Water

Research & Development



Vol. 1 | No.1 | 56-58 | January-April | 2011


Short Note

Physicochemical Analysis of Municipal Water in Al-Khums
City, Libya

S. Khalid Hasan
1
, Fouzia Usmani
2
, Galal M. Zaiad
2
and Salem Edra
2

1
Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, GIDA, Gorakhpur, India
2
Department of Chemistry, Al-Khums, University of Misurata, Libya
*E-mail: drskhasan@yahoo.com

Abstract
A laboratory study was conducted to monitor the municipal water quality of selected sites of Al-Khums city, Libya by examining
the various physico-chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, TDS, chloride content, total hardness, dissolved oxygen etc. A
comparison with EPA standard shows that the water is nearly suitable for drinking purpose, pH, chloride, dissolved oxygen and
conductivity lye within the maximum permissible limit prescribed by EPA. But hardness and TDS ware found beyond the
permissible limit of EPA standards. The high TDS and hardness is supposed to be due to sea water intrusion.
Key words: TDS, conductivity, municipal water, seawater intrusion, dissolved oxygen .
©WaterR&D. All rights reserved

Introduction
Libya is an arid nation, mostly desert, in which freshwater is perpetually scarce. Rainfall is meager-only five percent
of the nation receives more than 100 mm of rain each year. Libya has long relied on ground water reserves to
quench its thirst; but surging demand has stressed supply, and many coastal groundwater aquifers have become salty
with an influx of seawater (Das, 2001; www.drinking-water.org). The main source of water is ground water, which
is limited and over exploited. The deficit is increasing and certain measures must be taken to resolve the problem
(Nair, 2006). The effect of water degradation on vegetation of Libya has been discussed in detail (Almdny, 2010).
The present study includes the analysis of physicochemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS, chloride
content, total hardness, and Dissolved oxygen. A laboratory study was conducted to monitor the ground water
quality of municipal water supplied in Al-Khums city of Libya. Al Khums is a city on the Mediterranean coast of
Libya.



Fig.-1: Study Area
57



WaterR&D
Vol. 1 | No.1 | 56-58 | January-April | 2011

Physicochemical Analysis of Municipal Water in Al-Khums City, Libya
S. Khalid Hasan, Fouzia Usmani, Galal M. Zaiad and Salem Edra
Experimental
Experiments were performed for the determination of physico-chemical parameters of water for the assessment of
quality of water. Water pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid (TDS), hardness and chloride content,
dissolved oxygen and sodium ion content were measured.
Sample Collection
Water was collected from the municipal supply provided in certain parts of the city Al-Khums, Libya in the month
of November (temperature 18ºC). The water supply in this region is basically from underground water. All the
studies were carried out in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Al-
Khums, Misurata University, Libya

Analysis of water
pH Measurement
The pH of the soil was determined by using pH meter with combined electrode (Model – Hanna, sensitivity ± 0.01).
Prior to the estimation of pH, the instrument was calibrated with buffer solutions of pH 4, 7 and 10.
Conductivity Measurement
Electrical conductivity was determined with the help of calibrated conductivity meter (Model – Jenway-4520).
Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) Measurement
Total dissolved solid (TDS) was determined with the help of Conductivity-TDS meter (Model – Jenway-4520) and
Water evaporation method. 100 ml of water sample was evaporated to dryness and then dissolved solid was
calculated.
Chloride Content Determination
Chloride content of the water sample was determined by Mohr’s method (Argentometric titration method).
Total Hardness Determination
Total hardness was determinate by complex-metric titration method.
Determination of Dissolved Oxygen
Dissolve oxygen was measured using standard procedure mentioned in APHA (APHA, 1995).

Table-1
S.No. Physico-chemical Parameters Result Recommended
*
limits
1 pH 7.82 6.5-8.5
2 Total dissolved Solid (TDS) by TDS meter (ppm) 2600
500
3 TDS by evaporation method (ppm) 2720
4 Total Hardness (ppm of CaCO
3
) 1050 **
4 Chloride Content (ppm) 136.5 250
5 Dissolved oxygen (mg/L) 7.8 4-6
6 Conductivity 4.19 mS/cm **
* Limits recommended for good quality domestic water. Limits suggested by U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency; Drinking Water Regulations and Health Advisories,
EPA, 822-R-94-001, May 1994.
** Limits not established.

