111111111 II 11111111

025404
462·254·04
Fentanyl
Citrate Injection, USP
DESCRIPTION


Fentanyl Citrate Injection is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution lor or onlramuscular use as a
potent narcollc analgesic, Each ml contair\S fentanyl cUrate equivalent to 50 meg (0.05 mO) lentanyl
base tn Water for Injection. pH 4.0-7.5: sodium hydroxide and/or hydroolllonc add added, if needed, lor
oH adjustmenl Conla1ns no preservative
Fentanyl citrate is chemicallY identiOed as N·(t·Phenett\yl-4-ptperidYI)propionanfllde citrate (1:1) wltllllte
following structural formula:
 
A -

MW528.59
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Fentanyl citrate is a narcotic analgesic. A dose ot 100 meg (0.1 mg) (2 ml) is approximately equivalent in analgestc
actiVity lo 10 mg of morphine oo 75 mg of mepe11diM The principal actions ol lhefapeullc value are analgesia and
sedati on. Alterations In respiratory ratB and alveolar ventilati on, associated with narcotic analgesics, may last longer
than the analgesiC effect 1\s tne dose of narcotic is 10creased. the 1n pulmonary exchange becomes greater.
Large produce apnea. fentanyl appears to have emetic activity than either morphine or meperodlne.
tlistarnlne assays and skin wheal testing in man Indicate Ulat cl fnlcally significant "istamine release rarely occurs with
fentanyl, assays fn man sMw no cJlnJcally sigmflcant ltistamine release in dosages up 10 50 mc:g/l(g (0.05 rn!Jikg)
(1 mUkg). Fentanyl preserves cardiac stability and blunts stress-related hormonal changes at higher doses.
The pharmacokmetlcs of fentanyl can be described as a three·compartment modeJ, with a dlstrlbut1on time ol
1.1 minutes, redistnbution of 13 fllinvtes and a terminal eliminatlon half-•life ot 2t9 minutes. The volume of
distnbutton tor fentanyl is 4 Ukg.
fentanyl plasma protein binding capacity Increases With Increasing Ionization Of the drug. Allerotions In pH may affect
its between plasma and me central nef\lous system. It accumulates in skeletal muscle and fat and is
released slowly into the blood. Fentanyl. which 1s promarily transformed in the liver. demonstrates a high first pass
and 75% of an Intravenous dose. in urine, moslly as metabolites with less than 10%
representing Ule unchanged drug. Approximately 9% at llle dose is recovered in Ule feces, primarilY as metabolites
The onset or action or fentanyl is almost immediate when the drug is given Intravenously: however, the maxunal
analgesiC and respiratory depressant effellt may not be noted for several minutes. The usual of action ol the
analges1c effect Is 30 to 60 monules affer a srngle lnlfavenous dose of up In 1 Of) meg (OJ mg) (2 ml). Follo•·llng
intraonuscu1ar adonfniSIIafion. tne onset of action is from seven to eiglll minvtes. and tile duration of action is o11e to two
hours. As with longer acting narcotia analgesics. the dur.otion of lhe respiratory depressant effect of fentanyl may be
longer thaol the analgeSIC errect. The rollowlng obserVations have been reported concerning altered respiratory response
to C02 sbmutation following administration of lentan)ll cillall! to man:
1. DIMINISHED SENSITIVITY TO C02 STIMULATIOf'l MAY PERSIST LONGER THAf'l DEPRESSION Of RESPIRI\TORY
RATE. (Altered senshiVity to C02 stimufalron has been demonstrated lor up 10 four hours following a single or
600 meg [0.6 mol [12 mLJ fentanyl to healthy volunteers.) Fentanyl fcequen!ly the respiratory rate. duration
degree of resp1ratory depressf!Jn beino dose relaleel.
2. The peak respiratory depressant effect of a single mlravenous dose of fentanyl Citrate Is noted 5 to 15 minutes
following injection. See also WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS resporatory depression.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Fentanyl CitraiB lntection Is indicaJed:
- lor analgesic action of short dilr3tic>n during lhe anesthetic periods. premedication. induchon and maintenance, and In
I he ionrnedlate posloperauve period (recovery roorn) as the need ar1ses.
- lor use as a narcotic analges1c supplement in general or regoonal anesthesia.
- tor administration with a neuroleptic such as droperldol1njeclfon as an anesthelte premedlcellon, tor the lnuucllon of
anesthesia and as an adfunctln Ul e matntenance or general and regional anesthesia.
