CERTIFICATE

Certified that Manikant Rajput (Roll No 1101720023)has
carried out the work presented in this report entitled “Nuclear
Battery” under my supervision !his report em"odies results of
ori#inal work$ and preparations are carried out "y the student
herself
(Mr. Manoj Kr. Kus!aa"
Assistant #ro$essor % &ea'(
)eptt. *$ Electrical En+ineerin+
K,CEM( Bijnor
)ate-
1
)EC.ARATI*N
% here"y declare that this su"mission is my own work and
that$ to the "est of my knowled#e and "elief contains no material
previously composed or written "y another person nor material which
to a su"stantial e&tent has "een accepted for the seminar of any other
de#ree or diploma of the university or other institute of hi#her
learnin#$ e&cept where due acknowled#ment has "een made in the
te&t
,i+nature-
Na/e- Manikant Rajput
Roll No.- 0010231134
)ate-
2
ACKN*5.E)6EMENT
'lthou#h this report prominently "ears my name$ it really is
the result of the colla"orative efforts of a num"er of people who have
discussed$ encoura#ed$ ca(oled and otherwise supported me$
throu#hout its preparation )irstly % would like to thank my parents
and *od for their "lessin#s
% e&press my heart+felt #ratitude to my ,eminar %nchar#e ,ri
Manoj Kr Kus!aa( 'ssociate -rofessor . /ead$ 0lectrical
0n#ineerin# of our colle#e for his invalua"le #uidance and support
throu#hout this work /is encoura#ement and constructive comments
were very helpful for me to #o ahead with this topic and report
preparation
% sincerely e&tend my thanks to some other teachers of the
colle#e for their #uidance and co+operation% owe a de"t of #ratitude
to all my friends who are directly or indirectly supported me
throu#hout my work

Na/e- Manikant Rajput
Roll No.- 0010231134
3
AB,TRACT
'n 1C2 pro(ector is a type of video pro(ector for displayin# video$
ima#es or computer data on a screen or other flat surfaces %t is a
modern e3uivalent of the slide pro(ector or overhead pro(ector !o
display ima#es$ 1C2 (li3uid+crystal display) pro(ectors typically send
li#ht from a metal+halide lamp throu#h a prism or series of dichroic
filters that separates li#ht to three polysilicon panels 4 one each for
the red$ #reen and "lue components of the video si#nal 's polari5ed
li#ht passes throu#h the panels (com"ination of polari5er$ 1C2 panel
and analy5er)$ individual pi&els can "e opened to allow li#ht to pass or
closed to "lock the li#ht !he com"ination of open and closed pi&els
can produce a wide ran#e of colors and shades in the pro(ected ima#e
6e use 3 1C2 technolo#y these days which produce far "etter visuals
with no color separations
4
TAB.E *F C*NTENT,
C&A#TER 0- INTR*)7CTI*N 7+7
C&A#TER 3- .I87I) CR9,TA. )I,#.A9 8+17
21 1%9:%2 CR;,!'1,
22 1%9:%2 CR;,!'1 -R<-0R!%0, 'N2 =0/'>%<:R
23 ?'@%N* ' 1%9:%2 CR;,!'1 2%,-1';

C&A#TER 4- .C) TEC&N*.*69 17+1A
31 1C2 -%B01,
32 1C2 !0C/N<1<*;
33 3 1C2 !0C/N<1<*;
C&A#TER :- .C) #R*;ECT*R 20+31
C1 1C2 -R<D0C!<R 1'?-,
C2 2%C/R<%C ?%RR<R,
C3 1C2 -'N01,
CC -R<D0C!<R 10N,
CE 2ichroic -rism
C7 1C2 -R<D0C!<R 6<R@%N*
C7 1C2 -R<D0C!R< R0,<1:!%<N
C8 1C2 -R<D0C!<RF, C<N!R',! R'!%<
CA 1C2 -R<D0C!<RF, ',-0C! R'!%<

C&A#TER <- T9#E, *F .C) #R*;ECT*R 32

C&A#TER =- A)>ANTA6E, *F .C) #R*;ECT*R 33
C&A#TER 2- A##.ICATI*N, 3C
5
C&A#TER ?- C*NC.7,I*N AN) F7T7RE EN&ANCEMENT 3E
REFERENCE, 37