Results and Discussion
The value of pH was found 7.8 which is in the prescribed limit of EPA standards. The value of total dissolved solid
was observed 2700 and 2720 ppm measuring by TDS-meter and evaporation method respectively. The TDS was
very high which may be due to presence of dissolved salts of Mg, Ca, Fe etc., the values of total dissolved solid is
higher than the prescribed limit of EPA standards. The presence of dissolved solids in water may affect its
taste(Bruvold, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970; Cox, 1955; Bryan,1973; Pangborn, 1972 and Pangborn, 1971). A high
concentration of dissolved solids is usually not a health hazard (Rozelle,1993; Guidelines for drinking-water quality,
Geneva 1996), but increased concentrations of dissolved solids can have technical effects. Dissolved solids can
produce hard water, which leaves deposits and films on fixtures, and on the insides of hot water pipes and boilers.
Total hardness was found 1050 ppm, In the present study water was very hard and crossed the permissible limits. It
is well known that hardness is not caused by a single substance but by a variety of dissolved polyvalent metallic
ions, predominantly calcium and magnesium cation, although other cation likes barium, iron, manganese, strontium
and zinc also contribute. The high concentration of total hardness in water samples may be due to dissolution of
58



WaterR&D
Vol. 1 | No.1 | 56-58 | January-April | 2011

Physicochemical Analysis of Municipal Water in Al-Khums City, Libya
S. Khalid Hasan, Fouzia Usmani, Galal M. Zaiad and Salem Edra
polyvalent metallic ions from sedimentary rocks, seepage and run off from soil (Nawlakhe, 1995; Shastri, 1996)
and hardness mainly originates in areas with thick top soil and limestone formation , Chloride content was 136.5
ppm. Chloride content is also in the limit of EPA standards. Dissolved oxygen, an essential parameter for life of
aquatic bodies which was 7.8 ppm and it is well agreed with the permissible limit of EPA standards.

Conclusion
The ground water which were taken from the various places of Al-Khums City of Libya were analyzed and the
analysis reports that the water quality parameters like pH, chloride, dissolved oxygen and conductivity lye within the
maximum permissible limit prescribed by EPA. But hardness and TDS ware found beyond the permissible limit of
EPA standatds. The high TDS and hardness is supposed to be due to sea water intrusion. It has also been concluded
that the water has no hazardous effect on human health.

References
1. Almdny Abdul Hakim, Belhaj Omar and Afan Al Mabrok(2010), Fourteenth International Water
Technology Conference, IWTC 14, Cairo, Egypt, 785.
2. Das Amlan and Datta Bithin(2001), Sadhana, 26(4),317.
3. APHA. Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater(1995), American Public Health
Association , 2-4, 29-179.
4. Bruvold W.H., and Ongerth H.J(1969), J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 61,170.
5. Bruvold W.H., and Pangborn R.M. (1966), J. Appl. Psychol., 50(1), 22.
6. Bruvold W.H. (1970), Water Res., 4, 331.
7. Bruvold W.H., Ongerth H.J., and Dillehay R.C.(1967), J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 59, 547.
8. Bruvold W.H. (1968), J. Appl. Psychol., 52, 245.
9. Bryan P.E., Kuzmunski L.N., Sawyer F.M. and Feng T.H.(1973), J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 65, 363.
10. Cox G.J, Nathans J.W. and Vonau N.(1955), J. Appl. Physiol., 8 ,283.
11. Guidelines for drinking-water quality(1996)., Health criteria and other supporting information. World
Health Organization, Geneva, 2nd ed. Vol. 2.
12. Lee T. Rozelle and Ronald L. Wathen, (1993), Report, Water Quality Association, Science Advisory
Committee .
13. Nair G.A., Bohjuari J.A. Al-Mariami M.A., Attia F.A. El-Toumi, F.F. (2006) , J. Environ Biol. ,27(4), 695.
14. Nawlakhe W.G., Lutade S.L., Patni P.M. and Deshpande L.S.(1995), Indian J. Env. Prot., 37(4), 278.
15. Pangborn R.M. and Bertolero L.L. (1972), J. Am. Water Works Assoc., 64, 511.
16. Pangborn R.M., Trabue I.M., and Little A.C. (1971), J. Food Sci., 36, 355.
17. Shastri S.C., Bakra P. P. and Khan J.I(1996), Industry Environment and the Law, R 13SA Publishers.
18. www.drinking-water.org/.../Sources/Fossil-Water-in-Libya