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Heat Transfer

Prof. Geoff Silcox

Spring 2005

Solution to Homework Assignment 7

Due Wednesday, 2 March, by 17:00.

Problem 1

For a duct that is heated on both the top and bottom with q

bot

=q

top

, calculate the

Nusselt number for fully developed, constant property, laminar flow. The width of

the duct is much greater than its height. Use the numerical approach discussed

in class. You may start with the MATLAB file, one_dq.m, that is posted on the

class web site. That file models a specified flux on the bottom and a well

insulated top.

Solution

If the duct is heat from above and below with uniform flux (W/m

2

) q

w

, the source

term (W/m

3

) for control volume i becomes

2

w i

i

q w

S

D w

= − (1)

Because the problem is symmetrical, the temperatures at the top and bottom

walls are equal. Call that temperature T

b

. The energy balance for control volume

n becomes

1 1

8 9

0

3

b n n n n

n

T T T T T

k k S y

y y

− −

− + −

+ + ∆ =

∆ ∆

(2)

Our approach is to take q

w

=1 and to set T

b

=0. This prevents the occurrence of

a singular matrix (det(A) =0) and is equivalent to the choice of a particular axial

location in the duct.

The calculated Nusselt numbers for heating from one side and both sides are

summarized in Table 1 and are compared to values from Table 4.5, p. 307 of

your text. All numerical calculations were performed with 20 control volumes.

Table 1 Comparison of published and numerically calculated Nusselt

numbers for a one-dimensional duct heated with uniform axial flux from

one side and two sides. In the former, the unheated surface is

insulated.

one

side

top and bottom

text 5.385 8.235

calculated 5.386 8.242

The calculated dimensionless temperature profile is shown in Figure 1. The

profile is symmetrical as required by the boundary conditions. The

dimensionless temperature is

( )

( )

b

b m

T T y

y

T T

θ

−

=

−

(3)

The MATLAB code that produced Figure 1 is one_dqtb and a link is provided.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Dimensionless temperature profile

Distance from bottom, m

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

Figure 1 Dimensionless temperature profile for one-dimensional duct with

uniform axial flux on the top and bottom.

Problem 2

For a duct that is heated on both the top and bottom with T

bot

=T

top

, calculate the

Nusselt number for fully developed, constant property, laminar flow. The width of

the duct is much greater than its height. Use the numerical approach discussed

in class. You may start with the MATLAB file, one_dt.m, that is posted on the

class web site. That file models a specified temperature on the bottom and a

well insulated top.

Solution

If the duct is heat from above and below with specified temperature T

b

, the

source term (W/m

3

) for control volume i becomes

2

b w i

i

b m

T T q w

S

T T D w

⎛ ⎞ −

= −

⎜ ⎟

−

⎝ ⎠

(4)

The energy balance for control volume n becomes

1 1

8 9

0

3

b n n n n

n

T T T T T

k k S y

y y

− −

− + −

+ + ∆ =

∆ ∆

(5)

Our approach is to set T

b

=0, guess all interior temperatures, and calculate q

w

.

This fixes the value of q

w

and is equivalent to the choice of a particular axial

location in the duct. Because of (4) the problem is nonlinear and we must iterate

to obtain a converged solution (see one_dttb).

The calculated Nusselt numbers for heating from one side and both sides are

summarized in Table 2 and are compared to values from Table 4.5, p. 307 of

your text. All numerical calculations were performed with 20 control volumes.

Table 2 Comparison of published and numerically calculated Nusselt

numbers for a one-dimensional duct heated with uniform axial

temperatures from one side and two sides. In the former, the

unheated surface is insulated.

one

side

top and bottom

text 4.861 7.541

calculated 4.859 7.534

The calculated dimensionless temperature profile is shown in Figure 2. The

profile is symmetrical as required by the boundary conditions. The MATLAB

code that produced Figure 2 is one_dttb and a link is provided.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Dimensionless temperature profile

Distance from bottom, m

T

e

m

p

e

r

a

t

u

r

e

Figure 2 Dimensionless temperature profile for one-dimensional duct with

uniform and equal temperatures on the top and bottom.

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