C&A#TER 0
INTR*)7CTI*N
0.0 6ENERA.
1C2 (G1i3uid Crystal 2isplayG) pro(ectors have traditionally
displayed rich color saturation and ima#e sharpness on the market
!he term 1C2 pro(ector encompasses all models usin# 1C2
technolo#y$ whereas G31C2G is a trade "rand and does not include
some pro(ectors )or e&ample$ there are actually a few pro(ectors out
there with four 1C2 panels
!here was a time when people typically referred to most pro(ectors as
"ein# 1C2 pro(ectors$ and at one point that was almost true !oday$
however$ most people are aware that there are three different
technolo#ies used in pro(ectors /owever$ 1C2 pro(ectors remain the
"est sellin# of the different technolo#ies in use
>irtually all 1C2 pro(ectors use three separate 1C2 panels 4 each do
H#reyscaleI not color$ "ut one has a red$ one a #reen$ and one$ a "lue
filter :ltimately the li#ht passes throu#h each of the 1C2s with
filters$ and then recom"ines into a sin#le "eam of li#ht =in#oJ !he
li#ht shoots out throu#h the lens and on to the screen$ #ivin# rich
colors
<f the three technolo#ies$ 1C2$ 21- and 1Co,$ no one is in all ways
"etter than the others 0ach has distinct advanta#es 1C2 pro(ectors
produce hi#hly saturated colors %n home theater space many 1C2
pro(ectors add a special color filter to #et the "est overall color
trackin# !his creates an interestin# difference "etween the 1C2
6
pro(ectors and the other technolo#ies ' typical home theater
pro(ector usin# 1C2 technolo#y$ like 0psonKs popular$ /ome Cinema
E020:=$ can produce a #ood two thousand lumens at its "ri#htest+
unusually "ri#ht for home theater 6hen we #et into its "est modes
Cinema or !/B$ thou#h$ the filter slides into place$ and color #oes
from very #ood to #reat$ "ut down #o the lumens to a"out 770
lumens cali"rated %n home theater space$ only lower end 21-
pro(ectors that are not true Ghome theaterG 3uality can match that
"ri#htness
<@$ 1C2 pro(ectors desi#ned for "usiness and education are also
particularly known for #reat color compared to sin#le+chip 21-
pro(ectors Consider thou#h$ 1Co, pro(ectors also have #reat color$
they are usually si#nificantly more e&pensive than their kin$ the 1C2
pro(ectors )urthermore$ 1C2 pro(ectors are perhaps the #reenest of
the technolo#ies$ they #et noticea"ly more "ri#htness out of lamps of
similar watta#e$ than their 1Co, and 21- competition
%n the home pro(ector market$ 1C2 pro(ectors tend to dominate sales
in all "ut the most entry+level price point$ which consists of all 21-
pro(ectors 1C2 "ased pro(ectors sold in the :, start at (ust over
L1000 for 22 models and from a"out L1700 for 32 capa"le
pro(ectors 1C2 doesnKt really place in the hi#h end space$ with no
popular models over L3E00$ yet they #ive many more e&pensive
pro(ectors some serious comptition
%n the "usiness$ education$ and #overnment se#ments$ (e&cludin# pico
pro(ectors)$ 1C2 pro(ectors outsell the other technolo#ies$ e&cept
when it comes to the very smallest and most porta"le pro(ectors 4
under 3 pounds 4 that$ so far seems to "e primarily 21- <n the very
hi#h end$ 1C2 pro(ectors offer more "an# for the "uck than the
drastically more e&pensive 3+chip 21- pro(ectors which are #enerally
the "est pro(ectors$ "ut you mi#ht "uy a loaded 8000 lumen 1C2
pro(ector for L8000$ and an 8000 lumen 21-$ for L2E$000 or
more <ne GlimitationG of 1C2 pro(ectors on the hi#h end !hey top out
around 10$000 lumens !hose 3 chip 21-Ks which can hit 2E$000
lumens or more are reserved for really hi#h end installations ;ou
know for li#htin# up screens 100 feet wide$ or more ,orry$ the
"ri#htest 1C2 pro(ectors are merely "ri#ht enou#h for a sports arena$
or ma(or auditorium
7
C&A#TER 3
.I87I) CR9,TA. )I,#.A9
3.0 .I87I) CR9,TA.,
!he term li3uid crystal is used to descri"e a su"stance in a state
"etween li3uid and solid "ut which e&hi"its the properties of "oth
?olecules in li3uid crystals tend to arran#e themselves until they all
point in the same specific direction !his arran#ement of molecules
ena"les the medium to flow as a li3uid 2ependin# on the temperature
and particular nature of a su"stance$ li3uid crystals can e&ist in one of
several distinct phases
1i3uid crystals are composed of moderate si5e or#anic molecules which
tend to "e elon#ated$ like a ci#ar 't hi#h temperatures$ the molecules
will "e oriented ar"itrarily$ as shown in the fi#ure "elow$ formin# an
isotropic li3uid =ecause of their elon#ated shape$ under appropriate
conditions$ the molecules e&hi"it orientational order such that all the
a&es line up and form a so+called nematic li3uid crystal !he molecules
are still a"le to move around in the fluid$ "ut their orientation remains
the same Not only orientational order can appear$ "ut also a positional
order is possi"le 1i3uid crystals e&hi"itin# some positional order are
called smectic li3uid crystals %n smectics$ the molecular centers of
mass are arran#ed in layers and the movement is mainly limited inside
the layers
8

