!ompan&
eit$er pro!e##. Ra(ioa!ti%e material# t$at (e!a& primaril& "& alp$a parti!le emi##ion
are pre'erre( a# in(u!tor !ore K material#. Alp$a parti!le# are emitte( a %er& $ig$
#pee(#, in t$e or(er o' 4.9L4<
K
meter# per #e!on( (mM# an( !on#e-uentl& $a%e %er&
$ig$ )ineti! energ&. Alp$a parti!le# emitte( in ra(ium, 'or e.ample, (e!a&# are 'oun(
to !on#i#t o' t*o group#, t$o#e *it$ a )ineti! energ& o' 7:.K;L4<
8
ele!tron %olt# (eN
an( t$o#e $a%ing energ& o' 79.;8L4<
8
ele!tron %olt#. T$i# )ineti! energ& mu#t "e
(i##ipate( *$en t$e alp$a parti!le# are a"#or"e( "& t$e !on(u!tor 'orming in(u!tor 8.
1uring t$e a"#orption pro!e##, ea!$ alp$a parti!le *ill !olli(e *it$ one or more atom#
in t$e !on(u!tor )no!)ing ele!tron 'rom t$eir or"it# an( imparting #ome )ineti!
energ& to t$e ele!tron#. T$i# re#ult# in in!rea#e num"er o' !on(u!tion ele!tron# in t$e
!on(u!tor t$ere "& in!rea#ing it# !on(u!ti%it&.
Sin!e t$e alp$a parti!le i# a po#iti%el& !$arge( ion, *$ile t$e alp$a parti!le i#
mo%ing it *ill $a%e an a##o!iate( magneti! 'iel(. @$en t$e alp$a parti!le i# #toppe(
"& t$e !on(u!tor, t$e magneti! 'iel( *ill !ollap#e t$ere"& in(u!ing a pul#e o' !urrent
in t$e !on(u!tor pro(u!ing a net in!rea#e in t$e !urrent 'lo*ing in t$e !ir!uit 4. Al#o,
t$ere *ill "e a((itional ele!tron# #trippe( 'rom or"it (ue to ioni/ation re(u!e( "& t$e
po#iti%el& !$arge( alp$a parti!le#.

D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
-igure 7 i# a *iring (iagram o' a !on#tru!te( nu!lear "atter&
Re'erring to 'igure 7, t$e nu!lear "atter& i# !on#tru!te( in a !&lin(ri!al
!on'iguration. In(u!tor 8 i# !on#tru!te( o' !opper *ire *oun( in a #ingle la&er aroun(
t$e ra(ioa!ti%e !ore K. 1e!a& pro(u!t#, #u!$ a# alp$a parti!le#, are emitte( ra(iall&
out*ar( 'rom t$e !ore K a# in(i!ate( "& arro*# 5 to "e a"#or"e( "& t$e !opper
!on(u!tor 'orming in(u!tor 8. Eig$t tran#'ormer# are arrange( in a !ir!ular pattern to
'orm a !&lin(er !on!entri! *it$ an( #urroun(ing in(u!tor 8. T$e tran#'ormer# $a%e
primar& *in(ing# ;a+;$ !onne!te( in #erie# *$i!$ are t$en !onne!te( in #erie# *it$
in(u!tor 8 an( !apa!itor 6 to 'orm an LCR !ir!uit. T$e !entral !ore K, in(u!tor8 an(
t$e eig$t tran#'ormer# 48 are po#itione( *it$in a !&lin(ri!al #$ape( !ontainer 4;.
Copper *ire i# *oun( in a #ingle la&er on t$e out#i(e *all an( t$e in#i(e *all o'
!&lin(er 4; to 'orm *in(ing# 56 an(54 re#pe!ti%el&. T$e tran#'ormer# 48, #e!on(ar&
*in(ing# 46a+46$ an( *in(ing# 54 an( 56 are !onne!te( in #erie# to output terminal#
58 an( 5K. T$e !on'iguration o' in(u!tor 8 i# (e#igne( to en#ure ma.imum
era(i!ation o' t$e !opper !on(u!tor "& t$e ra(ioa!ti%e !ore #our!e K. T$e !&lin(ri!al
!on'iguration o' t$e po*er tran#'ormer en#ure# ma.imum tran#'ormer e''i!ien!& *it$
minimum magneti! 'lu. lea)age#.