- for as an anesthetic agent wJ1n OXYQen 1n selected hogn risk patients, such as those undergoing open heart
surgery or certlifl complicated neurQtogical or orthopedic procedvres.
CDNTRAINDICATIONS
Fentanyl Citrate Injection Js co!llraindicaled in patients with intolerance to the drug.
WARNINGS
FENTANYL CITRATE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED ONLY BY PERSONS SPECIFICALLY TRAINED IN THE USE OF
INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETICS AND MANAGEMENT OF THE RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF POTENT OPIOIOS.
AN OPIOIO ANTAGONIST, AESUSCITAnVE AND INTUBATION EQUIPMENT AND OXYGEN SHOULD BE READILY AVAILA.Blf.
See aJso of narcotic antagonists in PRECAUTIONS and OVERDOSAGE,
If fentnnyl Is administered with a tranquilizer such as droperldol, the useo should ramlllol W1fh the special
propet11es of each dru.g, pat1iculat1y the widely dilfenng durations ot action. tn addltton, when such a combination is
used. fluids and other countermeasures to manage !lypotensloo should be available.
As with other potent narcotics, the respiratory depressant effect of fentanyl may pernlst longer than lhe measured
analgeSIC effect The total dose of afl narcotic analgesics administered should be considered by the practitioner before
ordering narcotic analgesics dunno recovery I tom anesthesia. It is recommended Hlal narcotics, when required, $hOutd
be used in reduced doses initially. as low as 1/4 to 1/3 those recommended.
Fentanyl may cause muscle nglalty particularly Involving the muscles ol resplratron. In sddolion skeletal muscle
movements or various groups in extreml!les, and external eye have been reponed during 1roauctron ol
anesthesia with fentanyl: these reponed movements have. on r;tre occasions. been strong to pose. patient
management problems. This effect is related to the dose and speed ot injection and Its Incidence can be reduced by:
1) administration of up to 1/4 of the full paralyzing dose of a non·depolaming neuromuscular blocking agenl just
prior to admimstralion of lentanyl citrate; 2) administration ot a full paralyztng dose of a neuromuscular blocking
aoenl following loss of eyelash re«ex when fentanylos used In anesthetic OOses titrated by stow intravenous Infusion;
or. 3) simultaneous administration ol rentanyt citrate and a full paralyzing dose of neuromuscular blocking agenr
wnen fentanyl citrate is used on rapidly admtnistered anestheuc dosages. The neuromuscular blocking agent used
should be compatible with the pallenl's cardoovascutar status.
Adequate facilities should be available for postoperative monitoring and ventilation ol patients administered anesthetic
doses of tentanYI. Where moderate or high doses are used (above 10 mcg/t<g), there must be adequate facilittes for
postoper.lllve observation, and ventilation if necessary. of patients who have receoved fentanyl. It is essential tlll11these
facilities be full'y equipped to handle ail degrees at respiratory depression.
Fentanyl may also produce other sigti!S and symptoms cnaracterislic or narcotic aJJaigesics includtnu eupnorla, miosis,
bradycardia and bronchoconslriction.
Severe and unprediclable potentiation by MAO mhlbilors hes been reported lor other narcotic analgesics. Although th1s
has not boon reported lor rentanyt. 111ere are insulflcoent dala to establish tllal lllis does not occur with rentall)'l.
Therefore, when lentanyl is admomstered to patients who have recetved MAO lnhibttors within 14 days, appropriate
monitoring and ready availability of va-sodilators and beta-blockers for the treatment of hypertension 1S
Head Injuries and Increased tnfracraniaf Pressure
fentanyl should be used wllh cau!lon in patients who may be particularly susceptible to resp11atory depression. such as
comatose patients who may have a head lnrury or hraln tumor. In fentanyl may obscure the clinical course of
patients with head injury.
PRECAUTIONS
General
The tm!ial dose of fentanyl Citrate be appropriately reduced in elderly and debilitated patients. The ctreot of the
Initial dose sho,Jid be constdered In determining Incremental doses.
Nitrous oxide has been reported to produce cardiovascular depression wllen given with n1gher doses at fentanyl.
Celtlln fonns of conduction anesthesia. such as spinal anestllesia and soone perrdural anestl1etrcs. can anu respiration by
interoostal nerves. Through other mechanisms (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY) fentanYl can also alter respiration.