Ne/atic ,/ectic
!he nematic li3uid crystal phase is "y far the most important phase
for applications %n the nematic phase all molecules are ali#ned
appro&imately parallel to each other %n each point a unit vector can
"e defined$ parallel to the avera#e direction of the lon# a&is of the
molecules in the immediate nei#h"orhood !his vector$ known as the
director$ is not constant throu#hout the whole medium$ "ut is a
function of space
!he fi#ure "elow shows the molecular structure of a typical rod+like
li3uid crystal molecule %t consists of two or more rin# systems
connected "y a central linka#e #roup
Typical sape o$ a li@ui' crystal /olecule
3.3 .I87I) CR9,TA. #R*#ERTIE, AN) BE&A>I*7R,
Nematic li3uid crystal media have unia&ial symmetry$ which means
that in a homo#eneous li3uid crystal medium a rotation around the
director does not make a difference !he "ulk orderin# has a profound
influence on the way li#ht and electric fields "ehave in the material
:nia&ial anisotropy results in different electrical and optical
9
parameters if considered alon# the director or in a plane perpendicular
to it !his #ives rise to interestin# technolo#ical possi"ilities !wo
unusual phenomena are the followin#M the reorientation of the
molecules in an electric field and optical "irefrin#ence of the
molecules
Reorientation o$ te /olecules in electric $iel's
's a result of the unia&ial anisotropy$ an electric field e&periences a
different dielectric constant when oscillatin# in a direction parallel or
perpendicular to the director !he difference is called the dielectric
anisotropy %f the dielectric constant alon# the director is lar#er than
in the direction perpendicular to it$ one speaks of positive anisotropy
2ue to the anisotropy$ the dielectric displacement and the induced
dipole moment are not parallel to the electric field$ e&cept when the
director is parallel or perpendicular to the electric field 's a result$ a
tor3ue is e&erted on the director )or materials with positive
anisotropy$ the director prefers to ali#n parallel to the electric field
1i3uid crystals with a ne#ative anisotropy tend to orient themselves
perpendicularly to the electric field
!he effect of an electric field on a li3uid crystal medium with positive
anisotropy is illustrated in the pictures "elow <ri#inally the
orientation is almost hori5ontal 6hen an electric field with direction
alon# the "lue arrow is applied$ a tor3ue (represented in #reen) risin#
from the dielectric anisotropy$ acts on the molecule !he tor3ue tends
to ali#n the molecule parallel to the field 6hen the field stren#th is
increased$ the molecule will reorient parallel to the field
*ri+inal orientation ,ituation in electric $iel'
10
Result electric $iel' Result stron+ electric $iel'
!he technolo#ical importance of the reorientation is o"viousM it #ives a
switcha"le medium "y simply varyin# the applied electric field in the
li3uid crystal medium %n most applications a li3uid crystal is used in a
thin layer "etween two #lass surfaces !o #enerate the electric field$
thin electrodes layers are deposited on the "ottom andNor top #lass
surface )or optical devices transparent electrodes are used$ made
from %ndium !in <&ide (%!<) %f the #enerated field is stron# enou#h$
the molecules will reorient to follow its direction
*ptical Aire$rin+ence
'pplications of li3uid crystals almost always involve optics <ptical
waves also involve electric fields$ "ut the associated fre3uencies are
much hi#her than those of the fields #enerated "y the applied
volta#es !herefore the dielectric constants$ which arise from the
electronic response of the molecules to the e&ternally applied fields$
are different !o make the distinction$ the refractive inde& is usually
#iven for optical waves instead of the dielectric constant
<ptical waves can also reorient the li3uid crystal director in an
analo#ue manner as the electrically applied fields %n a display this can
"e ne#lected$ since "oth the optical dielectric anisotropy and the
intensity of the optical fields are typically much lower than those used
in the static case !herefore the optical transmission is mostly
independent of the director calculations
!o understand the influence of "irefrin#ence on the propa#ation of
li#ht throu#h a li3uid crystal$ the li#ht must "e represented "y an
electric field !his electric field is descri"ed "y a wave vector in each
point 't a certain time and location$ the direction and the len#th of
the vector correspond with the direction and ma#nitude of the electric
11
field )or a plane wave propa#atin# in a specific direction$ the electric
field vector in an isotropic medium descri"es an ellipse in the plane
perpendicular to the propa#ation direction !his ellipse represents the
polari5ation of the li#ht ,ome special cases are the linear polari5ation
and the circular polari5ation where this ellipse is distorted to a strai#ht
line or a perfect circle *enerally each ellipsoidal polari5ation can "e
decomposed as a superposition of linear polari5ations alon# two
perpendicular a&es %n an isotropic medium$ "oth linear polari5ations
move with the same speed !he speed of the wave is determined "y
the refractive inde& of the medium
.i+t propa+ation in an isotropic /e'iu/
)or the unia&ial li3uid crystal medium$ an electric field feels a different
refractive inde& when it oscillates in the plane perpendicular to the
director or alon# the director !his unia&ial anisotropy of the refractive
inde& is called "irefrin#ence =irefrin#ence allows to manipulate the
polari5ation of the li#ht propa#atin# throu#h the medium
!he elliptical polari5ation of li#ht enterin# a li3uid crystal medium
must "e decomposed into two linear polari5ations called the ordinary
and the e&tra+ordinary mode 'lon# these two directions$ the two
linearly polari5ed modes feel a different refractive inde& !herefore$
they propa#ate throu#h the li3uid crystal with a different speed as
illustrated in the picture "elow
.i+t propa+ation in a Aire$rin+ent /e'iu/
12
%n the isotropic medium$ the two parts propa#ated with the same
speed Com"inin# them "ack to#ether will result in the same
polari5ation ellipse as the ori#inal %n "irefrin#ent media$ the different
speed of the ordinary and e&tra+ordinary waves results in a phase
difference "etween the two modes (O retardation) 't the end of the
medium this phase difference "etween the two oscillations will result
in a different polari5ation ellipse
,!itcaAle Aire$rin+ence
!o o"serve the influence of "irefrin#ence$ polari5ed li#ht must "e
used ?ost li#ht sources such as a li#ht "ul" or a fluorescent lamp
produce unpolari5ed li#ht <ptical applications often re3uired polari5ed
li#ht with a known oscillation direction of the li#ht !o o"tain polari5ed
li#ht$ ordinary li#ht sources can "e used in com"ination with
polari5ers
' polari5er is a special type of "irefrin#ent layer !he ordinary wave
propa#ates unmodified throu#h the medium$ whereas the e&tra+
ordinary wave is a"sor"ed in the medium 'n ar"itrarily polari5ed
wave enterin# such a medium will result in a linearly polari5ed wave at
the "ack of the medium %n the picture a"ove the effect of a polari5er
is illustrated for two different orientations of the a"sor"in# direction
#olariBer !it Certical trans/ission aDis
#olariBer !it oriBontal trans/ission aDis
13
%f two polari5ers with ortho#onal a"sorption direction are used$ all
li#ht emitted "y the li#ht source is a"sor"ed !his is typically referred
to as a set of crossed polari5ers
Crosse' polariBers
=irefrin#ence is important for modifyin# and controllin# the
polari5ation of li#ht propa#atin# throu#h the medium ' li3uid crystal
layer inserted "etween crossed polari5ers can chan#e the polari5ation
of the li#ht propa#atin# throu#h$ which results in li#ht transmission
after the crossed polari5ers
A li@ui' crystal layer Aet!een crosse' polariBers
=ecause the director can "e controlled usin# an electric field$ a li3uid
crystal is a controlla"le "irefrin#ent medium !herefore$ the
polari5ation state of the li#ht after the li3uid crystal layer can "e
chan#ed and hence the intensity of the transmission throu#h the
crossed polari5ers is adapted
14
3.4 CREATIN6 A .C)
!o create an 1C2$ you take two pieces of polari5ed #lass ' special
polymer that creates microscopic #rooves in the surface is ru""ed on
the side of the #lass that does not have the polari5in# film on it !he
#rooves must "e in the same direction as the polari5in# film ;ou then
add a coatin# of nematic li3uid crystals to one of the filters !he
#rooves will cause the first layer of molecules to ali#n with the filterKs
orientation !hen add the second piece of #lass with the polari5in# film
at a ri#ht an#le to the first piece 0ach successive layer of !N
molecules will #radually twist until the uppermost layer is at a A0+
de#ree an#le to the "ottom$ matchin# the polari5ed #lass filters
's li#ht strikes the first filter$ it is polari5ed !he molecules in each
layer then #uide the li#ht they receive to the ne&t layer 's the li#ht
passes throu#h the li3uid crystal layers$ the molecules also chan#e the
li#htKs plane of vi"ration to match their own an#le 6hen the li#ht
reaches the far side of the li3uid crystal su"stance$ it vi"rates at the
same an#le as the final layer of molecules %f the final layer is
matched up with the second polari5ed #lass filter$ then the li#ht will
pass throu#h
%f we apply an electric char#e to li3uid crystal molecules$ they untwist
6hen they strai#hten out$ they chan#e the an#le of the li#ht passin#
15
throu#h them so that it no lon#er matches the an#le of the top
polari5in# filter Conse3uently$ no li#ht can pass throu#h that area of
the 1C2$ which makes that area darker than the surroundin# areas
=uildin# a simple 1C2 is easier than you think ;our start with the
sandwich of #lass and li3uid crystals descri"ed a"ove and add two
transparent electrodes to it )or e&ample$ ima#ine that you want to
create the simplest possi"le 1C2 with (ust a sin#le rectan#ular
electrode on it !he layers would look like thisM
!he 1C2 needed to do this (o" is very "asic %t has a mirror (A) in
"ack$ which makes it reflective !hen$ we add a piece of #lass (B) with
a polari5in# film on the "ottom side$ and a common electrode plane
(C) made of indium+tin o&ide on top ' common electrode plane
covers the entire area of the 1C2 '"ove that is the layer of li3uid
crystal su"stance ()) Ne&t comes another piece of #lass (E) with an
electrode in the shape of the rectan#le on the "ottom and$ on top$
another polari5in# film (F)$ at a ri#ht an#le to the first one
!he electrode is hooked up to a power source like a "attery 6hen
there is no current$ li#ht enterin# throu#h the front of the 1C2 will
simply hit the mirror and "ounce ri#ht "ack out =ut when the "attery
supplies current to the electrodes$ the li3uid crystals "etween the
common+plane electrode and the electrode shaped like a rectan#le
untwist and "lock the li#ht in that re#ion from passin# throu#h !hat
makes the 1C2 show the rectan#le as a "lack area
16
C&A#TER 4
.C) TEC&N*.*69
4.0 .C) #IEE.
?ost "asically 1C2s produce the ima#e you see "y "lockin# or
emittin# the li#ht from a "ackli#ht usin# li3uid crystals sandwiched in
"etween two #lass plates !his is the same principle used in the li3uid
crystal displays found in everyday items such as di#ital watches$ "ut
improved and updated in a much more advanced implementation

