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TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that
randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.
It is concerned with the structure and delivery of acquisition of knowledge to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of organization. It is concerned with improving the existing skills
and exploring the potential skills of the individual i.e. upgrading the employees’ skills and
extending their knowledge. Therefore, training is a key to optimizing utilization human
intellectual technological and entrepreneurial skills.

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

1. Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in
optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to
achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

2. Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an
opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical
and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining
personal growth.

3. Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing
the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the
horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

4. Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the
employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

5. Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,
team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn
within the employees.
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6. Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture
within the organization.

7. Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive
perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from
leaders, subordinates, and peers.

8. Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and
work-life.
• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the
healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that
individual goals aligns with organizational goal.

9. Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and
safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

10. Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.

11. Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

12. Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more
positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

13. Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets
more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and
carrying out organizational policies



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Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as,
marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training
is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form
of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).The three model of training are:
1. System Model

2. Instructional System Development Model

3. Transitional model


System Model Training
The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to
make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to
perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are
as follows:
1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job,
employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn,
estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance
measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated.

2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires
developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing
and structuring the contents.

3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that
will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the
training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it
accomplishes all the goals & objectives.

4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can
lead to the failure of whole training program.
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5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of
subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the
previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.































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Instructional System Development Model :
Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems.
This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the
training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job
responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual
progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable
strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to
be achieved.
The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages:

1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target
audience analysis.



2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome,
instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types
of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the
training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing
of content, etc.



3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It
consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks,
visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including
handouts of summary.



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4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging
speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and
other training accessories.



5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program
has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of
identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the
previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.



















The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also
highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this
model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.

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Transitional Model
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes
the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e.
inner loop is executed.
1. Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve
after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization
sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or
bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other
deadlines.
2. Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position
in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate,
inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission
statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be
viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.
3. Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It
reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current
industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility,
excellent customer service.













The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers
the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind
and then the training model is further implemented.
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There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and
behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its
impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.

COGNITIVE METHOD
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various
methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or
verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are
associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:
1. LECTURES
2. DEMONSTRATIONS
3. DISCUSSIONS
4. COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)
5. INTELLIGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)
6. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)
7. VIRTUAL REALITY

BEHAVIORAL METHOD
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various
methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These
methods are best used for skill development.
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:
1. GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
2. BEHAVIOR-MODELING
3. BUSINESS GAMES
4. CASE STUDIES
5. EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS
6. IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE
7. ROLE PLAYS

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ON THE JOB TRAINING
The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on-the-job training.
This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such
as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced
employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes
place at the work place in informal manner.
The four techniques for on-the job development are:
1. COACHING
2. MENTORING
3. JOB ROTATION
4. JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)

Coaching
Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method
for inadequate performance. According to a survey conducted by International Coach
Federation (ICF), more than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives. These
coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants.
1. It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat
2. It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert
3. It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a
person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It
helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs. The needs can be identified
through 60 degree performance reviews.

Mentoring
Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee.
Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to
achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.
1. Mentoring focus on attitude development
2. Conducted for management-level employees
3. Mentoring is done by someone inside the company
4. It is one-to-one interaction
5. It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
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Job Rotation
For the executive, job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is
usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations,
for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job
rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of
view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s
outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to
provide a global perspective.
For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in
the company is regular carried out.
This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the
different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type
of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to
leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units,
cities, and countries.

Job Instruction Technique
Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and
procedural), skills and attitudes development. Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT)
JIT consists of four steps:
1. Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the
trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for
the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many
things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and
proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program.

2. The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus
on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees’ i.e.
proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainees with the
training program, etc.



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3. Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the
participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee
demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee
actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety
instructions.


4. Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the
work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on
improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if
occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to
see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by
questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure.

5. Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the
training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing.


















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OFF THE JOB TRAINING
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in
off the job. The few popular methods are:
1. SENSITIVITY TRAINING
2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
3. STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
4. SIMULATION EXERCISES

Sensitivity Training
Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others
reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.
1. Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what
others feel and think from their own point of view.
2. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.

Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:
1. Unfreezing the old values –It requires that the trainees become aware of the
inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in
which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a
small procedure:
2. Development of new values – With the trainer’s support, trainees begin to examine
their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the
feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new
behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process
of the development of these values.
3. Refreezing the new ones – This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees
get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.







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Transactional Analysis
Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful method for
analyzing and understanding the behavior of others. In every social interaction, there is a
motivation provided by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person.
This motivation-reaction relationship between two persons is a transaction.
Transactional analysis can be done by the ego states of an individual. An ego state is a
system of feelings accompanied by a related set of behaviors. There are basically three ego
states:

.

Lectures
It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding
of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A lecture can be in printed or
oral form. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the
knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically
incomplete without lecture.

When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda,
processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture
method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format.

There are some variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some
forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.



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Games And Simulations
Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually
played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool.
Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or
simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job.
A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete
with each other according to the defined set of rules.
Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or
making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation.
It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of
technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective
tool for training because its key components are:
1. Challenge
2. Rules
3. Interactivity
These three components are quite essential when it comes to learning. Some of the examples
of this technique are:


Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting
where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will
improve their performance.
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InterGlobe Enterprises is an integrated travel corporation spanning various domains:
aviation management, domestic low cost airline, travel technology, travel distribution
services, hotel development and management services and general aviation.

Established in 1989 and headquartered in Gurgaon, India, InterGlobe Enterprises has
been adjudged as one of the “Best Companies to Work for” in India, for 2008 and 2009 by
the Great Place to Work® Institute, in partnership with The Economic Times.

InterGlobe has a network of 56 offices across 27 cities in India and strategic overseas
locations in SriLanka, USA, UK, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Australia. The
enterprise employs close to 7000 professionals across its businesses, which include IndiGo –
India’s fastest growing low-cost airline; Airline Management for 14 international airlines;
Distribution of GDS; Travel Technology; Development of Hotels in partnership with Accor
of France - owner of brands such as ibis, Sofitel, Novotel, Mercure and Pullman; and
InterGlobe General Aviation, which represents and services the entire line of
HawkerBeechcraft and Sikorsky products. The enterprise is committed to delivering
outstanding value to its stakeholders through its passion for quality and innovation.


HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
With a clear vision, conviction and complete faith in its people, Interglobe Enterprises
continues to constantly change the landscape of travel, technology, aviation and hospitality,
with a dynamism that seems to grow only with passing time.

In 1989 Interglobe Enterprises ( IGE) set up Interglobe Air transport (IGAT). Later it
becomes the National Distribution Company for Galileo International & Global Distribution
System distribution. Later it expand its business activities in the field of aviation, technology
and hospitality sector. Established in 1989, InterGlobe Enterprises is a travel corporation with
a vision to deliver value to its stakeholders, clients and customers through dedicated business
units that perform specialist roles.
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The organisation has been serving the travel industry for the past four decades and has
become a diversified international corporation in the areas of Aviation Management
(InterGlobe Air Transport), Domestic Airline (IndiGo), Travel Technology (InterGlobe
Technologies), Travel Distribution Services (InterGlobe Technology Quotient), Hotel
Development & Management Services (InterGlobe Hotels) and InterGlobe General Aviation.
Headquartered in Gurgaon, India, InterGlobe Enterprises comprises of around 7500
professionals. IGT has six state-of-the-art facilities:
1. One in the most preferred outsourcing location in South East Asia, at Manila,
Philippines
2. Two are located in the fast growing technology hub of India within the National
Capital Region – Gurgaon
3. One in the financial capital of India, Mumbai - 1 dedicated service delivery center is
located in the south of India, at Chennai
4. One service delivery center is located in Cairo, Egypt



Important Milestones For InterGlobe Enterprises


1964
Birth of Delhi Express Travels, which gradually developed into InterGlobe
Enterprises



1989
Birth of InterGlobe Enterprises (IGE) as a National Distribution Partner for
Galileo



1994
IGE sets up National Distribution Company 'Galileo India' for Galileo
International's GDS distribution in the Indian market.



1998
InterGlobe Technologies (IGT), established as a joint venture between
Travelport (formerly known as Cendant), with its headquarters in Gurgaon
Equity participation received from Galileo International.