Therelore. 1vhen fentanyl Is used to supplement lhese forms of anesthesia, the anesthetist should be famliii!r wi th the
pt\ystological alteralioGs involved, and be prepared to tn the palfents selecte(J for tnese torms or anesthesia,
When a tranquilizer such as droperidot is used with tentanyl, pulmonary arterial pressure may be decreased. Tilts fact
should be considered by !nose who conduct dlagnosllc and surgical procedures where interpretation ol pulmonary
arterial pressure measurements tni.Qill determine trnal rnanagement or tM patient. When dose or anesthetic
dosages ()[ fentanyl are employed. even relativety small dosages or diazopam onay cause cardiovascular depression.
When rentanyl Is wlth a tranQuilizer sucll as droperidol. hypotension can occur. If It occurs. the possibility or
nypovolemia should also be considerl!'d and managed wltll appropriate parenteral fluid therapy. Repositioning U1e patient
to improve venous return lo the heart shOuld be considered when operative conditions permit Care should be exen:ised
tn moving positioning or patients because ot the possibility of hypotension. If volume. expansion with
lluids plus other countermeasures do not correct hypotension, llle administration ol pressor agents otller than
epinepMne shOuld be considered. Because of the alpha-adrenergic bloC.kil1lJ acl10n of droperlOol. may
paradoXlcalty decrease the blood pressure In patients treated wilh droperldol.
Elevated blood pressure, wllh and witllo\Jt pre-l!Xisting has been reporteO following admlnistratoon or
fentanyl cilrate combined wi th droperidQI, This might be due to alterations in activity !allowing
large doses: however. 11 is also frequently attrobutad to anestnetoc ana surgocet stimulation during light anesthesia.
When droperldol1s used with fentanyl and the E'EG Is used ror posropefatflle monitoring, it may be round thatlhe EEG
pattern returns to normal slowry. ·
Vital signs should be monitored routinely.
Respiratory depte!ffiion caused by oploid analgesics can be reveosed by opiold antagonostr. such as naloxone. Because
lhe duration of respiratory liepressloll produced by fentanyl may last longer than the duration of the opioid antagonist
aclfon. appropriate should be mafnlalned. As with all potent oploids. profound analgesia is accompanied by
respiratory depression and dtminished sensitivity to C0
2
stomulalion which may persist Into or recur in the postoperative
period. lntraoperatrve hyperventilation rnay furtJ•er alter postoperatiVe response to C0
2
• Approonale postoper.!tll'e
monitorlrog should be etl'!ployetl to ensure mat adequate spontaneous brnathing 1s arod maintained in tile
absence ot stimulation prtor to discharging patrent from the recovery area.
Impaired Resplralfon
Fentanyl should be used with cautiort: in patients wrlll chronic Ql>sl/llctlve pulmonary disease. palients wilfi uecreased
respiratory aJJd others witlr potentially compromised resptration. In such patients, narcobcs may add!Honallt decrease
resplrat01y drive and iherease airway reslstJnce. Dllrihg anesthesia, this can be managed by assisted or controlled
Impaired Hepatic or Renal Function
Fentanyl citrate shOuld be administered with caution to patients with liver and kidney dysfunctoon because of llte
Importance of these organs tn tile metabolism and excretion of drugs.
Cardiovascular Elf eels
Fentanyl may produce bradycardia, which may oe treated with atropine. Fentarwl si!Oilld be w1t11 caution rn paflents
with cardiac bradyarrh

fhmtas.
Drug Interactions
Oll!er CNS depressant drugs (e.g .• barbiturates, tranquilizers. narcotics and general anesthetics) will have additive or
potentiating ettccts woth fentanyl. Wilen patients have received such drugs. the dose of fentanyl reQUired will be less
than usual. Following the administration ol fentanyl citrate, the dose of oUter CNS depressant d1ugs should be reduced.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment ol Feni!ity
No carcinogenicity or mutagenicoty   have been conducted wllh fentanyl Citrate, Reproduction studies In rats
Tevealed il signi!icant decrease In the pregnancy rate of all expenmental groups. This decrease was most pronounced in
the high dosed group (1.25 mglk[1-12.5X human dose) In which one of twenty animals became pregnant
Pregnant'/
T£1\ATOGEN!C EfFECTS-PREGNANCY CATEGORY C. citrate has been shovvn to llnpair fertility
-and to have an embryocidal cllect in rats when given in doses 0.3 times the upplll human dose for a
period of 12 days. No evidence or teratogemc effects haV1l been observed aher administration of
fentanyl citrate to rats. n tere are no adeqvate and well·controlled studies In pregnant women. Fentanyl
should be used during pregnancy only If the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Labor and Delivery
There are tnsufiic1ent data to support lite use of fentanyl In labor and delivery. Therefore, such use Is
not recommended.