An EDplo'e' >ie! o$ a ,in+le .C) #iDel
'n 1C2 display is made up of a thin layer of li3uid crystals arran#ed in
a matri& (or #rid) of a million or more pi&els (picture elements)$ which
are themselves made up of three su"+pi&els ali#ned to a colour filter
for each of the primary coloursP red$ #reen and "lue !his layer is
sandwiched "etween the two #lass plates$ which are covered in a
matri& of electrodes and transistors (electronic switches)$ each coated
with a polarisin# filter !he two polarisin# layers only allow li#ht
vi"ratin# in one direction to pass throu#h them$ one allows
hori5ontally vi"ratin# li#ht throu#h and the other passes vertically
vi"ratin# li#ht
!he li#ht source in an 1C2 is its "ackli#ht so this unpolari5ed li#ht
"ecomes vertically polari5ed as it passes throu#h the first polari5in#
17
filter at the "ack of the display !he other polari5in# layer on the front
sheet of #lass is hori5ontally polari5ed$ so ordinarily the now vertically
polari5ed li#ht comin# from "ackli#ht canKt pass throu#h it !he role of
the li3uid crystal layer in the middle of the display is to rotate the
vertically polari5ed li#ht travellin# throu#h it "y ninety de#rees so it
can pass throu#h the front$ hori5ontally polari5ed filter =y varyin# the
volta#e applied to the li3uid crystal su"+pi&els the amount they twist
the li#ht chan#es$ allowin# more li#ht of each colour thou#h as a
#reater volta#e is applied
%ndividual pi&el colours are produced "y the com"ination of the
primary colours produced "y each su" pi&el$ with the pi&elKs overall
"ri#htness is produced "y the su"+pi&els relative intensities ?any
thousands of these pi&el units operatin# to#ether in the display
com"ine to produce the ima#e you see
4.3 .C) TEC&N*.*69
1C2$ which stands for 1i3uid Crystal 2isplay$ is currently the most
popular type of pro(ector technolo#y availa"le on the market to
consumers$ havin# #ained a #reater market share than the competin#
2i#ital 1i#ht -rocessin# (21-) technolo#y developed "y !e&as
%nstruments !his was ori#inally "ecause 1C2 pro(ectors were cheaper
to manufacture and so were more afforda"le for consumers$ althou#h
at the e&pense of a reduction in the 3uality of the pro(ected ima#e
/owever$ recent technolo#ical advancements in pro(ectors have seen
"oth increases in the 3uality of 1C2 pro(ector ima#es and decreases in
the price of 21- pro(ector technolo#y =oth technolo#ies are now a"le
to offer sharp$ vi"rant ima#es at lower costs than in the past$ "ut 1C2
pro(ectors are still #enerally wider spread than 21- pro(ectors
!o produce an ima#e$ 1C2 pro(ectors use a num"er of li3uid crystal
panels throu#h which li#ht is passed$ unlike in 21- pro(ectors where a
2i#ital ?icromirror 2evice is used
18