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2000-01
IGT expands its client base by acquiring clients like Virgin Atlantic, United
Airlines, Saudi Arabian Airlines and many more.
IGT becomes a member of Nasscom



2003
Implemented Airline Distribution for India’s foremost low cost carrier



2004
IGT introduces the one-offshore development model clients- WorldSpan,
Galileo Southern Cross, Al Tayyar and multiple Travel Agency clients in
Australia.
Airline Distribution and Revenue Management System implemented the LCC
of India’s national carrier
IGT’s IT practices achieve CMMI Level 3 Certification




2005
IGT enters into a strategic agreement with Galileo International to provide off-
shore development and support for the Apollo and Galileo Global Distribution
Systems.
Building framework for US GAAP, SOX compliance.
IGT’s IT practices achieve CMMI Level 5 Certification
IGT sets up a second 1200 seat capacity center in Gurgaon.




2006
IGT’s BPO Practices receive ISO 9001:2000 certification.
IGT sets up another delivery center in Chennai
IGT set up subsidiaries in China (IGT Solutions Beijing Co Ltd.)& Singapore
(IGT Solutions PTE Ltd)
Declared as the winner in Fastest 50 Growing Companies in India & Fastest
50 Growing Companies in Asia, in a survey conducted by Deloitte Consulting.


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2007
IGT achieves ISMS 27001:2005 certification.
A branch office set up in Netherlands to serve the European market.
Declared as the winner in Fastest 50 Growing Companies in Asia, in a survey
conducted by Deloitte Consulting.



2008
(IGT) became the World’s first Organization to achieve People CMM® Level
3 certification for both IT and BPO services
IGT becomes the affiliate of Indian Testing Board
InterGlobe Enterprises named by the Great Place to Work Institute as one of
the "25 Best Companies to Work For in India."
Declared as the winner in Fastest 50 Growing Companies in India, in a survey
conducted by Deloitte Consulting.
IGT became the first Travel BPO Organization to become PCI DSS 1.2
compliant.



2009
IGT Ranked One Of The India's Top 15 Emerging Companies To Work For
by NASSCOM
IGT figures in IAOP's 2009 Global Outsourcing 100 list
IGT ranked in prestigious The Global Services 100 Companies list
InterGlobe Enterprises was named by the Great Place to Work Institute as one
of the "Top 50 India’s Best Companies to Work For




2010
IGT ranked in prestigious The Global Services 100 Companies list
IGT's achieves prestigious ISO 9001:2008 Certification
IGT selected by LodgeX to build a New Reservation Management
IGT Ranked among World's Best for Second Consecutive Year by IAOP in
IGT Successfully Re-achieves PCI DSS 1.2 Certification
IGT becomes 1st Travel BPO Globally to be COPC® certified on standard
version 4.3
InterGlobe Enterprises named by the Great Place to Work Institute as one of
the "25 Best Companies to Work For in India."
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HR VISION:

"To attain organizational excellence by developing and inspiring the true potential of
company’s human capital and providing opportunities for growth, well being and
enrichment".



HR MISSION:

“To create a value and knowledge based organization by inculcating a culture of learning,
innovation & team working and aligning business priorities with aspiration of employees
leading to development of an empowered, responsive and competent human capital”



HR OBJECTIVES:
 To develop and sustain core values

 To develop business leaders for tomorrow.

 To provide job contentment through empowerment, accountability and responsibility.

 To build and upgrade competencies through virtual learning, opportunities for growth
and providing challenges in the job.

 To foster a climate of creativity, innovation and enthusiasm

 To enhance the quality of life of employees and their family

 To inculcate high understanding of 'Service' to a greater cause.
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The programs are divided into three broad categories:
1. Functional
2. Behavioral
3. General/ Omnibus programmes

Functional:
The outcome of the training is measured by comparing the data pre-training and post-
training. A scale is developed for measuring the effectiveness of training based on the %
achievement of the objectives.

Behavioral:
The effectiveness of the training of this nature is measured annually. This is seen
through the training need identification for the coming year for the employee. If the training
need is repeated there, then the training provided is taken as ineffective. If the training need is
repeated but with focus on a part of the need, then the training is partially effective. If not
repeated, then the training is effective.