Optoele4tri4s
An optoele!tri! nu!lear "atter& $a# "een propo#e( "& re#ear!$er# o' t$e
)ur!$ato% in#titute in Mo#!o*. A "eta emitter #u!$ a# te!$netium+;; are #trontium+;<
i# #u#pen(e( in a ga# or li-ui( !ontaining lumine#!ent ga# mole!ule# o' t$e e.!iter
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
t&pe, !on#tituting D(u#t pla#maE. T$i# permit# a nearl& lo##le## emi##ion o' "eta
ele!tron# 'rom t$e emitting (u#t parti!le# 'or e.!itation o' t$e ga#e# *$o#e e.!iter line
i# #ele!te( 'or t$e !on%er#ion o' t$e ra(ioa!ti%it& into a #urroun(ing p$oto%oltai! la&er
#u!$ t$at a !ompara"l& lig$t *eig$t lo* pre##ure, $ig$ e''i!ien!& "atter& !an "e
reali/e(. T$e#e nu!li(e# are lo* !o#t ra(ioa!ti%e o' nu!lear po*er rea!tor#. T$e
(iameter o' t$e (u#t parti!le# i# #o #mall ('e* mi!rometer# t$at t$e ele!tron# 'rom t$e
"eta (e!a& lea%e t$e (u#t parti!le# nearl& *it$out lo##. T$e #urroun(ing *ea)l&
ioni/e( pla#ma !on#i#t# o' ga#e# or ga# mi.ture# (e.g. )r&pton, argon, .enon *it$
e.!iter line#, #u!$ t$at a !on#i(era"le amount o' t$e energ& o' t$e "eta ele!tron# i#
!on%erte( into t$i# lig$t t$e #urroun(ing *all# !ontain p$oto%oltai! la&er# *it$ *i(e
'or"i((en /one# a# egg. 1iamon( *$i!$ !on%ert# t$e opti!al energ& generate( 'rom
t$e ra(iation into ele!tri! energ&.
T$e "atter& *oul( !on#i#t o' an e.!iter o' argon, .enon, or )r&pton (or a
mi.ture o' t*o or t$ree o' t$em in a pre##ure %e##el *it$ an internal mirrore( #ur'a!e,
'inel&+groun( ra(ioi#otope an( an intermittent ultra#oni! #tirrer, illuminating
p$oto!ell *it$ a "an( gap tune( 'or t$e e.!iter. @$en t$e ele!tron# o' t$e "eta a!ti%e
nu!li(e# (e.g. )r&pton+:8 or argon+6; are e.!ite(, in t$e narro* e.!iter "an( at a
minimum t$ermal lo##e#, t$e ra(iation# #o o"taine( i# !on%erte( into ele!tri!it& in a
$ig$ "an( gap p$oto%oltai! la&er (e.g. in a p+n (io(e %er& e''i!ientl& t$e ele!tri!
po*er per *eig$t !ompare( *it$ e.i#ting ra(ionu!li(e "atterie# !an t$en "e in!rea#e(
"& a 'a!tor 4< to 8< an( more. I' t$e pre##ure+%e##el i# !ar"on 'i"er 8 epo.& t$e *eig$t
to po*er ratio i# #ai( to "e !ompara"le to an air "reat$ing engine *it$ 'uel tan)#. T$e
a(%antage o' t$i# (e#ign i# t$at pre!i#ion ele!tro(e a##em"lie# are not nee(e( an(
mo#t "eta parti!le# e#!ape t$e 'inel&+(i%i(e( "ul) material to !ontri"ute to t$e
"atterie# net po*er. T$e (i#a(%antage !on#i#t# in t$e $ig$ pri!e o' t$e ra(ionu!li(e
an( in t$e $ig$ pre##ure o' up to 4<MPa (4<<"ar an( more 'or t$e ga# t$at re-uire#
an e.pen#i%e an( $ea%& !ontainer.