Nursi ng Mothers
ll is not known whether th1s drug Is excreted in human Because mafl)l drUtgs are excreted in
human m11k. caulfon shoUld ne exerclsed when fentanyl citrate is administered lo a nurslnu woman.
Pediatric Use
The safely and efficacy of fentonyl citrate In ped•atric pallents unoer two years oil age has nol been
esti!blished.
Rare cases ot unexplained oflnically s•gnitlcanl melhemoglobinomla have been reportud In premature neonates
undergoing emergency anesthesia and surgery Which Included comb•ned use or lentany'l, pa,ncurontum and a110p1ne. A
direct cause and effect relationship between tlte combined use of these drugs and llle ll!ported cases of melttemoglo·
blnemia has not been established.
ADVERSE REACTIONS
As with other narcotic analgesics. the mosl common serious adverse reactions reported to occur with fentanyl aro
respiratory depreSSJon, apnea, tlgfdity and bradycardia; if these remain unlfeated, resplrotory arrest, clrculalory depression
or cardiac arrest could occur. Olner adverse reacti ons lllal have been reported are hYPertension, hypotension, olzziness.
blurred vision. nausea. emesis.laryngospasm and diaphoresis.
II has been reported that secondary rebound respiratory depression may occasionally ooCJJr postoperatively. Patients
should be this possibility and appropriate countermeasures taken as necessary.
When a tranquilizer sucn as droperfllol is used with fentanyl oltrate. lhe following adlie1se reactions can oocur: chillS ana/or
shi1lring, restlessness 1nd pos!operalive hallucinatory eprsodes (sometimes aSSOIIiated With transient periods of mental
depression); extrapyramidal symptoms (dystoma, akathlsla and ocul¢gyfiC cosis) have been observed up lo 24 noui'S
postoperatively. Wilen tttey occur, symptoms can usually be controlled xvllh anlf·parkinson ager1ts.
Postoperative drowstness rs also frequently reportud following the use ot droperidol.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Fentanyl Citrate Injection is a Schedule II controlled drug substance that can produce drug dependence of the morphine
type and. therefore, has the polentlal for being abused.
OVERDOSAGE
ManHestaUons
lite manifestations of fentafl)ll ovl!ldosage are an extension of its phartnacologlc acUons (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)
as with other oploid analgesics. The lnlravenous LDso of fentanyl is 3 mg/kg in rats. 1 mglku in cats. t4 mg/kg in dog5
and 0.03 In monkeys,
Tteatment
In the presence ol hypoventilation or apnea. oxygen should be adminiStered and respiratlion should be assis1ed or
controlled as lnd•catea. A patent airway must be malntatned; an Oropharyngeal airway or E:rulotracheat tube m1ght be
lndfcated. If depressed respiration is associated with muscular rlgidity, an inttavenous neu ro11wscutar blocking agent
mtght be reqwed to facilitate assisted or controlled resp1ratron. The pauent should be observed for 24 hours;
body warmth and adequate fluid Intake should be mafnta1ned. If hypotension occurs and tS severe or persists, the
possibility ol hypovolemia should be considered aM managed with approprlale parenll!ml ftuid lhe13py. A specific
narcotic antagonist such as naloxone should be available for use as indicated to manage depression. Thls
does not preclude the use of more Immediate countermeasures. The duration of resp•mtory depression following
overdosage of fentanyl may be longer than the durotlon of antagomst actiOn. Consu It !he package 1nsert of the
Individual narcotic antagonfsts for details about use.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Ttte 2 mL f entanyl Citrate lnrectlon viallncludes a cautionary label that extends above the main tabet and highlights the
drug name. fentanyl. The purposa of the extended label is to prevent selectfon error with other drugs. such as
Sufentanll. Read the label and oonlirm you have selected the correct medication. Then locale the "Tear Here' point on
tne label. ano remove this caut{onary label prior to remoVing thellip·otf cap.
Single Dose- Destroy unused contents.
50 meg= 0.05 ri]g = i ml
Dosage. should be indi\liduatiled. Some of the factors to be coosTdered in determining the tjose are a,ge. body we1ght.
physical status, underlying pathological oonditlon. use ot other drugs, type of anesthesia t•o be used -and the surgical
procedure Involved. Dosage should be reduced in elderl y or deblldated patients (see PRECAU TIDNS).
VItal signs should be monitored rovtloely,
I. Premedication-Premedication (to be mod1fled in tho elderly, debilitated and those who have received
other depressant drugsHO ro 100 meg (0.051o 0. I mg) (i to 2 mL) may be lntramuswlarty 30 to 60
minutes prior to surgery,
II . Adjunct to Ganeral Anesthesi a- See Dosage Range Charts.
