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The Structure Design

and Stability of Large-Scale


Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Songyuan Dai
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, P. R. China
Where is ASIPP located ?

Anhui Province

ASIPP

Hefei City
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
ASIPP

ASIPP ISP

HIPCAS

IIM
OFMI

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Chinese Academy of Sciences

BCAS
BCAS
BCAS ★
CAS

1000km
BCAS BCAS
BCAS IPP
BCAS BCAS 500km
BCAS
BCAS

BCAS
BCAS BCAS

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


How did we start ?
 Collaboration agreement with STA in Apr. 1997
 Project funded by Worldlab in 1996~2006
 Collaborate with M. Grätzel

1997.04

1999.03
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
500W DSC primary power station

2004.10.14 Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


2004.10

2007.09.05
The design and outdoor application of dye-sensitized
solar cells, Songyuan Dai, etc., Inorganica Chimica
Acta 361 (2008) 786–791
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Outline

 Simulation and Structure design


of large-scale DSC

 Stability research of DSC


modules

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


How to achieve Pmax for a TCO glass

 High active area ?


 Less resistance loss ?
 Best Sealing strength ?
 Anti-corrosion ?
 Life-time is preferred!

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


The problems to enlarge size of DSC
TCO:15Ω/□

15 0.8cm×0.8cm
-2
Current density/mA· cm

12

3 2cm×2cm

0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Voltage/V
Square Resistance: RTCO
Jsc FF Electron Collection: H
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Improvement by silver grid
• Isc and FF are increased
TCO:15Ω/□ When used silver grid.
• But FF is lower still than
Small-scale cell, why?
• The resistance of silver
must be taken into
account in large-scale Cell.

cell area: 0.7cm×18cm,


Silver grid resistance of silver grid: 0.8Ω

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Theoretical simulations of Matlab :

Different
active
area

TCO:15Ω/□

The larger active area, the more lower FF of DSC!


Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
What we do?

1.The lower fill factor and efficiency for large


scale DSC;

2.By introducing silver grid, fill factor and


efficiency improved obviously;

3.We need:
Theoretical simulations and Structure design!

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Electron diffusion continuity equations:
Main recombination : I3- + 2e-(cb) → 3I-

 2 nx  nx   n0  x


Dn     e 0
x 2

boundary conditions:
n n
xd 0 Dn  kext ( n  n0 )
x x
x 0

 Ln 2 I 0
n( x )  exp( x)  n0  C1 exp( x / Ln )  C2 exp( x / Ln )
D(1   Ln )
2 2

Photocurrent and photovoltage:

k BT n( x  0)
J photo  eD
dn V photo  ln
dx q n0
x 0

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Design scheme of strip cell
J
  ( x)   
2

W1: the width between Silver grids


W : the width of TiO2 films
W2: the width of silver grid
Sb : the distance from TiO2 films to silver grid
l : the length of TiO2 films
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Assumptions and boundary conditions:
1、The thickness of TCO is enough thinner
Y TCO than the size of cell
 Jx  Jy
 0
TiO2/dye Z Z
2、The photocurrent is uniform in the region
of TiO2/dye

Jz ( Z  d )  J
e e
3、The resistivity of silver grid is enough
smaller than the resistivity of TCO
Z
 Ag   0

4、electric current is Ohm style in TCO

J  E
Silver
grid X
ρ: resistivity of TCO σ: conductivity of TCO
d : thickness of TCO Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Application of Laplace equation:

 E ( x, y, z )  0 
    2
 ( x, y , z )  0
E ( x, y, z )   

  
2 2
 
2
 2
J 2 2
 2  2  0  2  2   2  
x 2
y z x y z d
2 2 J J 1 2
 0  2       ( x  c1x  c2 )
y2
x d d 2
Boundary condition 3: J 1 2 1
   ( x  W1x)
d 2 2
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Calculation and simulation results:
1. The loss of electrons transfer through silver grid:
 Ag ( L  l )
L 2

PAg   I  dR
2   [ J W  ( L  y )]  dR  ( J W  l ) 2 
h W2
L l

2. The loss of electrons on contact resistance:


2
l
c

Pcon   I  dR  [ JWdy ] 
2

0
W2  dy

3. The loss of electrons transport through TCO:


W1 /2
1
PTCO   dI U  4{ 
Sb
Jl dx    [ Jl W   ]}
2
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Simulation results

1. FF depended on silver grid resistance


Size: 0.7cm ×18cm

Silver grid

With the increase of silver resistance, FF decrease obviously!


Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Simulation results

2. Efficiency depended on silver grid resistance


initial parameters:
L=19cm,
l=18cm,
Sb=0.1cm,
W2=0.2cm,
ρAg=3×10-6Ω·cm,
ρc=0.01Ω·cm2
RTCO=15Ω/□

I0=1.0×1017 cm-2s-1,
ηinj=99.9%,
α=5000 cm-1,
d=10-3cm,
D=10-4 cm-2s-1,
T=300K,
τ=10-2s,
no=104
Different illumination intensity:
100mW/cm2, 50mW/cm2, 20mW/cm2
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Simulation results

2.Efficiency depended on contact resistance

L=19cm,l=18cm,Sb=0.1cm,W2=0.2cm,ρAg=3×10-6Ω·cm,RTCO=15Ω/□
I0=1.0×1017 cm-2s-1,ηinj=99.9%,α=5000 cm-1,d=10-3cm,D=10-4 cm-2s-1,
T=300K,τ=10-2s,no=104。
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Simulation results

3.The width of TiO2 films

Width

L=19cm,l=18cm,Sb=0.15cm,
W2=0.1cm,ρAg=3×10-6Ω·cm.

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Simulation results

3.The width of TiO2 films

I0=1.38×10 cm-2s-1,
ηinj=99.9%,
α=5000 cm-1,
d=10-3cm,
D=10-4 cm-2s-1,
T=300K,
τ=10-2s,
no=104。

L=19cm,l=18cm,
Sb=0.1cm,W2=0.2cm,
ρAg=3×10-6Ω·cm,
ρc=0.01Ω·cm2,
h=0.001cm,
RTCO=15Ω/□

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Parallel Module Design in IPP

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Module Design
We wish to:
total output power (Pmax)

By:
loss in TCO and silver grid

active area

Active area:
WX×LT×N/total area
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Parallel Module Design

Optimum width:7mm
Active area:62%

Sun=100mW/cm2, RTCO=15 Ω/□, Wm=0.1 cm, Lm=19 cm, Rm=0.4Ω

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Power depended on illumination intensity

The high resistivity of


TCO leads to a lower
optimal width, and the
output power reduces
rapidly under the strong
light.
Wider optimal widths
are obtained with TCO
sheet resistance is 8
Ω/□.

The optimal width from


7 mm to 10 mm under Wm=0.1 cm, Lm=19 cm, Rm=0.4Ω
different illumination
intensity .
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Large-scale DSC based on structure design

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Next goal:

 Giveyour glass, give me best


achieve in one year.

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


 Simulation and Structure design of
large-scale DSC

 Stability research of DSC modules

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Indoor aging test system

UV Vis

2 KW

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Outdoor aging test system

Out-door real-time
test system

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


The Stability for DSC under UV in different band

393 nm is
better!

Time-course change of the normalized photovoltaic performance of DSC.


Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Stability research by electrochemical methods

TiO2 Pt Main origin

Rh Resistance of TCO

Z1 (R1, C1) Electrolyte/CE

Z2 (R2, C2) TiO2/Dye/Electrolyte

Z3 (R3, C3) Diffusion in the Electrolyte

R1 R2

-2 Rh Z3
(Ω)

C1 C2

Z2
Z"

-1
10 Hz
Z1 Z3
1 kHz
100 kHz 0.1 Hz

0
0 Rh 1 R1 2 R2 3 R3 4 5

Z' (Ω)
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Stability Results

Stability data of device parameter variations for DSC (measured under 1 sun)
of 4 cm² cells on master plates aged with a UV-light tester at 50 ºC).

After a short decrease, Jsc and Eff almost keep constant!


Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Stability research by electrochemical methods
Z2 (R2, C2) TiO2/Dye/Electrolyte

Z2

R2
TiO2 Pt

The slightly decreased R2 orτ for


recombination reaction of the working
electrode after aging with a UV-light
tester lead to a gradually small
decrease in Voc .
Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS
Showcase still running(2004.10.15~???)

Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS


Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, CAS