-&% CONSID&RATIONS
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
T$e maAor !riterion# !on#i(ere( in t$e #ele!tion o' 'uel# areF
• A%oi(an!e o' gamma in t$e (e!a& !$ain
• ?al' li'e
• Parti!le range
• @at!$ out 'or (alp$a, nrea!tion#
An& ra(ioi#otope in t$e 'orm o' a #oli( t$at gi%e# o'' alp$a or "eta
parti!le# !an "e utili/e( in t$e nu!lear "atter&. T$e 'ir#t !ell !on#tru!te( (t$at
melte( t$e *ire !omponent# emplo&e( t$e mo#t po*er'ul #our!e )no*n,
ra(ium+559, a# t$e energ& #our!e. ?o*e%er, ra(ium+559 gi%e# ri#e t$roug$
(e!a& to t$e (aug$ter pro(u!t "i#mut$+547, *$i!$ gi%e# o'' #trong gamma
ra(iation t$at re-uire# #$iel(ing 'or #a'et&. T$i# a((# a *eig$t penalt& in
mo"ile appli!ation#.

Ra(ium+559 i# a naturall& o!!urring i#otope *$i!$ i# 'orme( %er& #lo*l&
"& t$e (e!a& o' uranium+56:. Ra(ium+559 in e-uili"rium i# pre#ent at a"out 4
gram per 6 million gram# o' uranium in t$e eart$# !ru#t. Uranium mill *a#te#
are rea(il& a%aila"le #our!e o' ra(ium+559 in %er& a"un(ant -uantitie#.
Uranium mill *a#te# !ontain 'ar more energ& in t$e ra(ium+559 t$an i#
repre#ente( "& t$e 'i##ion energ& (eri%e( 'orm t$e pro(u!e( uranium.

Strontium+;< gi%e# o'' no gamma ra(iation #o it (oe# not ne!e##itate t$e
u#e o' t$i!) lea( #$iel(ing 'or #a'et&.#trrrontium+;< (oe# not e.i#t in nature,
"ut it i# one o' t$e #e%eral ra(ioa!ti%e *a#te pro(u!t# re#ulting 'rom nu!lear
'i##ion. T$e utili/a"le energ& 'rom #trontium+;< #u"#tantiall& e.!ee(# t$e
energ& (eri%e( 'rom t$e nu!lear 'i##ion *$i!$ ga%e ri#e to t$i# i#otope.
2n!e t$e pre#ent #tore# o' nu!lear *a#te# $a%e "een mine(, t$e 'uture #upplie#
o' #trontium+;< *ill (epen( on t$e amount o' nu!lear ele!tri!it& generate(
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
$en!e #trontium+;< (e!a& ma& ultimatel& "e!ome a premium 'uel 'or #u!$
#pe!ial u#e# a# 'or perpetuall& po*ere( *$eel !$air# an( porta"le !omputer#.
Plutonium+56: (io.i(e i# u#e( 'or #pa!e appli!ation. ?al' li'e o' tantalum+
4:<m i# a"out 4<
48
&ear#. In it# groun( #tate, tantalum+4:< (4:<Ta i# %er&
un#ta"le an( (e!a&# to ot$er nu!lei in a"out : $our# "ut it# i#omeri! #tate,
4:<m Ta, i# 'oun( in natural #ample#. Tantalum 4:<m $en!e !an "e u#e( 'or
#*it!$a"le nu!lear "atterie#.