Ill. Adjunct to Regional Anesthesta--oo to tOO meg (0.05 to 0.1 mg) (1 to 2 ml) may be arlmlnistered lntramusculany
or slowly 1ntrovenously, over one to two minu1es, wnen additional analgesia is reQuired,
IV. Postoperatlvely (recovery room)-50 to 100 meg (0.05 to 0.1mg) (1 to 2 ml) may be arlmlnistered inlramuscularty
lor the control of pain, tachypnea anrl emergence delirium. The dose may be repeated ln. one to two hours as needed.
Usage In Children
For induction and maintenance in children 2 to 12 years or age. a reduced uose as low as 2 to :3 meg/kg Is recommended.
Dosage Range Chart
Total Dosage   as tentanyl base)
Low dose-2 meg/kg (0.002 mg./kg) (0.04 mLJleg).
small doses rs most usetof tor minor. trut pamful, surgical proceddres. ln additiiJn to the analgeSia dUnllJl
surgery·. fenlanyt may also provide some pain relief in the immediate postoperative period.
Moderate. dose-2 lo 20 mcg/lqj (0.002 lo 0.02 mglkg) (0.04 to 0.4 mLJleg).
Where surgery becomes more major. a larger dose ts reQuired. With this dose. in addftlon t•o adequate analgesia. one
would expect to see some abolition ot lhe stress response. However. respiratory depression will be such that
irtlficlal ventilation during anesthesia is neoessary, and careful obeervaUon Of ventilation pOslopenJtfvely is essential.
Hfgh dose--20 to 50 meg/kg (0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg) (0.4 to 1 mLJleg).
OU!ino open heart surgery and certain more complicated neurosurgrc.;t and orthopedic procedures where surgery is
more p10ionQed, and In ll\c opmlon of the the stress response to would be detnmental to
tne well befng ot the patient. dosa,gas ot 20 to 50 meg/kg (0.02 to 0.05 m!lfkg) (0.4 to 'I ml./kg) of fentanyl with
nitrous oxide/oxygen have been shown to attenuate the stress response as defined by incrl!ased levels ot circurattng
growth hormone. catecholamine, ADH and prolactin. When dosages In lhls range have been used surgery,
postoperative W!ntilation and observation are essential due to extended posl·operat1ve re:;pirotory depression. The
main objective of IItts technique would be to produce "stress free• anesthesia.
Oosage Range Chart
Maintenance Dose (excressed as fentanyl base}
low dose-2 meg/kg (0.002 mg/kg) (0.04 mL/kg).
Additional dosages ot fentanyl are infrequently needed rn these mrnor procedures.
Moderate. dose-2 to 20 meg/kg (0.002 lo 0.02 mg/kg) (0.04 to 0.4 mUkg).
25 to 100 meg (0,025 to 0.1 mg) (0.5 to 2 ml) may be administered Intravenously or • wneo
movement and/or changes in vital signs Indicate surgical stress or lightening or analgesia.
Hfgh dose-20 to 50 mcg/l<g (0.02 to 0.05 mgtkg) (0.4 to 1 mUkg),
Maintenance dosage (ranging lrom 25 meg [0,025 mg] [0,5 mL]to one half lhe inltlalloadlinu dose) will be dictated
by the changes in vital signs Which ind1cate stress and lightening ol analgesia. However, tile additional dosage
selected must be indivtduallzed especiallY if anticipated remaining operative 11me 1S short
As a General Anesthelic
When anenuahon of the responses to surgical stressrs especially Important doses or 50 to 100 mcg!ko (0.05 to 0. t mg!kg)
(1 to 2 ml/t<g) may be administered oxygen and a muscle relaxant. This techf\igue has been reported to prollide
anesthesiii without the usa of addKional anesthetic agents. In certain cases. doses up to 150 mcni1<g (0.15 mg/)(g) (3 mLJleg)
may be necessary to produce lhls anesthetir. effect. It has been used for open heart surge1ry and certain othe1 major
surgical procedures in patients tor whom protection of the myocardium from excess oxy•gen demand is parbcularly
lndlcated, ana for oe1 tain compllcated neurological and orthopedic procedures
As noted 1bove. It Is essentral that qualiHed personnel and adequate facilities be avatlab.le for the management of
respiratory depreSSIOn.
See WARNINGS and PRECAunONS for use or with other CNS dep•essants, and in pati>lnts with altered response
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually tor particulate matter and dlscolorat ion prior to admmrstratton,
wnenever solution and contamer perm1t.
