Puman performance Lechnology, also known as

performance lmprovemenL, ls a seL of lnsLrucuonal
deslgn acuvlues LhaL auempL Lo lmprove employees' on-
Lhe-[ob performances Lowards achlevlng resulLs LhaL
cohere Lo organlzauonal goals and ob[ecuves by
lmprovlng how employees speed up Lhelr progress,
reduce redundancy ln Lhelr work, allevlaLe cosL loss, and
break Lhrough sLruggle wlLh conñdence abouL uslng ln
Lhelr knowledge, skllls, and ablllues.
8umler
lSÞl CllberL's 8ehavloral
Lnglneerlng Model
Mager & Þlpe
Wlle !"#"$$%&
• 8ehavloral and cognluve
approaches Lo Lask
analysls and deslgn
• Þerformance gap =
dlñerence beLween
deslred & acLual
performance
Þerformance
Analysls
Cause
Analysls
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Lvalucauon
(formauve,
summauve,conñr
mauve, meLa)

loshay, W. 8., vlllachlca, S. W., & SLeplch, u. A. (2014). Couslns buL noL 1wlns: lnsLrucuonal ueslgn and Puman Þerformance 1echnology ln Lhe Workplace. ln Pandbook of 8esearch on Lducauonal Communlcauons
and 1echnology (pp. 39-49). Sprlnger new ?ork.
8oLhwell, W.!., Pohne, C. k., and klng, S.8. (2007). Puman performance lmprovemenL: 8ulldlng pracuuoner compeLence.
CllberL, 1.l. (2007). Puman compeLence: Lnglneerlng worLhy performance. San lranclsco: Þfelñer.
WllmoLh, l. S., Þrlgmore, C. and 8ray, M. (2002), PÞ1 Models: An overvlew of Lhe ma[or models ln Lhe ñeld. Þerf. lmprov., 41: 16-24. dol: 10.1002/pñ.4140410806
1homas CllberL, ºlaLher of
Þerformance Lnglneerlng"
CllberL's 4 Lelsurely 1heorems
8y !amle 8ernhardL
uaLa (envlronmenL)
knowledge (behavlor)
lnsLrumenLs (envlronmenL)
CapaclLy (behavlor)
lncenuves (envlronmenL)
Mouves (behavlor)
Lelsure = 1lme x CpporLunlLy
WorLhy Þerformance = AccompllshmenLs / CosLly 8ehavlors
ÞlÞ = [Lxemplary Þerformance - 1yplcal ] / 1yplcal
8ehavlor = LnvlronmenL x Þerformance
use levels of vanLage polnL Lo evaluaLe resulLs.
Þerformance
Condluons
CrlLerlon

Clear, verlñable performance gap

lormal Lralnlng, pracuce, feedback,
change [ob lLself, on-Lhe-[ob
Lralnlng

ÞunlshmenLs, Þosluve
Consequences, CbsLacles
Coals, ueslgn,
ManagemenL

Crganlzauonal
Þrocess, !ob

Speclñcauons, Lask
supporL,
consequences,
feedback, skllls &
knowledge,
capaclLy
Crganlzauonal
sysLems
lncenuves
Cognluve supporL
1ools
Þhyslcal
envlronmenL
Skllls/knowledge
lnherenL ablllLy
Analysls of
organlzauon,
envlronmenL, and
cause
ueslgn,
developmenL,
lmplemenLauon of
lnLervenuon
Analyze Lhe organlzauon, envlronmenL,
and lndlvlduals' performances Lo speclfy
performance gaps LhaL are worLh closlng.
ldenufy envlronmenLal causes of Lhe
performance gap and Lhen lndlvldual
sources of performance gap ln a
progresslve Lroubleshooung manner
MaLch lnLervenuons and Lhelr feaLures Lo
Lhe envlronmenLal and personal sources
of performance gaps.
1ralnlng, !ob Alds, Manuals, LlecLronlc
Þerformance SupporL SysLems,
knowledge ManagemenL SysLems
Modlñcauons Lo envlronmenLal sources
are cheaper and fasLer Lo creaLe
leedback, lncenuves
use of change managemenL, process
consulung, employer developmenL, and
communlcauon bulldlng
use of klrkpaLrlck's or
Þhllllps' models and levels of
evaluauon

use of formauve, summauve,
conñrmauve, and meLa
evaluauons