Revision notes written by Widowmaker Module 3B

Unit 3.1B: Laboratory chemistry
Seci!ication
a" Reco#nise the results o! reactions o! comounds seci!ically mentioned in Units 1 and $ o! the seci!ication
and the results o! tests !or simle ions: carbonate% hydro#encarbonate% sulhate&'("% sulhite% chloride%
bromide% iodide% nitrate% ammonium% lithium% sodium% otassium% ma#nesium% calcium% strontium and barium
)ests !or ions
(on *ormula )est +bservations
,arbonate
,+
3
$-
)est 1
• .eat the solid in a test tube with a
Bunsen burner.
• (t should decomose roducin#
the o/ide and carbon dio/ide. 0.#.
,u,+
3
&s"  ,u+&s" 1 ,+
$
&#"
• )est !or the #as usin# limewater
solution.
)est $
• 2dd dilute .,l to the solid.
• )est !or the #as evolved usin#
limewater solution.
Limewater should turn !rom colourless to
cloudy in the resence o! carbon dio/ide
due to reciitation o! calcium carbonate.
'i#orous e!!ervescence.
Limewater should turn !rom colourless to
cloudy in the resence o! carbon dio/ide
due to reciitation o! calcium carbonate.
.ydro#encarbonat
e
.,+
3
-
)est
• 2dd calcium chloride to a
hydro#encarbonate solution.
3o reciitate !orms since calcium
hydro#encarbonate is soluble.
Sulhate &'("
S+
4
$-
)est
• 2dd barium chloride solution
acidi!ied with dilute .,l to the
test solution.
White reciitate o! barium sulhate
!orms.
Sulhite
S+
3
$-
)est
• Warm the sulhite with dilute
.,l.
• )est !or #ases usin# acidi!ied
otassium dichromate&'("
solution &or aer"
)he solution turns #reen.
,hloride
,l
-
)est 1
• 2dd concentrated sulhuric acid
to the solid chloride.
)est $
• 2dd dilute nitric acid to a
solution o! a chloride to acidi!y
the solution. )his eliminates any
carbonates or sulhites.
• 2dd silver chloride to the
solution.
• 2dd dilute ammonia solution.
White steamy acidic !umes are seen - .,l
!umes.
White reciitate o! 2#,l !orms.
Solid dissolves.
Bromide
Br
-
)est 1
• 2dd concentrated sulhuric acid
to the solid bromide.
Steamy brownish acidic !umes are seen.
Revision notes written by Widowmaker Module 3B
)est $
• 2dd dilute nitric acid to a
solution o! a bromide to acidi!y
the solution. )his eliminates any
carbonates or sulhites.
• 2dd silver chloride to the
solution.
• 2dd concentrated ammonia
solution.
,ream reciitate o! 2#Br !orms.
Solid dissolves.
(odide
(
-
)est 1
• 2dd concentrated sulhuric acid
to the solid iodide.
)est $
• 2dd dilute nitric acid to a
solution o! a iodide to acidi!y the
solution. )his eliminates any
carbonates or sulhites.
• 2dd silver chloride to the
solution.
• 2dd concentrated ammonia
solution.
5urle acidic !umes are seen. )he mi/ture
turns to a brown slurry.
6ellow reciitate o! 2#( !orms.
Solid is insoluble.
3itrate
3+
3
-
)est 1
• .eat solid nitrate.
• (! #rou 1 solid &not Li" then will
decomose to #ive the nitrite and
o/y#en.
• 2ll other solid nitrates decomose
to #ive the metal o/ide% nitro#en
dio/ide and o/y#en.
)est $
• Boil nitrate solution with
aluminium78evarda9s alloy% in
sodium hydro/ide solution.
• )est vaour with red litmus
aer.
+/y#en #as is evolved that will reli#ht a
#lowin# slint.
Brown #as is seen &3+
$
". +/y#en #as is also
evolved and will reli#ht a #lowin# slint.
Litmus aer turns blue in the resence o!
ammonia.
2mmonium
3.
4
1
)est
• Warm ammonium comound
with 3a+..
• )est vaours immediately usin#
dam red litmus aer.
3.
3
turns the litmus aer blue.
Lithium
Li
1
)est
• 8i nichrome wire in .,l.
• 8i wire in solid.
• .eat wire in centre o! !lame.
• +bserve colour o! !lame.
2 carmine red !lame is seen.
Sodium
3a
1

)est
• 8i nichrome wire in .,l.
Revision notes written by Widowmaker Module 3B
• 8i wire in solid.
• .eat wire in centre o! !lame.
• +bserve colour o! !lame.
2 yellow !lame is seen.
5otassium
:
1

)est
• 8i nichrome wire in .,l.
• 8i wire in solid.
• .eat wire in centre o! !lame.
• +bserve colour o! !lame.
2 lilac !lame is seen.
Ma#nesium
M#
$1
)est
• 2dd 3a+. solution to the
ma#nesium solid.
2 white solid !orms which is insoluble in
e/cess 3a+.&a;". )his is M#&+."
$
&s"
,alcium
,a
$1

)est
• 8i nichrome wire in .,l.
• 8i wire in solid.
• .eat wire in centre o! !lame.
• +bserve colour o! !lame.
2 brick red !lame is seen.
Strontium
Sr
$1
)est
• 8i nichrome wire in .,l.
• 8i wire in solid.
• .eat wire in centre o! !lame.
• +bserve colour o! !lame.
2 crimson red !lame is seen.
Barium
Ba
$1
)est
• 8i nichrome wire in .,l.
• 8i wire in solid.
• .eat wire in centre o! !lame.
• +bserve colour o! !lame.
2 ale #reen !lame is seen.
b" Reco#nise the chemical tests !or simle #ases% to include hydro#en% o/y#en% carbon dio/ide% ammonia%
chlorine% nitro#en dio/ide and sulhur dio/ide
)ests !or #ases
3ame *ormula )est +bservations
.ydro#en .
$
(#nite #as. S;ueaky o is heard.
+/y#en +
$
5lace a #lowin# slint in a samle o!
the #as.
)he #lowin# slint reli#hts.
,arbon dio/ide ,+
$
Bubble #as throu#h limewater
&saturated solution o! calcium
hydro/ide"
2 solution turns !rom colourless to cloudy.
2 white &milky" reciitate o! calcium
carbonate !orms which is sarin#ly soluble.
2mmonia 3.
3
)est !or #as usin# dam red litmus
aer.
Litmus aer turns blue.
Revision notes written by Widowmaker Module 3B
,hlorine ,l
$
)est 1
)est !or #as usin# dam litmus aer
&red or blue"
)est $
)est !or #as usin# moist starch-iodide
aer.
)est 3
5ass #as throu#h a solution o! a
bromide.
)est 4
5ass #as throu#h a solution o! an
iodide.
,hlorine bleaches the litmus aer very
;uickly.
)he aer turns blue-black.
)he solution turns !rom colourless to
oran#e.
)he solution turns !rom colourless to
brown &ossibly with a black reciitate%
iodine".
3itro#en dio/ide 3+
$
3ot many tests !or this #as. )he #as is brown.
Sulhur dio/ide S+
$
)est 1
Bubble #as throu#h a solution o!
otassium dichromate &'(" dissolved
in sulhuric acid.
)est $
Bubble #as throu#h a solution o!
otassium man#anate &'((" dissolved
in sulhuric acid.
)he solution turns !rom oran#e to #reen.
)he solution turns !rom urle to
colourless.