Answer all the questions.
1. The composite wall of an oven consists of three materials, two of which are of known thermal
conductivity, kA = 20 Wm
!" and kc = #0 Wm
!" and known thickness, $A = 0.%0 m and $&
= 0.1# m. The third material, ' which is sandwiched (etween materials A and &, is of known
thickness, $' = 0.1# m, (ut unknown thermal conductivity k'. )nder steady*state operatin+
conditions, measurement reveal an outer surface temperature of Ts,o = 20,&, an inner surface
temperature of Ts,i = -00,&, and an oven air temperature of T. = /00,&. The inside
convection coefficient h is known to (e 2# Wm
!". What is the value of k'0 1Answer2 1.#%
2. &onsider a # m hi+h, / m lon+ and 0.22 m thick wall whose representative cross section is as
+iven in 4i+ure 1. The thermal conductivities of various materials used, in Wm!,&, are kA =
kF = 2, kB = /, kC = 20, kD = 1#, and kE = %#. The left and ri+ht surfaces of the wall are
maintained at uniform temperatures of %00,& and 100,&, respectively. Assumin+ heat
transfer throu+h the wall to (e one dimensional. The representative surface area is
A = × = 012 1 012 . . m
4i+ure 1 &omposite Wall
a3 5ketch the equivalent thermal circuit in varia(le form, la(el appropriate resistances,
temperatures and heat flu6es.
(3 7etermine the rate of heat transfer throu+h the wall 1Answer2 1.81 6 10
c3 &alculate the temperature at the point where the sections ', 7 and 9 meet 1Answer2
d3 7etermine the temperature drop across the section 4 1Answer21:%,&3

%. 5team at %20,& flows in a stainless steel pipe 1k = 1# Wm!"3 whose inner and outer
diameters are # cm and #.# cm, respectively. The pipe is covered with % cm thick +lass wool
insulation 1k = 0.0%/ Wm!"3. ;eat is lost to the surroundin+s at #,& (y convection with heat
transfer coefficient of 1# Wm
!". Takin+ the heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe to (e /0
!", determine the rate of heat loss from the steam per unit len+th of the pipe. Also
determine the temperature drops across the pipe shell and the insulation 1Answer2 8%.8
Wm, 0.08#,& and 280,&3
:. A hollow aluminum sphere, with an electrical heater in the center is used in tests to
determine the thermal conductivity of insulatin+ materials. The inner and outer radii of the
sphere are 0.1# and 0.1/ m, respectively and testin+ is done under steady state conditions
with the inner surface of aluminum maintained at 2#0,&. <n a particular test, a spherical shell
of insulation is cast on the outer surface of the sphere to a thickness of 0.12 m. The system
is in a room for which the air temperature is 20,& and the convection coefficient at the outer
surface of the insulation is %0 Wm
!". <f /0 W are dissipated (y the heater under steady*
state conditions, what is the thermal conductivity of the insulation0 1Answer2 0.0-2 Wm!"3