AD'ANTA*&S
T$e mo#t important 'eat o' nu!lear !ell# i# t$e li'e #pan t$e& o''er, a minimum o'
4<&ear#O T$i# i# *$opping *$en !on#i(ere( t$at it pro%i(e# non#top ele!tri! energ&
'or t$e #e!on(# #panning t$e#e 4<long &ear#, *$i!$ ma& #impl& mean t$at *e )eep
our laptop or an& $an( $el( (e%i!e# #*it!$e(+on 'or 4< &ear# non#top. Contrar& to
'ear# a##o!iate( *it$ !on%entional "atterie# nu!lear !ell# o''er# relia"le ele!tri!it&,
*it$out an& (rop in t$e &iel( or potential (uring it# entire operational perio(. T$u# t$e
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
longe%it& an( relia"ilit& !ouple( toget$er *oul( #u''i!e t$e #mall 'a!tore( energ&
nee(# 'or at lea#t a !ouple o' (e!a(e#.
T$e large#t !on!ern o' nu!lear "atterie# !ome# 'rom t$e 'a!t t$at it in%ol%e# t$e
u#e o' ra(ioa!ti%e material#. T$i# mean# t$roug$out t$e pro!e## o' ma)ing a nu!lear
"atter& to 'inal (i#po#al, all ra(iation prote!tion #tan(ar(# mu#t "e met. Balan!ing t$e
#a'et& mea#ure# #u!$ a# #$iel(ing an( regulation *$ile #till )eeping t$e #i/e an(
po*er a(%antage# *ill (etermine t$e e!onomi! 'ea#i"ilit& o' nu!lear "atterie#.
Sa'etie# *it$ re#pe!t to t$e !ontainer# are al#o a(e-uatel& ta)en !are a# t$e "atter&
!a#e# are $ermeti!all& #eale(. T$u# t$e ri#) o' #a'et& $a/ar(# in%ol%ing ra(ioa!ti%e
material #tan(# re(u!e(.
A# t$e energ& a##o!iate( *it$ 'i##ile material i# #e%eral time# $ig$er t$an
!on%entional #our!e#, t$e !ell# are !omparati%el& mu!$ lig$ter an( t$u# 'a!ilitate#
$ig$ energ& (en#itie# to "e a!$ie%e(. Similarl&, t$e e''i!ien!& o' #u!$ !ell# i# mu!$
$ig$er #impl& "e!au#e ra(ioa!ti%e material# in little *a#te generation. T$u#
#u"#tituting t$e 'uture energ& nee(# *it$ nu!lear !ell# an( repla!ing t$e alrea(&
e.i#ting one# *it$ t$e#e, t$e *orl( !an "e #een tran#'orme( "& re(u!ing t$e green
$ou#e e''e!t# an( a##o!iate( ri#)#. T$i# #$oul( !ome a# a $an(& #a%ior 'or almo#t all
(e%elope( an( (e%eloping nation#. Moreo%er t$e nu!lear pro(u!e( t$erein are
#u"#tan!e# t$at (on=t o!!ur naturall&. >or e.ample #trontium (oe# not e.i#t in nature
"ut it i# one o' t$e #e%eral ra(ioa!ti%e *a#te pro(u!t# re#ulting 'rom nu!lear 'i##ion.

DISAD'ANTA*&S
>ir#t an( 'oremo#t, a# i# t$e !a#e *it$ mo#t "reat$ta)ing te!$nologie#, t$e
$ig$ initial !o#t o' pro(u!tion in%ol%e( i# a (ra*"a!) "ut a# t$e pro(u!t goe#
operational an( get# into "ul) pro(u!tion, t$e pri!e i# #ure to (rop. T$e #i/e o' nu!lear
"atterie# 'or !ertain #pe!i'i! appli!ation# ma& !au#e pro"lem#, "ut !an "e (one a*a&
*it$ a# time goe# "&. >or e.ample, #i/e o' P!ell u#e( 'or laptop "atter& i# mu!$ more
t$an t$e !on%entional "atter& u#e( in t$e laptop#.
