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- Journal Rtw- GROUP 3
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:

The final outcome of an experiment or research depends to a large

extent on the analysis of comparative values obtained. To the dictum of

Helmholtz that “All science is measurement”, one can also add Sir Henry

ale!s clause that, “All true measurement is essentially comparative”.

Statistics plays an integral role in collection, presentation, analysis and

interpretation of comparative data. "n a broad sense, the term “statistics” has

al#ays been associated #ith studies related to facts and figures e.g. health

statistics, business statistics etc. in the boo$ “Statistical methods in medical

research” statistics has been defined as a discipline concerned #ith the

treatment of numerical data derived from groups of individuals or materials.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS :

Statistics :

"s the science of compiling, classifying and tabulating numerical data

and expressing the results in a mathematical or graphical form.

%r

Statistics is the study of methods and procedures for collecting,

classifying, summarizing and analyzing data and for ma$ing scientific

inferences from such data.

& 'rof. '.(. Su$hatme

Biostatistics :

"s the branch of statistics applied to biological or medical sciences

)biometry*.

"s that branch of statistics concerned #ith mathematical facts and data

relating to biological events.

Variable :

A general term for any feature of the unit, #hich is observed or

measured.

Frequency istribution :

istribution sho#ing the number of observations or fre+uencies at

different values or #ithin certain range of values of the variable.

!ean :

ividing the total of all observations by the number of observations

,g. -alculate the mean of .(T scores /.0, /.1, /.2, 0.1, /.1.

3eometric mean )3.* 4 nth root of the product

3. 5 )x

6

* )x

/

* )x

0

* 77.)x

n

* 5

8hen the variation bet#een the lo#est and the highest value is very

high, geometric mean is advised and preferred.

Harmonic mean )H.* 4 is the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the

reciprocal of the observations.

!eian :

"s the middle value, #hich divides the observed values into t#o e+ual

parts, #hen the values are arranged in ascending or descending order.

,g. -alculate the median of .(T scores /.0, /.1, /.2, 0.1, /.1 arrange in

asc order,

/.1, /.1, /.0, /.2, 0.1 5 5 0

rd

value 5 i.e. /.0

x 5

x

6

9 x

/

9 x

0

9 7777. 9 x

n

n

5

∑x

n

x 5

/.0 9 /.1 9 /.2 9 0.1 9 /.1

:

5

6/

:

5 /.;

∑ log x

n

n

H. 5

6

∑

6

n

6

x

6

5

6

∑ 6

x

6

n 9 6

/

: 9 6 9 <

/

!oe :

"s the value of the variable #hich occurs most fre+uently

,g. -alculate the mode of .(T scores /.0, /.1, /.2, 0.1, /.1

.ode 5 /.1

.ode 5 0 x /.0 4 / x /.; 5 /.6

.ode 5 )0 median 4 / mean*

Variance :

• "s the appropriate measure of dispersion for interval or ratio level data

• -omputes ho# far each score is from the man

o This is done by

)x 4 x *

o ,ach score #ill have a deviation from the mean, so to find the

average deviation #e have to add all the deviations and divide it

by number of scores )=ust li$e calculating mean*

i.e.

but 7.. ∑ )x 4 x * 5 1

i.e. 5 S

/

So to eliminate this zero, s+uare the deviations #hich eliminates the )&* sign.

& "n other #ords it is the average of the s+uared deviations.

Stanar e"iation #Root $ean square e"iation%

• "s defined as the s+uare root of the arithmetic mean of the s+uared

deviations of the individual values from their arithmetic mean

(or small samples S 5 )σ* 5

∑ )x 4 x *

>

∑ )x 4 x *

/

>

∑ )x 4 x *

/

> & 6

∑ )x 4 x *

/

>

(or large samples S 5 )s* 5

8hen there is fre+uency distribution

For s$all sa$&les S 5 )σ* 5

For lar'e sa$&les S 5 )s* 5

?sed of S

• Summarizes the deviations of a large distribution from mean in one

figure used as unit of freedom.

• "ndicates #hether the variation from the mean is by chance or real.

• Helps finding standard error 4 #hich determines #hether the difference

b@n means of t#o samples is by chance or real.

• Helps finding the suitable size of the sample for value conclusions.

Stanar error :

• Standard deviation of mean values

S, 5 5

• ?sed to compare means #ith one another

Coe((icient o( "ariation is a measure used to measure relative variability

i.e.

• Aariation of same character in t#o or more different series. )eg 4 pulse

rate in young ad old person*

• Aariation of t#o different character in one and same series. )eg 4 height

and #eight in same individual*.

-A 5 x 611

∑ ƒ )x 4 x *

/

> & 6

∑ ƒ )x 4 x *

/

>6

Standard deviation

Sample size

S

n

Standard deviation

.ean

Nor$al cur"e an istribution :

• the histogram of the same fre+uency distribution of heights, #ith large

number of observations and small class intervals 4 gives a fre+uency

curve #hich is symmetrical in nature Nor$al cur"e or )aussian

cur"e.