General:
These are the training needs flowing directly from the organizational needs. Examples
of these can be ISO 9000 training, ISO 14000 training and any awareness training. These are
omnibus training programs, which are run for a large number of employees.

The effectiveness of the training is measured by:
1. Achievement of those organizational objectives within the time lines.
2. Number of audit issues raised on the areas covered in the training.
3. Any other such thing as defined in the training brochure.




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The training model is divided into the following:


ON JOB EXPERIENCE
The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on-the-job training.
This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such
as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced
employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes
place at the work place in informal manner.



ACTION LEARNING /OFF THE JOB TRAINING
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in
off the job. The few popular methods are:
1. SENSITIVITY TRAINING

2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS

3. STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES

4. SIMULATION EXERCISES

5. IT TRAINING- Games and Simulations







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INDUCTION TRAINING
This is carried out as the very first step for any new entrant into Company. The
department prepares a schedule for the employee as per which he is required to spend specific
time in each department. During such period, he is reporting to the respective department
head. The objective of the induction program is to familiarize the participant to the function
of different department. The copies of the same are sent to the General Manager and all
concerned. At the end of the induction, the trainee has to submit a report to the Personnel
Department.

MANAGEMENT TRAINEE’S TRAINING
Management trainees are given a fortnight of induction program. Corporate HR
advises it as per Management Trainee Training program designed by them. Thereafter, a
detailed training program is carried out whereby the incumbent is to understand in depth of
working of each department at various locations as per the program given by the Corporate
HR. Corporate HR maintains all relevant records pertaining to Management Trainee’s
training at Bangalore.
A person gets nominated for the training program in the following two ways:
1. Training program flowing from the training needs.
2. Training program for testing out the training/ increased awareness/ general
information/ omnibus training types etc.

PILOT TRAINING
Captain’s training – Qualified and Experienced Senior Co-pilots are taken through a
rigorous selection process for command upgrade. Thereafter they undergo 8 SIM sessions + 2
Skill test for evaluation + AWO training followed by 50 sectors of IOE, 10 line checks and
after DGCA endorsement one final release check.
Co-pilot’s training - Endorsement + 02 route checks + 10 sectors of IOE with TRE +
40 sectors of IOE followed by 2 sectors release check with TRE. IndiGo simulator and line
training is done by the Airbus Instructors for standardization along with a SLF of 50 sectors


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Expat pilots
At IndiGo expats undergo 4 familiarization flights + a minimum of 05 sectors of IOE
covering critical and short fields + one line checks with TRI/TRE. ENGINEERING AACT
training - employed by IndiGo. First time carried outside of Europe IndiGo training
department imparts recurring training (required under CAR145)

CABIN CREW
Ab Initio Training: 45 Days Greater training duration than regulatory mandate Pass Score %
mandated by DGCA is 80% vs. IndiGo standard of 90% 3 strike policy (3 failures resulting in
termination)






EMPLOYEE OVERALL DEVELPOMENT
Following are the employee development program which are developed and used at
the organisation:
1. Effective Teambuilding for Diverse Teams
This program provides essential information on the building blocks of highly
effective diverse teams. It helps team members to clarify roles and responsibilities and
to agree on processes and principles in order to reach mutually established goals and
objectives. Format: 1 to 2 days kick-off meeting, plus on-going regular team
meetings, as needed.


2. Specialized Teambuilding Program for Law Firms and other Service Companies
This program discusses building blocks for effective teambuilding for non-
legal and legal staffs at law firms and other service companies. It helps existing teams,
such as law firm practice groups, optimize their performance and reach their business
goals Format: 1/2 to 2 days.