T$oug$ ra(ioa!ti%e material# #port $ig$ e''i!ien!&, t$e !on%er#ion
met$o(ologie# u#e( pre#entl& are not mu!$ o' an& *on(er an( at t$e "e#t mat!$e#
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
!on%entional energ& #our!e#. ?o*e%er, la"orator& re#ult# $a%e &iel(e( mu!$ $ig$er
e''i!ien!ie#, "ut are &et to "e relea#e( into t$e alp$a #tage.
A minor "lo* ma& !ome in t$e *a& o' e.i#ting regional an( !ountr& #pe!i'i!
la*# regar(ing t$e u#e an( (i#po#al o' ra(ioa!ti%e material#. A# t$e#e are not uni-ue
*orl(*i(e an( are #u"Ae!t to politi!al $orror# an( i(eolog& pre%alent in t$e !ountr&.
T$e intro(u!tion legall& re-uire# t$e#e to "e #!rappe( or amen(e(. It !an "e $o*e%er
"e $ope( t$at, gi%en t$e re%olutionar& importan!e o' t$i# #u"#tan!e, t$ing# *oul(
!ome in 'a%or gra(uall&.
A"o%e all, to gain #o!ial a!!eptan!e, a ne* te!$nolog& mu#t "e "ene'i!ial an(
(emon#trate enoug$ trou"le 'ree operation t$at people "egin to #ee it a# a DnormalE
p$enomenon. Nu!lear energ& "egan to loo#e t$i# #tatu# 'ollo*ing a #erie# o' maAor
a!!i(ent# in it# 'ormati%e &ear#. A!!eptan!e a!!or(e( to nu!lear po*er #$oul( "e
tru#t+"a#e( rat$er t$an te!$nolog& "a#e(. In ot$er *or(# a!!eptan!e mig$t "e relate(
to pu"li! tru#t o' t$e organi/ation# an( in(i%i(ual# utili/ing t$e te!$nolog& a# oppo#e(
to "a#e( on un(er#tan(ing o' t$e a%aila"le e%i(en!e regar(ing t$e te!$nolog&.
APP%ICATIONS
Nu!lear "atterie# 'in( man& 'ol( appli!ation# (ue to it# long li'e time an(
impro%e( relia"ilit&. In t$e en#uing era, t$e repla!ing o' !on%entional !$emi!al
"atterie# *ill "e o' enormou# a(%antage#. T$i# inno%ati%e te!$nolog& *ill #urel&
"ring "rea)+t$roug$ in t$e !urrent te!$nolog& *$i!$ *a# mu((le( up in t$e po*er
limitation#.
Spa4e appli4ations
In #pa!e appli!ation#, nu!lear po*er unit# o''er a(%antage# o%er #olar !ell#,
'uel !ell# an( or(inar& "atterie# "e!au#e o' t$e 'ollo*ing !ir!um#tan!e#F
4. @$en t$e #atellite or"it# pa## t$roug$ ra(iation "elt# #u!$ a# t$e %an+
Allen "elt# aroun( t$e Eart$ t$at !oul( (e#tro& t$e #olar !ell#
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
5. 2peration# on t$e Moon or Mar# *$ere long perio(# o' (ar)ne##
re-uire $ea%& "atterie# to #uppl& po*er *$en #olar !ell# *oul( not
$a%e a!!e## to #unlig$t
6. Spa!e mi##ion# in t$e opa-ue atmo#p$ere# #u!$ a# Qupiter, *$ere #olar
!ell# *oul( "e u#ele## "e!au#e o' la!) o' lig$t.
7. At a (i#tan!e 'ar 'rom t$e #un 'or long (uration mi##ion# *$ere 'uel
!ell#, "atterie# an( #olar arra&# *oul( "e too large an( $ea%&.
8. ?eating t$e ele!troni!# an( #torage "atterie# in t$e (eep !ol( o' #pa!e
at minu# 578R > i# a ne!e##it&.