HOW SUPPliED
Fentanyl Citrole Injection, LISP, eQuivalent to 50 meg (0.05 mg) fentanyl base per ml, Is prese rvative·free and available as
follows:
2 ml Single Doseampuls paok<lged tn 10s (NDC 0641·6024·10)
2 tnl Single Dose vials packaged In 25s (NDC 064 I ·6027-25)
5 mL Single Doseampuls packaged in 10s tNDC 0641·6025·10)
5 ml Single Ooseviais packaged in 2Ss (NOC 0641-6028·25)
For Intravenous Use by Hospital Personnel Specttlcally Trained In the Use ol Narcotic An<llgeslcs:
20 mL Single Dose ampu1s pacl\llged in 5s (NDC 0641·6026·05)
20 mL Single Ooseviats pacl\llgetl in 2Ss (NOC
50 ml Single Dose Vials mdiYtdually (NDC 0641·6030-0t)
Storage
PROTECT FRDM liGHT.
Keep covered In carton until Ume ol use. Store at 20'·25' C (68'·77'F), excursions permi tted to 15' ·3D' C 159' ·86' F)
[See USP Controlled Room Temperature!.
To report SUSPEf.TED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Word Pharmaceut1c.11 Corp. at 1-877-845-0689. or the FDA
at 1-800·FDA·1088 or WVIVI.lda gov/med>Vatch.
For Produc1lnquirv call1·877 ·845-o689.
Revised Octobet 2011
Manufactured by:
-.._
WEST•WARD
P'HAAMACEUT)CALS
Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA

Related Interests

fhmtas.
Drug Interactions
Oll!er CNS depressant drugs (e.g .• barbiturates, tranquilizers. narcotics and general anesthetics) will have additive or
potentiating ettccts woth fentanyl. Wilen patients have received such drugs. the dose of fentanyl reQUired will be less
than usual. Following the administration ol fentanyl citrate, the dose of oUter CNS depressant d1ugs should be reduced.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment ol Feni!ity
No carcinogenicity or mutagenicoty   have been conducted wllh fentanyl Citrate, Reproduction studies In rats
Tevealed il signi!icant decrease In the pregnancy rate of all expenmental groups. This decrease was most pronounced in
the high dosed group (1.25 mglk[1-12.5X human dose) In which one of twenty animals became pregnant
Pregnant'/
T£1\ATOGEN!C EfFECTS-PREGNANCY CATEGORY C. citrate has been shovvn to llnpair fertility
-and to have an embryocidal cllect in rats when given in doses 0.3 times the upplll human dose for a
period of 12 days. No evidence or teratogemc effects haV1l been observed aher administration of
fentanyl citrate to rats. n tere are no adeqvate and well·controlled studies In pregnant women. Fentanyl
should be used during pregnancy only If the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Labor and Delivery
There are tnsufiic1ent data to support lite use of fentanyl In labor and delivery. Therefore, such use Is
not recommended.
Nursi ng Mothers
ll is not known whether th1s drug Is excreted in human Because mafl)l drUtgs are excreted in
human m11k. caulfon shoUld ne exerclsed when fentanyl citrate is administered lo a nurslnu woman.
Pediatric Use
The safely and efficacy of fentonyl citrate In ped•atric pallents unoer two years oil age has nol been
esti!blished.
Rare cases ot unexplained oflnically s•gnitlcanl melhemoglobinomla have been reportud In premature neonates
undergoing emergency anesthesia and surgery Which Included comb•ned use or lentany'l, pa,ncurontum and a110p1ne. A
direct cause and effect relationship between tlte combined use of these drugs and llle ll!ported cases of melttemoglo·
blnemia has not been established.
ADVERSE REACTIONS
As with other narcotic analgesics. the mosl common serious adverse reactions reported to occur with fentanyl aro
respiratory depreSSJon, apnea, tlgfdity and bradycardia; if these remain unlfeated, resplrotory arrest, clrculalory depression
or cardiac arrest could occur. Olner adverse reacti ons lllal have been reported are hYPertension, hypotension, olzziness.
blurred vision. nausea. emesis.laryngospasm and diaphoresis.
II has been reported that secondary rebound respiratory depression may occasionally ooCJJr postoperatively. Patients
should be this possibility and appropriate countermeasures taken as necessary.