4.4 T&REE .C) TEC&N*.*69
!he H3I in 31C2 refers to the num"er of 1C2 panels$ or chips$ used
inside a 31C2 pro(ector 6hen usin# three 1C2 panels each primary
colour has a dedicated chip$ where as one+chip pro(ectors use a
rotatin# colour wheel to se3uentially display colours !he main
advanta#e that 31C2 offers is that there is no Hrain"ow effectI which
is a pro"lem some users can e&perience where they perceive a
separation of the colours which produces a rain"ow like shadow on
fast movin# ima#es$ causin# an irritatin# distraction 31C2 pro(ectors
are often the choice of pro(ectors for movie theatres since they can
display up to 787 "illion colours
19
C&A#TER :
.C) #R*;ECT*R
%n 1C2 -ro(ector$ heat from the halo#en "ul" converts the crystal into
a li3uid 'n 1C2 pro(ector consists of various components$ the details
of which are listed "elow
:.0 .C) #R*;ECT*R .AM#,
' listed lamp life of a"out 2000 hours is the "enchmark ,ome
pro(ectors also provide mode choices$ for e&ample$ the Keco+modeK$
which not only e&tends the life of the lampP it also reduces the
operatin# cost of the pro(ector !he two most commonly used "ul"s
are the metal halide and the :/- (ultra hi#h pressure) type "ecause
they pro(ect a very white li#ht !he ran#e of listed life of these "ul"s is
7E0 to 2000 hours 6hile the halo#en "ul"s have a shorter life span
and pro(ect li#ht with a yellow tin#e$ &enon lamps are used in the
hi#h+end pro(ectors

