# Chemical Engineering 6453

Spring 2005
Solution to Homework Assignment 11
Prof. Geoff Silcox

Problem 1.0

The tunnel furnace is sketched below.

Ceiling (1)
Back wall
muffle (4)
Front
wall (2)

We start by defining the radiosities, J
i
, for each surface using the equation

4
app , i i
T J σ =

I have summarized the radiosities and apparent temperatures in Table 1.

Table 1

Radiosities and apparent temperatures for tunnel furnace.

Surface ε
i
T
i,app
, C T
i,app
, K J , W/m
2

1 0.55 1150 1423 232,575
2 0.55 1140 1413 226,107
3 0.70 830 1103 83,965
4 0.55 1340 1613 383,936

b) Find the net radiant flux, q
i
, leaving each surface. By definition,

i i i
G J q − = (1)

and the irradiation is given by

=
=
4
1 j
j ij i
J F G (2)

The J 's are summarized in Table 1 so all we need are the view factors. Because
the furnace is long, the view factors are given by the string rule. For opposing
sides, F
ij
=0.4142 and for adjacent sides, F
ij
=0.2929. The G's and q's
calculated from (1) and (2) are summarized in Table 2.

Table 2

Surface G
i
, W/m
2
q
i
, W/m
2

1 213,457 19,188
2 251,744 -25,637
3 275,013 -191,048
4 186,369 197,567

c) How does the performance of the furnace depart from a source-sink-refractory
(SSR) model?

For the SSR model, q
1
=q
2
=0 and q
3
=-q
4
. We depart from these conditions by
just a few percent.

a) Find the true temperature of each surface.

The net radiative flux leaving surface i is

( )
i bi
i
i
i
J E
1
q −
ε −
ε
= (3)

Solving (3) for E
bi
gives the equation from which we can calculate the true
temperatures:

4
i i i
i
i
bi
T J q
1
E σ = +
ε
ε −
=

The emissive powers and true temperatures are summarized in Table 3.

Table 3

Emissive powers and true temperatures.

Surface E
bi
, W/m
2
T, K
1 248,217 1447
2 205,131 1379
3 2087 438
4 545,582 1761

Problem 2.0

The cavity is sketched below.

60 mm
30 mm
30 mm
1
2
3

Case 1. Treat the cavity walls as single surface:

o c c c c
c
bo bc
o c
F A A
c
E E
Q Q

+

= − =
1 1
ε
ε

Evaluate view factor:

A
c
F
c-o
=A
o
F
o-c

And
F
o-c
=1
c
o
o c
A
A
F =

o
c
c
bc c
c
A
A
E A
Q
+ −
=
1
1
ε

r
L r
r
rL r
A
A
o
c
2 2
2
2
+
=
+
=
π
π π

OR
9
15
) 60 )( 2 (
1
2
1 = + = + =
r
L
A
A
o
c

A
c
=π (0.015)
2
+2π (0.015)(0.060) =6.36 x 10
-3
m
2

9 1
2 . 0
1
) 1000 )( 10 67 . 5 ( 10 362 . 6
4
4 2
8 2 3
+ −
=
− −
K
K m
W
x m x
Q
c

Q
c
=27.75W

Case 2: Treat cavity walls as 3 separate surfaces:

From class notes with i =0, 1, 2, 3

=

− =
3
0
) (
j
j j i i ij bi i
J F E ρ δ ε
Also
ε
i
=0.2, ρ
i
=1 - ε
i
=0.8 for i =1, 2, 3
ε
o
=1, ρ
o
=0
T
i
=1000K for i =1, 2, 3
T
o
=0
Evaluate view factors

F
0-0
=0

For F
0-1
:
From appendix D #40, page 790 of Modest:
r
1
=15 25 . 0
60
15
1
1
= = =
a
r
R
r
2
=15 R
2
=0.25
a =60

18
)
4
1
(
)
4
1
( 1
1
2
2
=
+
+ = x
0557281 . 0 ) 4 18 18 (
2
1
2
1 0
= − − =

F

For F
0-3
:
From appendix D, #43, page 791 of Modest:
1
30
30
2
= = =
r
h
H
828427 . 0 ) 1 1 1 ( 2
2
3 0
= − + =

F
For F
0-2
:
F
0-2
=1 – F
0-1
– F
0-3
=0.115845
For all others:
F
1-0
=F
0-1
=0.0557281
F
1-1
=0
F
1-2
=F
0-3
=0.828427
F
1-3
=F
0-2
=0.115845
For F
2-0
:
A
2
F
2-0
=A
o
F
0-2

2 0
2
2 0
2
0 2
2
2
− − −
= = F
L
r
r
F
A
A
F
o
π
π

0289612 . 0
60
15
2 0 0 2
= =
− −
F F
For F
2-1
:
A
2
F
2-1
=A
1
F
1-2

207107 . 0
4
1
2 1 2 1
2
1
1 2
= = =
− − −
F F
A
A
F
For F
2-2
:
From appendix D #42 page 791 of Modest:
H =30/30 =1
585786 . 0 2 1 1
2 2
= − + =

F
For F
2-3
:
F
2-0
+F
2-1
+F
2-2
+F
2-3
=1
F
2-3
=1 – F
2-0
– F
2-1
– F
2-2

F
2-3
=0.178146
For F
3-0
:
F
3-0
=F
2-1
=0.207107
For F
3-1
:
F
3-1
=F
2-0
=0.0289612
For F
3-2
:
F
3-2
=F
2-3
=0.178148
For F
3-3
:
F
3-3
=F
2-2
=0.585786

Set up matrix for solution.
Recall J
o
=0 since E
bo
=0 and ε
o
=1

For i =1, 2, 3

=

− =
3
1
) (
j
j j i i ij bi i
J F E ρ δ ε
and
ε
i
E
bi
=constant =0.2 (5.67 x 10
-8
W/m
2
K
4
)(1000K)
4
=11339.2

a
11
=1
a
12
=-0.8(F
1-2
) =-0.662742
a
13
=-0.8(F
1-3
) =-0.0926758

a
21
=-0.8(F
2-1
) =-0.165685
a
22
=1 – 0.8(F
2-2
) =0.531371
a
23
=-0.8(F
2-3
) =-0.142516

a
31
=-0.8(F
3-1
) =-0.0231690
a
32
=-0.8(F
3-2
) =-0.142516
a
33
=1 – 0.8(F
3-3
) =0.531371

J
o
=0 W/m
2

J
1
=4.41207 x 10
4
W/m
2

J
2
=4.45399 x 10
4
W/m
2

J
3
=3.52091 x 10
4
W/m
2

Calculate G
o

=

=
3
1
0
j
j j j o o
F J A G A

=

=
3
1
0
j
j j o o o
F J A G A

=

=
3
1
0
j
j j o
F J G

G
o
=0.0557281(4.41207 x 10
4
) +0.115845(4.45399 x 10
4
) +0.828427(3.52091
x 10
4
)

G
o
=3.67867 x 10
4
W/m
2

Q
o
=-G
o
A
o
=-(3.67867 x 10
4
W/m
2
)(π)(0.015m)
2
=-26.00W

Comparing Cases 1 and 2,
Single surface approximation: Q
o
=-27.75W
Three surface approximation: Q
o
=-26.00W
% 73 . 6 %) 100 (
00 . 26
00 . 26 75 . 27
=

= Error

Depending on the required accuracy, the single surface approximation may be