So in t$e 'uture it i# en#ure( t$at t$e#e nu!lear "atterie# *ill repla!e all t$e
e.i#ting po*er #upplie# (ue to it# in!re(i"le a(%antage# o%er t$e ot$er. T$e
appli!ation# *$i!$ re-uire a $ig$ po*er, a $ig$ li'e time, a !ompa!t (e#ign o%er t$e
(en#it&, an atmo#p$eri! !on(ition#+in(epen(ent it i# -uite a #ure #$ot t$at 'uture *ill
"e o' SNu!lear Batterie#=. NASA i# on t$e $ot pur#uit o' $arne##ing t$i# te!$nolog& in
#pa!e appli!ation#.
(edi4al Appli4ations
T$e me(i!al 'iel( 'in(# a lot o' appli!ation# *it$ t$e nu!lear "atter& (ue to
t$eir in!rea#e( longe%it& an( "etter relia"ilit&. It *oul( "e #uite( 'or me(i!al (e%i!e#
li)e pa!ema)er#, implante( (eep 'i"rillator# or ot$er implante( (e%i!e# t$at *oul(
ot$er*i#e re-uire #urger& to repla!e or repair t$e "e#t out o' t$e "o. i# u#e in S!ar(ia!
pa!ema)er#=. Batterie# u#e( in implanta"le !ar(ia! pa!e ma)er#+pre#ent uni-ue
!$allenge# to t$eir (e%eloper# an( manu'a!turer# in term# o' $ig$ le%el# o' #a'et& an(
relia"ilit& an( it o'ten po#e# t$reat to t$e en(+!u#tomer. In a((ition, t$e "atterie# mu#t
$a%e longe%it& to a%oi( 're-uent repla!ement. T$e te!$nologi!al a(%an!e# in
lea(#Mele!tro(e# $a%e re(u!e( energ& re-uirement# "& t*o or(er# o' magnitu(e.
Mi!roele!troni!# a(%an!e# #$arpl& re(u!e internal !urrent (rain, !on!urrentl&
(e!rea#ing #i/e an( in!rea#ing 'un!tionalit&, relia"ilit& an( longe%it&. It i# reporte(
t$at a"out 9<<,<<< pa!ema)er# are implante( ea!$ &ear *orl(*i(e an( t$e total
num"er o' people *it$ %ariou# t&pe# o' implante( pa!ema)er $a# alrea(& !ro##e(
6,<<<,<<<. A !ar(ia! pa!ema)er u#e# $al' o' it# "atter& po*er 'or !ar(ia! #timulation
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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an( t$e ot$er $al' 'or $ou#e)eeping ta#)# #u!$ a# monitoring an( (ata logging. T$e
'ir#t implante( !ar(ia! pa!ema)er u#e( ni!)el+!a(mium re!$argea"le "atter&, later on
/in!+mer!ur& "atter& *a# (e%elope( an( u#e( *$i!$ la#te( 'or o%er t*o &ear#.
Lit$ium io(i(e "atter&, (e%elope( in 4;K5 ma(e t$e real impa!t to implanta"le
!ar(ia! pa!ema)er# an( i# on t$e *a&. But it (ra*# t$e #eriou# t$reat la#t# 'or a"out
ten &ear# an( t$i# i# a #eriou# pro"lem. T$e li'e time #olution i# nu!lear "atter&.
Nu!lear "atterie# are t$e "e#t relia"le an( it la#t# li'etime. T$e (e'inition# 'or
#ome o' t$e important part# o' t$e "atter& an( it# per'orman!e# are parameter# li)e
%oltage, (ut& !&!le, temperature, #$el' li'e, #er%i!e li'e, #a'et& an( relia"ilit&, internal
re#i#tan!e, #pe!i'i! energ& (*att+$ourM )g, #pe!i'i! po*er (*att#M)g, an( in all t$at
mean# nu!lear "atterie# #tan(# out. T$e te!$ni!al a(%antage# o' nu!lear "atterie# are
in term# o' it# longe%it&, a(apta"le #$ape# an( #i/e#, !orro#ion re#i#tan!e, minimum
*eig$t, e.!ellent !urrent (rain t$at #uit# to !ar(ia! pa!ema)er#.