When a tranquilizer sucn as droperfllol is used with fentanyl oltrate. lhe following adlie1se reactions can oocur: chillS ana/or
shi1lring, restlessness 1nd pos!operalive hallucinatory eprsodes (sometimes aSSOIIiated With transient periods of mental
depression); extrapyramidal symptoms (dystoma, akathlsla and ocul¢gyfiC cosis) have been observed up lo 24 noui'S
postoperatively. Wilen tttey occur, symptoms can usually be controlled xvllh anlf·parkinson ager1ts.
Postoperative drowstness rs also frequently reportud following the use ot droperidol.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Fentanyl Citrate Injection is a Schedule II controlled drug substance that can produce drug dependence of the morphine
type and. therefore, has the polentlal for being abused.
OVERDOSAGE
ManHestaUons
lite manifestations of fentafl)ll ovl!ldosage are an extension of its phartnacologlc acUons (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)
as with other oploid analgesics. The lnlravenous LDso of fentanyl is 3 mg/kg in rats. 1 mglku in cats. t4 mg/kg in dog5
and 0.03 In monkeys,
Tteatment
In the presence ol hypoventilation or apnea. oxygen should be adminiStered and respiratlion should be assis1ed or
controlled as lnd•catea. A patent airway must be malntatned; an Oropharyngeal airway or E:rulotracheat tube m1ght be
lndfcated. If depressed respiration is associated with muscular rlgidity, an inttavenous neu ro11wscutar blocking agent
mtght be reqwed to facilitate assisted or controlled resp1ratron. The pauent should be observed for 24 hours;
body warmth and adequate fluid Intake should be mafnta1ned. If hypotension occurs and tS severe or persists, the
possibility ol hypovolemia should be considered aM managed with approprlale parenll!ml ftuid lhe13py. A specific
narcotic antagonist such as naloxone should be available for use as indicated to manage depression. Thls
does not preclude the use of more Immediate countermeasures. The duration of resp•mtory depression following
overdosage of fentanyl may be longer than the durotlon of antagomst actiOn. Consu It !he package 1nsert of the
Individual narcotic antagonfsts for details about use.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Ttte 2 mL f entanyl Citrate lnrectlon viallncludes a cautionary label that extends above the main tabet and highlights the
drug name. fentanyl. The purposa of the extended label is to prevent selectfon error with other drugs. such as
Sufentanll. Read the label and oonlirm you have selected the correct medication. Then locale the "Tear Here' point on
tne label. ano remove this caut{onary label prior to remoVing thellip·otf cap.
Single Dose- Destroy unused contents.
50 meg= 0.05 ri]g = i ml
Dosage. should be indi\liduatiled. Some of the factors to be coosTdered in determining the tjose are a,ge. body we1ght.
physical status, underlying pathological oonditlon. use ot other drugs, type of anesthesia t•o be used -and the surgical
procedure Involved. Dosage should be reduced in elderl y or deblldated patients (see PRECAU TIDNS).
VItal signs should be monitored rovtloely,
I. Premedication-Premedication (to be mod1fled in tho elderly, debilitated and those who have received
other depressant drugsHO ro 100 meg (0.051o 0. I mg) (i to 2 mL) may be lntramuswlarty 30 to 60
minutes prior to surgery,
II . Adjunct to Ganeral Anesthesi a- See Dosage Range Charts.
Ill. Adjunct to Regional Anesthesta--oo to tOO meg (0.05 to 0.1 mg) (1 to 2 ml) may be arlmlnistered lntramusculany
or slowly 1ntrovenously, over one to two minu1es, wnen additional analgesia is reQuired,
IV. Postoperatlvely (recovery room)-50 to 100 meg (0.05 to 0.1mg) (1 to 2 ml) may be arlmlnistered inlramuscularty
lor the control of pain, tachypnea anrl emergence delirium. The dose may be repeated ln. one to two hours as needed.
Usage In Children
For induction and maintenance in children 2 to 12 years or age. a reduced uose as low as 2 to :3 meg/kg Is recommended.
Dosage Range Chart
Total Dosage   as tentanyl base)
Low dose-2 meg/kg (0.002 mg./kg) (0.04 mLJleg).
small doses rs most usetof tor minor. trut pamful, surgical proceddres. ln additiiJn to the analgeSia dUnllJl
surgery·. fenlanyt may also provide some pain relief in the immediate postoperative period.
Moderate. dose-2 lo 20 mcg/lqj (0.002 lo 0.02 mglkg) (0.04 to 0.4 mLJleg).
Where surgery becomes more major. a larger dose ts reQuired. With this dose. in addftlon t•o adequate analgesia. one
would expect to see some abolition ot lhe stress response. However. respiratory depression will be such that
irtlficlal ventilation during anesthesia is neoessary, and careful obeervaUon Of ventilation pOslopenJtfvely is essential.