C*aracteristics o( nor$al cur"e :

• Bell shaped

• Symmetrical

• .ean, .ode and .edian 4 coincide

• Has t#o inflections 4 the central part is convex, #hile at the point of

inflection the curve changes from convexity to concavity.

%n preparing fre+uency distribution #ith small class intervals of the

data collected, #e can observe

6* Some observations are above the mean and others are belo# the mean

/* "f arranged in order, maximum number of fre+uencies is seen in the

middle around the mean and fe#er at the extremes decreasing

smoothly

0* >ormally half the observations lie above and half belo# the mean and

all are symmetrically distributed on each side of mean

An distribution of this nature or shape is called Nor$al or )aussian

istribution

• Arithmetically

.ean ± 6S limits, include <C./2D observations

.ean ± /S limits, include E:.;:D observations

.ean ± 6.E<S limits, include E:D observations

.ean ± 0S limits, includes EE.20D observations

.ean ± /.:CS limits, includes EED observations

Nor$al cur"e an istribution :

Felative or standard normal deviate or variate 4 )G*

"s the deviation from the mean in a normal distribution or curve

G 5 5

& "n standard normal curve the mean is ta$en as zero and S as unity of one

S+e,ness - is the static to measure the asymmetry

• -oefficient of s$e#ness is 1

'ositivity )right* s$e#ed >egativity )left* s$e#ed Bimodal

.urtosis 4 is a measure of height of the distribution curve

• -oefficient of $urtosis is 0

Hepto$urtic )high* 'laty$urtic )flat* .eso$urtic )normal*

TESTS OF SI)NIFICANCE :

'opulation is any finite collection of elements

i.e. 4 individuals, items, observations etc.,

Sample 4 is a part or subset of the population

'arameter 4 is a constant describing a population

Statistic 4 is a +uantity describing a sample, namely a function of observations

Statistic #)ree+% Para$eter #/atin%

.ean x

µ

Standard eviation

σ

Aariance s

/

σ

/

-orrelation coefficient r

ρ

>umber of sub=ects

η

>

%bservation 4 mean

S

x 4 x

S

01POT0ESIS TESTIN) :

0y&ot*esis

"s an assumption about the status of a phenomenon or is a statement

about the parameters or form of population.

>ull hypothesis or hypothesis of no difference 4 States no difference

bet#een statistic of a sample and parameter of population or b@n statistics of

t#o samples.

• This nullifies the claim that the experiment result is different from or

better than one observed already.

• enoted by H

1

Alternate *y&ot*esis - any hypothesis alternate to null hypothesis, #hich

is to be tested

• enoted by H

6

Note : the alternate hypothesis is accepted #hen null hypothesis is re=ected

Ty&e I an ty&e II errors

H

1

accept H

6

accept

H

1

is true >o error Type 6 error

H

6

is true Type "" error >o error

• Type " error 5 α

• Type "" error 5 β

8hen primary concern of the test is to see #hether the null

hypothesis can be re=ected such test is called Test of significance.

The probability of committing type " error is called 2P3 "alue.

The p&value is the chance that the presence of difference is concluded

#hen actually there is none.

Type " error is important and it is fixed in advance at a lo# level, such

upper limit of tolerance of the chance of type " error is called Hevel of

Significance )α*

Thus α is the maximum tolerable probability of type " error

DIFFERENCE B4N /EVE/ OF SI)NIFICANCE AND P5VA/UE

/e"el o( si'ni(icance

6* .aximum tolerable chance of type " error

/* α is fixed in advance

P5"alue :

6* Actual probability of type " error

/* -alculated on basis of data follo#ing procedures

The '&value can be more than α or less than α depending on data,

8hen '&value is less than α result is statistically significant.

• The level of significance is usually fixed at :D )1.1:* or 6D )1.16* or

1.6D )1.116* or 1.:D )1.11:*

• .aximum desirable is :D level

• 8hen '&value is b@n

1.1:&1.16 5 statistically significant

I than 1.16 5 highly statistically significant

lo#er than 1.116 or 1.11: 5 very highly significant

TESTS OF SI)NIFICANCE :

• Are mathematical methods by #hich the probability )'* or relative

fre+uency of an observed difference, occurring the chance is found

• Ste&s 6 &roceure o( test o( si'ni(icance 4

6* State null hypothesis

/* State alternate hypothesis

0* Selection of the appropriate test to be utilized and

calculation of test criterion based on type of test.

;* (ixation of level of significance

:* Select the table and compare the calculated value #ith

the critical value of the table

<* "f calculated value is J table value, H

1

is re=ected

2* "f calculated value is I table value, H

1

is re=ected

C* ra# conclusions

STEPS IN STATISTICA/ STUD1 :

The chronology of steps in involved in a statistical study are as

follo#s K

Selection o( sa$&le si7e :

%ften, the primary problem encountered by a student of research is

the number of samples or sample size to be selected.

-riteria for selection of sample size are as belo# K

• A sample size of /:&01 in each group is ade+uate if there is one variable

or one parameter in the study.

• "n invivo studies #here there is less availability of samples, a slight

decrease in sample size may be acceptable.