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3. Working Across Cultures: Global Business Skills
The program analyzes the impact of culture and cultural differences when
communicating with counterparts from other cultures. It discusses topics such as
managing across cultures, creating globally inclusive work environments, business
values differences and global business etiquette. It also provides strategies for
communicating across cultures more effectively. Format: 1 to 2 days


4. Culture-Specific Cross-Cultural Training: Working and Communicating Effectively
with Germany, Belgium, etc.
This program provides an overview of cross-cultural business practices and
issues such as work ethics, management styles, negotiations, presentations, meeting
styles, gender roles and business etiquette for a specific geographic region or country
including but not limited to Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, the U.K.,
Italy, Japan, China, Taiwan, India and Mexico.
It suggests strategies for working and communicating effectively with
colleagues, clients and business partners from these and other cultures. Format: 1 to 2
days


5. Effective Long Distance Communication Across Cultures
This program provides strategies for dealing effectively with the challenges of
long-distance communication via telephone, e-mail, video conferencing, or web-based
technology. It improves long-distance communication between colleagues and/or
clients from other cultures. Format: 1/2 to 1 day


6. Global Presentation Skills
The program provides information on the steps necessary for creating and
delivering effective presentations for global audiences. It offers an opportunity for
participants to give practice presentations and receive detailed feedback on their
presentation style and content. Format: 1 to 2 days.


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7. Pre-Departure and Post-Arrival Cross-Cultural Training
The program helps individuals and their families handle the impact of culture
shock related to moving to another culture. It provides information on housing,
education, shopping, local services, and resources in the new culture as well as an
overview of cultural values and attitudes in the new country. Format: 1 to 2 days.


8. Repatriation Training
This program helps individuals and families handle the impact of "reverse
culture shock" when returning to their home countries after an international
assignment. It focuses on the challenges of re-entry into the work and home
environments as well as on successful re-entry strategies. Format: 1 to 2 days.


9. Executive Coaching
This program helps executives clarify their short- and medium-term personal
and business goals and create a long-term vision for their lives. It helps them design
strategies to reach these goals and align their lives with their vision. Format: on-going
coaching sessions (30-60 mins).


10. Carreer development
First officer= he / she is a co-pilot, after 1000hrs of flying, eligible for change
of equipment to wide body aircrafts, after 3000hrs of flight time and above 25 yrs of
age, eligible for airline transport pilot license and for post of captain. Then promotion
to check pilot, examiner and instructor. Management pilot and chief pilots, the
operational manager at locations top most post chief of training and standards.







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1. The organization may utilize both subjective and objective approach for the training
programmes.
2. The organization may consider deputing each employee to attend at least one training
programmes each year.
3. The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organization as well as
employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing
the training.
4. The organization can also arrange part time training programmes in the office
premises for short durations, spanning over a few days, in order to avoid any
interruption in the routine work.
5. The organization can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to
give focused attention towards the departmental
6. The management must commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to
training.
7. Ensure that training contribute to competitive strategies of the firm. Different
strategies need different HR skill for implementation. Let training help employees at
all levels acquire the needed skill.
8. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training
and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.
9. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual
training needs.
10. Skill based training (product/process training) should also be provided.
11. Besides questionnaire other methods of post training evaluation should also be used
like interviews, self diaries, observation and supplement test.
12. The evaluation procedure must be implemented concerning trainer, trainee and
subject.
13. Post training feedback has to be continuous and should also be taken from line
manager/superior & from peers to find out the effectiveness and valuation of training.



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The major findings of the project are enumerated as follows:
1. Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base
by the respondents.
2. The objectives of the training programs were broadly known to the respondents prior
to attending them.
3. The training programs were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs
of the respondents.
4. Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programs were
less and thus need to be increased.
5. Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will
enhance the effectiveness of the training programs.
6. Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if
the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the
market.
7. The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the
training programs.
8. The training programs were able to improve on-the-job efficiency.
9. Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programs be
increased.












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Websites
1. www.interglobe.com
2. www.goindigo.com
3. www.civilaviation.com
4. http://www.managementhelp.org/search/management_help_search.html?zoom_query
=training+and+development
5. http://www.inc.com/magazine/19930201/3393_pagen_7.html
6. http://humanresources.about.com/od/trainingtrends/Future_Education_and_Training_
Trends.htm
7. http://humanresources.about.com/od/training/Training_Development_and_Education_
for_Employees.htm
8. http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/

Books
1. Kothari, C. R. (2006), Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, New Age
International Publishers.
2. Human Resource Management by L. M. Prasad
3. Human Resource Management by Dipak. k. Bhattacharya
4. Human Resource Management by K. Ashwathapa