(obile de3i4es
P!ell+N i# a nu!lear po*ere( laptop "atter& t$at !an pro%i(e "et*een #e%en
an( eig$t t$ou#an( time# t$e li'e o' a normal laptop "atter&+t$at i# more t$an 'i%e
&ear# *ort$ o' !ontinuou# po*er.
Nu!lear "atterie# are a"out 'orgetting t$ing# aroun( t$e u#ual !$arging,
"atter& repla!ing an( #u!$ "ottlene!)#. Sin!e !$emi!al "atterie# are Au#t near t$e en(
o' t$eir li'e, *e !an=t e.pe!t mu!$ more 'rom t$em, in it# lo*e#t a!!ount#, a nu!lear
"atter& !an en(ure at lea#t up to 'i%e &ear#. T$e P!ell+N i# in !ontinuou# *or)ing 'or
t$e la#t eig$t mont$# an( $a# not "een turne( o'' an( $a# ne%er "een plugge( into
ele!tri!al po*er #in!e. Nu!lear "atterie# are going to repla!e t$e !on%entional
"atterie# an( a(aptor#, #o t$e 'uture *ill "e o' e.!iting inno%ati%e ne* approa!$ to
po*ering porta"le (e%i!e#.
Automobiles
Alt$oug$ it i# on t$e initial #tage# o' (e%elopment, it i# $ig$l& promi#e( t$at
t$e nu!lear "atterie# *ill 'in( a #ure ni!$e in t$e automo"ile# repla!ing t$e *ear&
!on%entional i!oni! 'uel# t$ere *ill "e no !a#e #u!$ a# running out o' 'uel an( running
#$ort o' time. S>o. %alle& auto a##o!iation, USA= alrea(& !on(u!te( man& #eminar#
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NUCLEAR BATTERY
on t$e #!ope# an( t$e& are on t$e *a& o' implementing t$i#. Alt$oug$ t$e ri#)#
a##o!iate( t$e u#age o' nu!lear "atter&, e%en !on!erne( *it$ legal re#tri!tion# are o'
man&, "ut it# a(%antage# o%er t$e u#ual ga#oline 'uel# are o%er!oming all t$e
o"#ta!le#.
(ilitary appli4ations
T$e arm& i# un(erta)ing a tran#'ormation into a more re#pon#i%e, (eplo&a"le,
an( #u#taina"le 'or!e, *$ile maintaining $ig$ le%el# o' let$alit&, #ur%i%a"ilit& an(
%er#atilit&.

In un%eiling t$i# #trateg&, t$e 'inal re#our!e t$at 'it -uite "ene'i!ial i# Snu!lear
"atter&=.
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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DTRACE p$otoni!#, U.S. Arm& Armament# Re#ear!$, 1e%elopment an( Engineering
CentreE $a# $arne##e( ra(ioi#otope po*er #our!e# to pro%i(e %er& $ig$ energ& (en#it&
"atter& po*er to t$e men in a!tion. Nu!lear "atterie# are mu!$ lig$ter t$an !$emi!al
"atterie# an( *ill la#t &ear#, e%en (e!a(e#. No po*er !or(# or tran#'ormer# *ill "e
nee(e( 'or t$e ne.t generation o' mi!ro ele!troni!# in *$i!$ %oltage+mat!$e( #upplie#
are "uilt into !omponent#. Sa'e, long+li'e, relia"le an( #ta"le temperature i# a%aila"le
'rom t$e (ire!t !on%er#ion o' ra(ioa!ti%e (e!a& energ& to ele!tri!it&. T$i# (i#tri"ute(
energ& #our!e i# *ell #uite( to a!ti%e ra(io 're-uen!& e-uipment tag#, #en#or# an(
ultra *i(e+"an( !ommuni!ation !$ip# u#e( on t$e mo(ern "attle'iel(.
