TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

:
Addition (completare, дополнение) – the translator adds up a word or a word-combination in order to specif the
meanin!"
#"!" $he policeman waved me on" – %oli&istul rutier mi-a f'cut semn s' mer! mai departe" –
(оли)е*+,и* +дел-л .не /н-, п0одол1-23 д4и1ение.
Antonymic translation (traducere antonimic', -н2они.и5н6* пе0е4од) – in7ol7es translatin! a phrase or clause that
does not contain a ne!ation or 7ice 7ersa"
#"!" 8 do not thin9 ou are ri!ht" – :red c' !re;i&i" <=.->, 46 о?и@-е2е+3"
Aou cannot be serious" – Blumi&i, nu-i a;a" C6 ?=2и2е"
Attachments (eDtinderea, 0-+?и0ение) – happen when ideas eDpressed in #n!lish b a sin!le word need word
combinations or compleD structures with a similar meanin! in Eomanian"
Fusiness terminolo!G industries – ramuri de produc&ie, о20-+ли п0ои/4од+24-H
costs – cheltuieli de produc&ie, п0ои/4од+24енн6е 0-+Iод6H
asset – 7aloarea bunurilor care se Jmpart creditorilor Jn caK de faliment, -,2и46L Mонд6"
Chane o! the rammatical !orm (schimbareaLtransformarea formei !ramaticale ale propoKi&ieiLи/.енение
N0-..-2и5е+,о* +20=,2=06)"
#n!lish – %assi7e OoiceP Eomanian – Qcti7e Ooice"
#"!" %rime Rinister $on Flair was hit b a tomato"
:ine7a a aruncat o ro;ie Jn %rim Rinistru $on Flair"
C п0е.3е0-.ини+20- Sони TлU0- @0о+или по.идо0о*"
Com"ensation (compensare, ,о.пен+-)иV) – allows the translator to con7e the idea of the ori!inal teDt precisel, in
e7er detail, especiall when the Eomanian lan!ua!e standards do not permit the translator to place a word in the same
position or use it in the same function as in the ori!inal teDt"
#"!" Wo a7enues in this matter were left uneDplored" – $otul a fost f'cut pentru a solu&iona problema Jn cauK'" –
T6ли 0-++.о20ен6 4+е 4о/.о1н6е п=2и 0е?ениV"
Com"ression (reducere, +о,0-Xение) – an idea formulated b a compleD structure or idiom is paraphrased b a simpler
form or a sin!le word with a similar meanin!"
#"!" $he new mechanism pro7ides appropriate incenti7es for efficient resource use" – Woul mecanism stimuleaK'
folosirea eficient' a resurselor" – Yо46* .еI-ни/. о@е+пе5и4-е2 UMMе,2и4ное и+пол3/о4-ние 0е+=0+о4"
Commentary (comentariu, ,о..ен2-0и*) - a commentar eDplains the meanin! of a teDt" $ranslators often use
commentaries to help the tar!et reader understand the meanin! of 7arious parts of the ori!inal"