• Harger sample size #ill be needed if

o Harger variation is expected

o Fare characteristic is present

TESTS IN TEST OF SI)NIFICANCE

'arametric

)normal distribution L >ormal culture*

>on¶metric

)not follo# normal distribution*

Muantitative data

Student Nt! test

'aired

?npaired

G test )for large samples*

%ne #ay A>%AA

T#o #ay A>%AA

Mualitative data

G 4 prop test

χ

/

test

Mualitative

)+uantitative converted to +ualitative*

.ann 8hitney ? test

8ilcoxon ran$ test

Orus$al #allis test

(riedmann test

o .ore variable are present

o .ore precision re+uired

o .ore reliability re+uired

Selection o( test :

The tests employed to complete a study can be classified as K

A. (or comparison of mean )average of observations* of

different samples

B. (or comparison of proportion )percentage* of different

samples.

-. -orrelation tests

. Fegression tests

A8 For co$&arison o( $ean #a"era'e o( obser"ations% o( i((erent

sa$&les :

T#o types of tests are available, namely parametric and non¶metric

Para$etric tests Non &ara$etric tests

• ,mployed if the distribution of

the population from #hich the

samples are dra#n is $no#n. )i.e.

normally distributed #ith less

variation*.

• ,mployed if distribution is

un$no#n )large variation present*

• "n the computation of parametric

tests the arithmetic processes of

addition, division and

multiplication are used.

• ata are changed from

measurements or scores to ran$s

or even to signs.

• ?sed if ade+uate sample size is

present.

• ?sed if ade+uate sample size is

not present

i% Ine&enent t5test

,mployed to compare mean of

t#o groups using one variable.

,g. -omparison of bond strength

of amalgam and composite.

i% !ann 9*itney U test

"t is e+uivalent to independent t&

test.

ii% Paire t5test

Use (or ,it*in 'rou& co$&arison

at different time intervals. ,g.

>umber of microbes in root canal

before and after antibiotic therapy.

ii% 9ilo:an si'n ran+ test

It is equi"alent to &aire t5test8

iii% ANOVA #Analysis o( "ariance%

.ean of any number of groups using

one variable is determined by this

test. ,g. Sealing capacity of different

endodontic sealers.

iii% .rus+al 9allis 05test

"t is e+uivalent to A>%AA.

A8 For co$&arison o( &ro&ortion #&ercenta'e% o( i((erent sa$&les :

The test employed are as follo#s K

i% C*i5square test :

"t chec$s the proportion bet#een any number of groups using one

variable. "t is used if ade+uate sample size is available.

,g. The effect of ampicillin, sulphonamides and tetracycline in a

certain percentage of people.

ii% Fis*er;s test :

This test is similar to -hi&s+uare test if less sample size is available.

iii% !c5Ne$ar test :

"t compares proportion of one variable #ithin a group at different

time intervals.

E'8 Pro&ortion o( &eo&le *a"in' sensiti"ity be(ore an a(ter usin'

esensiti7in' &aste8

B8 Correlation tests :

"t is used to find if t#o variables co&vary #ith each other or are independent.

,g. The susceptibility rate of organisms in root canal follo#ing

increase in antibiotic dosage.

C8 Re'ression tests :

"t describes the dependence of one variable on another independent variable.

,g. ,ffect of bonding agent on strength of composite.

ANA/1SIS OF RESU/T :

• >on¶metric tests li$e .ann 8hitney ?&test, 8iloxan sign ran$ test,

Orus$al 8allis H&test are less sensitive than parametric tests li$e

"ndependent t&test, A>%AA as they use random ran$ing instead of

original values.

• 'robability )p* value indicates level of significance )sensitivity* of a test.

& < =8==> 0i'*ly si'ni(icant

The probability that the difference bet#een t#o groups

occurring by chance is less than 6 in 6111.

& < =8=> !oerately si'ni(icant

The probability of the difference occurring by chance is

less tan 6 in 611.

& < =8=? /ess si'ni(icant

The probability of the difference occurring by chance is

less than : in 611.

& < =8=? Not si'ni(icant

The probability of difference occurring by chance is very

high.

CONC/USION :

This seminar attempts at explaining importance of statistics as an

essential protocol for any research program. Statistics is the greatest leveler.

"t covers up for all the variations that can creep into the results thereby

providing a foolproof system for proper interpretation of data. Hence it

#ould be appropriate to term it as “The Aital Statistics”.

VITA/ STATISTICS

Outline

• INTRODUCTION

• DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

• TESTS OF SI)NIFICANCE

• STEPS IN STATISTICA/ STUD1

o SE/ECTION OF SA!P/E SI@E

o SE/ECTION OF TEST

o ANA/1SIS OF RESU/T

• CONC/USION

CO//E)E OF DENTA/ SCIENCES

DEPART!ENT OF CONSERVATIVE DENTISTR1 AND

ENDODONTICS

S,.">AF

ON

VITAL STATISTICS

H

1

accept H

6

accept

H

1

is true >o error Type 6 error

H

6

is true Type "" error >o error

PRESENTED B1 :

Dr8 Si*es,aran V8

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