20
Factors to Consi'er 5ile Coosin+ a .a/p -
A. Ceck te .a/p $or Bri+tness
%f the lamp is not "ri#ht enou#h then we will have trou"le seein# the
picture when it is dark outside the room !he "ri#htness of the lamp
determines the 3uality of the pro(ected ima#e
B. 5ei+t o$ te .a/p
%f we have a mounted pro(ector then the wei#ht of the lamp will "e a
point of concern !he heavier the lamp is$ more the opportunity of it
fallin# from a mount on the wall or ceilin#
C. #icture Contrast
!he ima#e 3uality can "e #reatly enhanced "y ad(ustin# the pro(ector
lampKs "ri#htness settin#s ,o it is important that the picture contrast
of the lamp is checked "efore optin# for it
). ConnectiCity
%t is advisa"le that the connectivity of the lamp to the pro(ector is
considered and checked %f there is a pro"lem in connectin# the lamp
it can increase the chance of the lamp "reakin# while tryin# to
connect
E. .a/p .i$e
Check the lamp for its life span "efore "uyin# 'n avera#e lifespan of
a pro(ector lamp is "etween 2000 to C000 hours %ts lifespan also
depends on how the pro(ector lamp is used !hey are 3uite e&pensive
and checkin# the life span will help us choose wisely
:.3 )IC&R*IC MIRR*R,
2ichroic mirrors use the principle of thin+film interference$ and
produce colors in the same way as oil films on water 6hen li#ht
strikes an oil film at an an#le$ some of the li#ht is reflected from the
top surface of the oil$ and some is reflected from the "ottom surface
21
where it is in contact with the water =ecause the li#ht reflectin# from
the "ottom travels a sli#htly lon#er path$ some li#ht wavelen#ths are
reinforced "y this delay$ while others tend to "e canceled$ producin#
the colors seen
%n a dichroic mirror or filter$ instead of usin# an oil film to produce the
interference$ alternatin# layers of optical coatin#s with different
refractive inde&es are "uilt up upon a #lass su"strate !he interfaces
"etween the layers of different refractive inde& produce phased
reflections$ selectively reinforcin# certain wavelen#ths of li#ht and
interferin# with other wavelen#ths !he layers are usually added "y
vacuum deposition =y controllin# the thickness and num"er of the
layers$ the fre3uency (wavelen#th) of the pass"and of the filter can "e
tuned and made as wide or narrow as desired =ecause unwanted
wavelen#ths are reflected rather than a"sor"ed$ dichroic filters do not
a"sor" this unwanted ener#y durin# operation and so do not "ecome
nearly as hot as the e3uivalent conventional filter (which attempts to
a"sor" all ener#y e&cept for that in the pass"and)
)icroic /irrors o$ 'i$$erent coatin+s $or 'i$$erent !aCelen+ts
!he li#ht from the lamp passes throu#h a series of special dichroic
mirrors$ which are special mirrors that only pass a certain fre3uency or
color of li#ht while allowin# the rest of the li#ht to pass throu#h !his
separates the white li#ht from the lamp into its red$ #reen and "lue
components !he mirrors then direct the li#ht toward the pro(ectorKs
1C2 panels
22
.# /irrorsQ!hese are lon# pass filter or dichroic mirror which
transmits wavelen#ths lon#er than the cut+on and "locks or reflects
shorter wavelen#ths respectively
,# /irrorsQ!hese are short pass filter or dichroic mirror which
transmits wavelen#ths shorter than the cut+on and "locks or
reflects lon#er wavelen#ths respectively
:.4 .C) #ANE.,
?ost 1C2 panels used in pro(ectors today are made of /i#h
!emperature -oly+,ilicon (&T#," which has an active matri& and is
transmissive /!-, panels are superior in that they are smaller$ have
hi#her resolution and hi#her contrast$ and can em"ed drivers
!he main function of /!-, is to act as a li#ht valve for pro(ectors
/!-, has a thin+film transistor (!)!) #enerated "y poly+silicon in each
pi&el !hese pi&el transistors act as a conduction switch "y chan#in#
the scan lineKs volta#e /!-, 1C2 panels are produced in the same
way as semiconductors !hey are small and hi#hly relia"le "ecause
they can easily "e miniaturi5ed and drivers can "e #enerated on
su"strates "y processin# at a hi#h temperature
&T#, #anels have transparent areas and li#htproof areas1C2
(/!-,) technolo#y concentrates li#ht into the openin# so as much
li#ht as possi"le penetrates the panel on the incident+side su"strate
!his technolo#y has improved the "ri#htness of panels "etween 1E
and 17 times
EpsonFs 57E6A &T#, .C)GTFT #anel
7lti/icron #anel is 0psonKs latest panel which offers the resolution
and fidelity needed to focus the ima#e while providin# the a"ility to
recreate smooth #radations and a natural softness %n addition$ the
23
use of a color filter prevents the color "reak+up that tends to occur
with other color systems when shootin# fast+movin# su"(ects and
while pannin#
?easurin# (ust 0C8 of an inch dia#onally$ the new panel offers B*'
(102C & 778) resolution in red$ #reen and "lue for a total of 237
me#api&els %t is the latest addition to 0psonKs renowned :1!%?%CR<N
series$ which already includes a 0C7+inch ,>*' panel and a 0E2+inch
9/2 panel

EpsonHs 7.TIMICR*N Color .C) panel
:.: #R*;ECT*R .EN,
Conve& lenses+)resnel lenses are mostly used in pro(ectors !he lenses
may "e short throw or lon# throw
Calculatin+ tro! 'istance- ' pro(ectorFs throw distance is the
distance "etween the pro(ector and the ima#e on the screen (ie$ the
distance that the ima#e is HthrownI) !hrow distance is calculated "y
measurin# the distance from the pro(ectorFs lens to the pro(ection
screen that the ima#e is "ein# cast onto !hrow distance is the "asis
for determinin# the pro(ection screen si5e possi"le for use + a common
standard for pro(ector throw distances is one foot (30E cm) of
pro(ection screen width to every two feet (71 cm) "etween the
pro(ectorFs lens and the screen ' smaller throw distance as opposed
to a lar#er throw distance means a smaller possi"le distance "etween
the pro(ection screen and pro(ector$ if the si5e of the pro(ected ima#e
is kept constant

24

projector tro! ratio
!he throw ratio of a pro(ector is the result of dividin# the distance
"etween the pro(ectorFs lens and the pro(ection screen "y the width of
the ima#e "ein# pro(ected$ or more simplyM
,creen width & !hrow ratio O !hrow distance
!he throw ratio fi#ure provides pro(ector owners with all they need to
know when decidin# where to place their pro(ector or pro(ection
screen )or e&ample$ if we know that we want to use a pro(ection
screen that is ten feet wide and we know that our pro(ectorFs throw
ratio is 18M1 (which means 18 ft of throw distance per foot of screen
width) then we should place our pro(ector 18 feet away from the
pro(ection screen since 10 multiplied "y 18 e3uals 18
-ro(ectors with a "uilt in short throw lens are hi#hly recommended for
classroom applications since these short throw lenses allow for a lar#e
si5e ima#e to "e pro(ected on to the pro(ection screen from (ust a
short distance away !his has the added "onus of preventin# li#ht from
shinin# in the eyes %f a standard lens is used then the pro(ected
ima#e may appear too small to "e fully visi"le$ or "lurry and out of
focus at lar#er ima#e si5es
25
Te a'Canta+es o$ sort tro! 'istance lenses-
' shorter throw distance will result in a "i##er picture "ein# pro(ected$
if the distance "etween the pro(ector and the pro(ection screen is kept
constant )or further effect a short throw lens can "e used to pro(ect
an even lar#er ima#e ,ome pro(ectors$ such as the /itachi B27E$
come pre+installed with a short throw lens and can thus pro(ect a C8+
inch dia#onally wide ima#e from only C feet way -ro(ectors with short
throw distances are suited to those people that re3uire porta"ility$
such as road warriors$ or for those people that need to use their
pro(ector and screen in smaller environments such as modest home
theatre rooms$ hotel rooms or small meetin# rooms