Hfgh dose--20 to 50 meg/kg (0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg) (0.4 to 1 mLJleg).
OU!ino open heart surgery and certain more complicated neurosurgrc.;t and orthopedic procedures where surgery is
more p10ionQed, and In ll\c opmlon of the the stress response to would be detnmental to
tne well befng ot the patient. dosa,gas ot 20 to 50 meg/kg (0.02 to 0.05 m!lfkg) (0.4 to 'I ml./kg) of fentanyl with
nitrous oxide/oxygen have been shown to attenuate the stress response as defined by incrl!ased levels ot circurattng
growth hormone. catecholamine, ADH and prolactin. When dosages In lhls range have been used surgery,
postoperative W!ntilation and observation are essential due to extended posl·operat1ve re:;pirotory depression. The
main objective of IItts technique would be to produce "stress free• anesthesia.
Oosage Range Chart
Maintenance Dose (excressed as fentanyl base}
low dose-2 meg/kg (0.002 mg/kg) (0.04 mL/kg).
Additional dosages ot fentanyl are infrequently needed rn these mrnor procedures.
Moderate. dose-2 to 20 meg/kg (0.002 lo 0.02 mg/kg) (0.04 to 0.4 mUkg).
25 to 100 meg (0,025 to 0.1 mg) (0.5 to 2 ml) may be administered Intravenously or • wneo
movement and/or changes in vital signs Indicate surgical stress or lightening or analgesia.
Hfgh dose-20 to 50 mcg/l<g (0.02 to 0.05 mgtkg) (0.4 to 1 mUkg),
Maintenance dosage (ranging lrom 25 meg [0,025 mg] [0,5 mL]to one half lhe inltlalloadlinu dose) will be dictated
by the changes in vital signs Which ind1cate stress and lightening ol analgesia. However, tile additional dosage
selected must be indivtduallzed especiallY if anticipated remaining operative 11me 1S short
As a General Anesthelic
When anenuahon of the responses to surgical stressrs especially Important doses or 50 to 100 mcg!ko (0.05 to 0. t mg!kg)
(1 to 2 ml/t<g) may be administered oxygen and a muscle relaxant. This techf\igue has been reported to prollide
anesthesiii without the usa of addKional anesthetic agents. In certain cases. doses up to 150 mcni1<g (0.15 mg/)(g) (3 mLJleg)
may be necessary to produce lhls anesthetir. effect. It has been used for open heart surge1ry and certain othe1 major
surgical procedures in patients tor whom protection of the myocardium from excess oxy•gen demand is parbcularly
lndlcated, ana for oe1 tain compllcated neurological and orthopedic procedures
As noted 1bove. It Is essentral that qualiHed personnel and adequate facilities be avatlab.le for the management of
respiratory depreSSIOn.
See WARNINGS and PRECAunONS for use or with other CNS dep•essants, and in pati>lnts with altered response
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually tor particulate matter and dlscolorat ion prior to admmrstratton,
wnenever solution and contamer perm1t.
HOW SUPPliED
Fentanyl Citrole Injection, LISP, eQuivalent to 50 meg (0.05 mg) fentanyl base per ml, Is prese rvative·free and available as
follows:
2 ml Single Doseampuls paok<lged tn 10s (NDC 0641·6024·10)
2 tnl Single Dose vials packaged In 25s (NDC 064 I ·6027-25)
5 mL Single Doseampuls packaged in 10s tNDC 0641·6025·10)
5 ml Single Ooseviais packaged in 2Ss (NOC 0641-6028·25)
For Intravenous Use by Hospital Personnel Specttlcally Trained In the Use ol Narcotic An<llgeslcs:
20 mL Single Dose ampu1s pacl\llged in 5s (NDC 0641·6026·05)
20 mL Single Ooseviats pacl\llgetl in 2Ss (NOC
50 ml Single Dose Vials mdiYtdually (NDC 0641·6030-0t)
Storage
PROTECT FRDM liGHT.
Keep covered In carton until Ume ol use. Store at 20'·25' C (68'·77'F), excursions permi tted to 15' ·3D' C 159' ·86' F)
[See USP Controlled Room Temperature!.
To report SUSPEf.TED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Word Pharmaceut1c.11 Corp. at 1-877-845-0689. or the FDA
at 1-800·FDA·1088 or WVIVI.lda gov/med>Vatch.
For Produc1lnquirv call1·877 ·845-o689.
Revised Octobet 2011
Manufactured by:
-.._
WEST•WARD
P'HAAMACEUT)CALS
Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA

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