nder9ater sea probes and sea sensors
T$e re!ent 'lare up o' T#unami, Eart$-ua)e# an( ot$er un(er*ater (e#tru!ti%e
p$enomenon $a# in!rea#e( t$e (eman( 'or #en#or# t$at )eep# *or)ing 'or a long time
an( a"le to *it$#tan( an& !ru(e #ituation#. Sin!e t$e#e "atterie# are geare( to*ar(#
appli!ation# *$ere po*er i# nee(e( in ina!!e##i"le pla!e# or un(er e.treme
!on(ition#, t$e re#ear!$er# en%i#ion it# u#e a# (eep+#ea pro"e# an( #en#or#, #u"+
#ur'a!e, !oal mine# an( polar #en#or appli!ation #, *it$ a 'o!u# on t$e oil in(u#tr&.
An( t$e ne.t #tep i# to a(apt t$e te!$nolog& 'or u#e in %er& tin& "atterie# t$at
!oul( po*er mi!ro+ele!tro+me!$ani!al+#&#tem# (MEMS (e%i!e#, #u!$ a# t$o#e u#e(
in t$e opti!al #*it!$e# or t$e 'ree 'loating D#mart+(u#tE #en#or# "eing (e%elope( "&
t$e militar&.

CONC%SION
T$e *orl( o' tomorro* t$at #!ien!e 'i!tion (ream# o' an( te!$nolog& mani'e#t#
mig$t "e a %er& #mall one. It *oul( rea#on t$at #mall (e%i!e# *oul( nee( #mall
"atterie# to po*er t$em. T$e u#e o' po*er a# $eat an( ele!tri!it& 'rom ra(ioi#otope
*ill !ontinue to "e in(i#pen#i"le. A# t$e te!$nolog& gro*#, t$e nee( 'or more po*er
an( more $eat *ill un(ou"te(l& gro* along *it$ it.
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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Clearl& t$e !urrent re#ear!$ o' nu!lear "atterie# #$o*# promi#e in 'uture
appli!ation# 'or #ure. @it$ implementation o' t$i# ne* te!$nolog& !re(i"ilit& an(
'ea#i"ilit& o' t$e (e%i!e *ill "e $eig$tene(. T$e prin!ipal !on!ern o' nu!lear "atterie#
!ome# 'rom t$e 'a!t t$at it in%ol%e# t$e u#e o' ra(ioa!ti%e material#. T$i# mean#
t$roug$out t$e pro!e## o' ma)ing a nu!lear "atter& to 'inal (i#po#al, all ra(iation
prote!tion #tan(ar(# mu#t "e met. T$e e!onomi! 'ea#i"ilit& o' t$e nu!lear "atterie#
*ill "e (etermine( "& it# appli!ation# an( a(%antage#. @it$ #e%eral 'eature# "eing
a((e( to t$i# little *on(er an( ot$er parallel la"orator& *or)# going on, nu!lear !ell#
are going to "e t$e ne.t "e#t t$ing e%er in%ente( in t$e $uman $i#tor&.
R&-&R&NC&S
• DPo*er 'rom ra(ioi#otope#,E USAEC, 1i%i#ion o' Te!$ni!al In'ormation
• DNu!lear an( ra(io!$emi#tr&E , ,er$ar(t >rie(lan(er, Qo#ep$.@.Kenne(& an(
Qulian Mal!olm Miller,
• DParti!le# an( Nu!lei, an Intro(u!tion to t$e P$&#i!al Con!ept#E. B.Po%$,
K.Rit$, C. S!ol/ an( >.Tet!$e.
• Bro*n, PaulF 0Re#onant Nu!lear Batter& Suppl&0, Raum & Zeit, 4(6 (Augu#t+
Septem"er, 4;:;

%IN2S
• Po*er#tream.!om, DThe Role of Chemical Power Sources in ModernHealth
Care”, Curtis F. Holmes
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20
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• Po*erpaper.!om
• Te!$nolog&re%ie*.!om
• @i)ipe(ia.!omMatomi!U"atter&
D e p t . o f E & E , A . I . T . M . , B e l g a u !age 20