Chemical Engineering 6453

Heat Transfer
Prof. Geoff Silcox
Spring 2005
Solution to Homework Assignment 7
Due Wednesday, 2 March, by 17:00.

Problem 1
For a duct that is heated on both the top and bottom with q
bot
=q
top
, calculate the
Nusselt number for fully developed, constant property, laminar flow. The width of
the duct is much greater than its height. Use the numerical approach discussed
in class. You may start with the MATLAB file, one_dq.m, that is posted on the
class web site. That file models a specified flux on the bottom and a well
insulated top.

Solution
If the duct is heat from above and below with uniform flux (W/m
2
) q
w
, the source
term (W/m
3
) for control volume i becomes


2
w i
i
q w
S
D w
= − (1)

Because the problem is symmetrical, the temperatures at the top and bottom
walls are equal. Call that temperature T
b
. The energy balance for control volume
n becomes


1 1
8 9
0
3
b n n n n
n
T T T T T
k k S y
y y
− −
− + −
+ + ∆ =
∆ ∆
(2)

Our approach is to take q
w
=1 and to set T
b
=0. This prevents the occurrence of
a singular matrix (det(A) =0) and is equivalent to the choice of a particular axial
location in the duct.

The calculated Nusselt numbers for heating from one side and both sides are
summarized in Table 1 and are compared to values from Table 4.5, p. 307 of
your text. All numerical calculations were performed with 20 control volumes.








Table 1 Comparison of published and numerically calculated Nusselt
numbers for a one-dimensional duct heated with uniform axial flux from
one side and two sides. In the former, the unheated surface is
insulated.

one
side
top and bottom
text 5.385 8.235
calculated 5.386 8.242


The calculated dimensionless temperature profile is shown in Figure 1. The
profile is symmetrical as required by the boundary conditions. The
dimensionless temperature is


( )
( )
b
b m
T T y
y
T T
θ

=

(3)

The MATLAB code that produced Figure 1 is one_dqtb and a link is provided.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Dimensionless temperature profile
Distance from bottom, m
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e


Figure 1 Dimensionless temperature profile for one-dimensional duct with
uniform axial flux on the top and bottom.


Problem 2
For a duct that is heated on both the top and bottom with T
bot
=T
top
, calculate the
Nusselt number for fully developed, constant property, laminar flow. The width of
the duct is much greater than its height. Use the numerical approach discussed
in class. You may start with the MATLAB file, one_dt.m, that is posted on the
class web site. That file models a specified temperature on the bottom and a
well insulated top.

Solution
If the duct is heat from above and below with specified temperature T
b
, the
source term (W/m
3
) for control volume i becomes


2
b w i
i
b m
T T q w
S
T T D w
⎛ ⎞ −
= −
⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠
(4)

The energy balance for control volume n becomes


1 1
8 9
0
3
b n n n n
n
T T T T T
k k S y
y y
− −
− + −
+ + ∆ =
∆ ∆
(5)

Our approach is to set T
b
=0, guess all interior temperatures, and calculate q
w
.
This fixes the value of q
w
and is equivalent to the choice of a particular axial
location in the duct. Because of (4) the problem is nonlinear and we must iterate
to obtain a converged solution (see one_dttb).

The calculated Nusselt numbers for heating from one side and both sides are
summarized in Table 2 and are compared to values from Table 4.5, p. 307 of
your text. All numerical calculations were performed with 20 control volumes.


Table 2 Comparison of published and numerically calculated Nusselt
numbers for a one-dimensional duct heated with uniform axial
temperatures from one side and two sides. In the former, the
unheated surface is insulated.

one
side
top and bottom
text 4.861 7.541
calculated 4.859 7.534


The calculated dimensionless temperature profile is shown in Figure 2. The
profile is symmetrical as required by the boundary conditions. The MATLAB
code that produced Figure 2 is one_dttb and a link is provided.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Dimensionless temperature profile
Distance from bottom, m
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e


Figure 2 Dimensionless temperature profile for one-dimensional duct with
uniform and equal temperatures on the top and bottom.