*pto/a ,ort tro! lens
Te a'Canta+es o$ lon+ tro! 'istance lenses-
' lon#er throw distance allows for smaller$ sharper ima#es to "e
pro(ected from further distances away ' lon#er throw lens is
prefera"le if we intend to use our pro(ector in lar#e$ e&pansive
surroundin#s such as in lar#e conference rooms or houses of worship
where the pro(ector is re3uired to "e hidden at the "ack of the
"uildin# %n these situations a lon# throw lens will most likely "e
re3uired to make sure that the 3uality of the pro(ected ima#e is
maintained while movin# the pro(ector further away from the screen
26

*pto/a .on+ tro! lens
:.< )IC&R*IC #RI,M
' dichroic prism divides li#ht into red$ #reen$ and "lue$ to form three
pictures that utili5e these correspondin# colours from the 1C2 (/!-,)
panels Colour and ima#e are recomposed "y reflectin# red and "lue
li#ht and transmittin# #reen li#ht !he prism is formed "y com"inin#
four trian#ular poles to create one rectan#ular solid /i#h precision is
re3uired in the processin# and adhesion of poles to avoid dark lines
and dou"le ima#es caused "y misali#ned dichroic surfaces

)icroic pris/
27
:.= .C) #R*;ECT*R 5*RKIN6
.C) projectors employ a three+panel 1C2 (1i3uid Crystal 2isplay)
system$ referred to as 31C2 1C2 pro(ectors crisply reproduce "ri#ht$
naturally colored ima#es that are easy on the eyes 1C2 pro(ectors are
also capa"le of detailed shadow reproduction that is ideal for
demandin# "usiness and home theater applications.
!he white li#ht from the pro(ector lamp is split into red$ #reen$ and
"lue components usin# two dichroic mirrors$ special mirrors that only
transmit li#ht of a specified wavelen#th 0ach red$ #reen and "lue
"eam then passes throu#h a dedicated 1C2 panel made up of
thousands of miniscule pi&els 'n electrical current turns the panelKs
pi&els on or off to create the #rayscale e3uivalent of that color
channel !he three colors are then recom"ined in a prism and
pro(ected throu#h the pro(ector lens and onto the screen
=y usin# a com"ination of three 1C2s to produce a final ima#e$ 1C2
pro(ectors are capa"le of "illions of colors and smooth #rayscale
#radations !he resolution of the ima#e is determined "y the num"er
of pi&els in the 1C2 panels used Currently 1C2 panels offer
resolutions as hi#h as true /2 (1A20 & 1080) for home theater
applications New panels promise resolutions as hi#h as C@ (38C0 &
2170)
1C2s are not (ust found in pro(ectors !hey are found in many of the
electronics you use everyday$ from a cell phone to an ?-3 player to
your di#ital alarm clock 1C2s are very common "ecause they offer
28
distinct advanta#esM they are thinner$ li#hter$ and draw less power
than many competin# display technolo#ies.
' relia"le$ sophisticated technolo#y with universal appeal$ 31C2 is the
worldKs most popular pro(ection technolo#y$ deliverin# hi#h 3uality
ima#es for the most demandin# "usiness and consumer audiences
:.2 .C) #R*;ECT*R RE,*.7TI*N
!he resolution of an 1C2 pro(ector can "e defined in four different
cate#oriesM
R :B*' (1700 & 1200)M provide very hi#h+resolution and are very
e&pensive !hey can support a very "road ran#e of computer
e3uipment
R ,B*' (1280 & 102C)M provide hi#h+resolution ima#es !hese
pro(ectors are tar#eted for people with hi#h+end personal computers
R B*' (102C & 778)M provide relatively low+resolution ima#es when
compared to :B*' and ,B*' /owever$ as they are less e&pensive$
they are more popular
R ,>*' (800 & 700)M is the most popular resolution today "ecause
they are availa"le at a reasona"le cost and display #reat ima#es 1C2
pro(ectors with ,>*' are ideal for personal computer

Resolution I &) Ci'eo si+nals
29
%n home theatre set ups the primary consideration for the pro(ector is
the 3uality of the pro(ected ima#e <ne factor that drastically
influences ima#e 3uality is the native resolution of the pro(ector '
hi#her resolution means that a #reater num"er of pi&els are displayed
on screen$ thus formin# a sharper lookin# ima#e -ro(ectors can
output ima#es in the 17MA widescreen aspect ratio resolutions of C80p$
720p$ 1080i and 1080p

:.? .C) #R*;ECT*RF, C*NTRA,T RATI*
's ima#e 3uality is of central importance to home theatre viewers$
contrast ratio is o"viously of very hi#h importance also !he contrast
ratio fi#ure will determine how deep the colors in the picture will
appear ' typical contrast ratio is 800M1$ which technically means that
the darkest "lack on screen is 800 times "ri#hter than "ri#htest white
,imply put$ to ensure the hi#hest 3uality ima#e$ a pro(ector with the
hi#hest possi"le contrast ratio is desira"le -ro(ectors suited for use in
home theatres should have a contrast ratio of at least 2E00M1