#"!" Fut the viva is Zud!ement da" (E" Bordon [\octor in the ]ouse^) "
– #Damenul oral de specialitate era Kiua decisi7' pentru un student la medicin'"
– C6п=+,но* =+2н6* U,/-.ен длV +2=ден2- .еди,- @6л _=дн6. <н`."
The viva #voce e$amination% – an oral eDamination at medical schools in aondon"
Concordance (concordan&a, +оо24е2+24ие) – is when a translator see9s to translate a word o! the oriinal &y the same
word in the TL where7er it occurs" bometimes concordance reduces acc'racy in translation, because it does not ta9e into
account the differin! senses of meanin! that a word has in 7arin! conteDts"
#"!" ]e had a "oetic nature"
– #l era o fire "oetic( (melancolic')"
c неNо @6л- )*+,-./0123 (0о.-н2и5е+,-V) н-2=0-"
C'lt'ral s'&stit'te (substitutul cultural, ,=л32=0олоNи5е+,ие +оо24е2+4иV) – this is the use of a different translation
term for an item from the ba$ which is un9nown to the $a hearers" Q cultural substitute should ha7e the same function in
conteDt as the ori!inal item, be as similar in form as possible, and be compatible with the culture of the ori!inal teDt"
#"!" %re-school st'dents are in7ited" – bunt in7ita&i co"ii de 7drsta pre-;colar'"– (0иNл-?->2+V 4*51*678-1-9
:enerali;ation (!eneraliKare, о@о@Xение) - is used when somethin! in the $a is usuall eDpressed usin! concepts with
broader meanin!s or when preser7in! the ori!inal concepts with narrower meanin!s would result in an aw9ward
translation"
#"!" bhe ordered a dai<'iri " – #a a comandat un coc=tail" - eн- /-,-/-л- -л,оNол3н6* 82)-,*1"
Loss>o!>meanin com"ensation (procedee de compensare a pierderii unor sensuri, ,о.пен+-)иV +.6+ло46I по2е03) –
in7ol7es addin! to or reinforcin! a $$ in one place to compensate for somethin! that has not been translated in a different
place in the b$"
#"!" 8 ain ft !ot no time for that 9ind of thin!" – W-am eu timp pentru tdmpeniile tale, m'i" – gне не до U2о* MиNни"
Omission (omisiune, н-.е0енно п0оп=+,-23) – some important detail ma be s9ipped in fa7our of a rather important
fact"
#"!" bummer rains in hlorida may &e 7iolent while they last9 – Oara Jn hlorida cad ploi toren&iale" – iе2о. 4о
jло0иде ид=2 ли4ни"
Sentence !ramentation ( se!mentarea propoKi&iilor, 0-/@и4,- п0едло1ени*) – in7ol7es splittin! up one compleD or
compound sentence into two or more simple sentences"

E99 %eople e7erwhere are confronted with the need to ma9e decisions in the face of i!norance and this dilemma is
!rowin!"
– \in cauKa nesi!uran&ei ;i a i!noran&ei, oamenii din toat' lumea se confrunt' cu necesitatea de a lua deciKii" Qcesta
de7ine un lucru tot mai necesar"
– C +л=5-е о2+=2+24иV инMо0.-)ии ,-1д6* 46н=1ден п0ини.-23 нел`N,ие 0е?ениV +-.о+2оV2ел3но" <-нн-V
+и2=-)иV по+2оVнно =I=д?-е2+V"
Sentence interation (contopireaLunirea propoKi&iilor, о@kединение, +лиVние) – in7ol7es mer!in! two or se7eral
sentences into one"
E99 Aour presence is not reluired" Wor it is desirable"
– %reKen&a dumne7oastr' nu este nici necesar', nici dorit'"
– C-?е п0и+=2+24ие не 2ол3,о нео@V/-2ел3но, но и ,0-*не не1ел-2ел3но"
S"eci!ication (concretiKare, =2о5нение) – is used when somethin! in the $a is usuall eDpressed usin! concepts with
narrower meanin! or when preser7in! the ori!inal concepts with broader meanin! would result in an aw9ward translation"
Trans"osition (modificare a topicii, и/.енение по0Vд,- +ло4) – it in7ol7es chan!in! the order of words in the tar!et
teDt ($$) as compared to the source teDt (b$)" $picall, an #n!lish sentence has a [subZect mpredicate mobZect mad7erbial
modifierm place mtime^ word order"
#"!"
#n!lishG nbhe li9es swimminn translates
EomanianG oi place s( ?noate"
p=++,и*G q* н0-4и2+V )62@2,7"
Berunds and infiniti7es wor9 in different was in #n!lish, Berman, bpanish, Eomanian and Eussian (brin!in! in an
ad7erb to complicate matters)"