Contrast Ratio Representation
30
:.J .C) #R*;ECT*RF, A,#ECT RATI*
' pro(ectorFs aspect ratio affects the dimensions of the ima#e that is
pro(ected on to the screen ' widescreen 17MA aspect ratio is
prefera"le for pro(ectin# films since they also use a 17MA aspect ratio
?any laptops also use this specification

Aspect Ratio of a projection
31
C&A#TER <
T9#E, *F .C) #R*;ECT*R
!he type of pro(ector refers to the type of display technolo#y used on
the pro(ector 1C2Ks use panels of #lass 21-Ks use thousands of tiny
mirrors
,tan'ar' .C) + !hese 1C2 (li3uid crystal display) pro(ectors have
one panel of 1C2 #lass that controls the three primary colors !hese
pro(ectors are "ecomin# less common in the pro(ector marketplace$ as
polysilicon 1C2 and 21- pro(ectors #ain popularity
#olysilicon .C) + !hese pro(ectors control colors throu#h three
panels and are considered to "e of hi#her 3uality than standard 1C2
!he pro(ection throu#h three panels allows polysilicon 1C2 pro(ectors
to have hi#her color saturation than a standard 1C2 pro(ector
&) projectors cate#ory includes most home theater pro(ectors %t
includes "oth those sportin# )ull /2 which is 1080p resolution$ and
720p pro(ectors$ which$ technically are (ust /2
32
C&A#TER =
A)>ANTA6E, *F .C) #R*;ECT*R
1C2 is #enerally more Kli#ht efficientK than 21- (ie the same watta#e
lamp in "oth an 1C2 and 21- would produce a "ri#hter ima#e throu#h
the 1C2 !he advanta#es an 1C2 pro(ector has$ can "e discussed on
certain parameters
ENER69 EFFICIENC9
0ner#y efficiency has recently "ecome an important factor for
consumers and "usinesses alike when "uyin# electronic devices 1C2
pro(ectors are typically more efficient with the li#ht that the pro(ectorFs
lamp produces ie an 1C2 pro(ector will produce a "ri#hter ima#e than
a 21- pro(ector when usin# a lamp with the same watta#e ratin#
BRI6&TNE,, .E>E.
%ma#es appear to have a #reater saturation when pro(ected usin# 1C2
technolo#y$ meanin# that althou#h a correspondin# 21- pro(ector
mi#ht have a hi#her contrast ratio$ the same pro(ection on an 1C2
pro(ector may appear "ri#hter
No RAINB*5 EFFECT
No rain"ow effect in 1C2 pro(ectors %n terms of disruptions to ima#e
3uality$ 1C2 pro(ectors are not affected "y screen "urn+in$ picture
processin# noise$ or Hthe rain"ow effectI which is often seen in sin#le
chip 21- pro(ectors usin# a color wheel
ACC7RATE C*.*R,
6ith 31C2 pro(ectors$ we #et "eautiful color in clear$ defined ima#es
!hese pro(ectors do not have a color wheel
33
C&A#TER 2
A##.ICATI*N,
Common situations where pro(ectors are used or the environments in
which 1C2 pro(ectors are needed includeM
• Classrooms for education+%nstructors supplement their lecture
material with -ower-oint presentations shown with an 1C2
pro(ector and computer
• Corporate "oardrooms and trainin# facilities+!he presentation on
various developments and #rowth in a company can "e
presented in an easy way
• -ersonal home theatre set ups+ we can see movies even in our
homes and feel as if we are watchin# in a multiple&
• /ouses of worship
• =ars$ clu"s and pu"s
0ach type of application will have a series of key considerations which
should "e focussed on when decidin# on which pro(ector to purchase
for use in that application
34
C&A#TER ?
C*NC.7,I*N AN) F7T7RE EN&ANCEMENT
1C2 -ro(ectors are the latest developments which di#ital technolo#y is
offerin# 0ven as technolo#y enhancements have increased$ pro(ector
prices have decreased$ and now pro(ectors are used in a variety of
situations for numerous different purposes 'dvances in 1C2
technolo#y have mainly "een aimed at reducin# the Hscreen doorI
pro"lem !hese includeM
/i#her resolutions
Reductions in the #ap "etween pi&els
!he use of ?icro+ 1ens 'rray (?1') to "oost the efficiency of li#ht
transmission throu#h B*'+resolution 1C2 panels
0d#e+*uided Resolution 0nhancement in -ro(ectors via <ptical -i&el
,harin# is also a new techni3ue which can increase the resolution of
the pro(ector without increase in the price
!herefore$ with the recent 1C2 technolo#y developments$ we may say
that in near future we may see 1C2 pro(ectors everywhere in our daily
life for education$ entertainment$ office$ even at home
35
REFERENCE,
0 0d#e+*uided Resolution 0nhancement in -ro(ectors via <ptical -i&el
,harin#$ http://www.ics.uci.edu/~gopi/SamplePubs/pixelshare.pdf
2.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichroic_prism
4http://www.quadrantsolutions.com/Projectors/Projection
!ccessories/Projector"enses
:http://lcp.elis.ugent.be/tutorials/lc/lc#
<http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/$%&'(/fma/pdf/"&D_)ackgroun
der.pdf
6. 1i3uid Crystal 2isplaysM )undamental -hysics and !echnolo#y "y
Ro"ert / Chen %,=NM A78+0+C70+A3087+8
7. http://www.bambooa*.com/throwdistanceandthrowratios
explained.html
?. http://lcp.elis.ugent.be/tutorials/lc/lc,
J.http://professional.son-.ca/projectors/guides/understand_#lcd_tech
.pdf
01. httpMNNseminarpro(ectscomNsN3lcd+technolo#y+pdf
36