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An Introduction to FRP-

Strengthening of Concrete Structures

ISIS Educational Module 4:

Produced by ISIS Canada

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement

Module Objectives

• To provide students with a general

awareness of FRP materials and their

potential uses

• To introduce students to the general

philosophies and procedures for

strengthening structures with FRPs

ISISECModule4

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement

Overview

Introduction

FRP Materials

Evaluation of

Existing Structures

Beam & One-Way

Slab Strengthening

Column

Strengthening

Specifications &

Quality Control

Advanced

Applications

Field Applications

Additional Info

ISISECModule4

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 1

Introduction

• The world’s population depends on an extensive

infrastructure system

• Roads, sewers, highways, buildings

• The system has suffered in past years

• Neglect, deterioration, lack of funding

Global Infrastructure Crisis

ISISECModule4

2

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 1

Introduction

• A primary factor leading to extensive degradation…

ISISECModule4

Corrosion

Moisture, oxygen and

chlorides penetrate

Concrete

Reinforcing

Steel

Through concrete

Through cracks

Corrosion products form

Volume expansion occurs

More cracking

Corrosion propagation

End result

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 1

Introduction

• Why repair with the same materials?

• Why repeat the cycle?

ISISECModule4

FRP Materials

Lightweight

Easyto install

High Strength

5xsteel

Corrosion resistant

Durable structures

Highly versatile

Suit anyproject

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 1

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

Type Application Schematic

FRP-Strengthening Applications

Fibre Dir.

Confinement

Around

column

Circumferential

Section

Shear

Side face of

beam (u-wrap)

Perpendicular

to long. axis

of beam Section

Flexural

side face of

Tension and/or

beam

axis of beam

Along long.

Section

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

• Longstanding reputation in automotive and

aerospace industries

• Over the past 15 years have FRP materials been

increasingly considered for civil infrastructure

applications

ISISECModule4

FRP costs have decreased

New, innovative solutions needed!

General

3

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

• Wide range of FRP products

available:

• Plates

• Rigid strips

• Formed through pultrusion

• Sheets

• Flexible fabric

ISISECModule4

General

Carbon FRP

sheet

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

Constituents

• What is FRP?

Fibres

Provide strength

and stiffness

Carbon, glass, aramid

Matrix

Protects and transfers load

between fibres

Epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester

Fibre Matrix

Composite

Creates a material with attributes superior to either component alone!

Strain[%]

0.4-4.8 >10

34-130

1800-4900

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

Properties

• Typical FRP stress-strain behaviour

FRP

Fibres

Matrix

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

InstallationTechniques

Wet lay-up

Used with flexible sheets

Saturate sheets with epoxy adhesive

Place on concrete surface

Epoxy

Roller

Resin acts as adhesive

AND matrix

4

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

InstallationTechniques

Pre-cured

Used with rigid, pre-cured strips

Apply adhesive to strip backing

Place on concrete surface

Not as flexible for variable

structural shapes

Resin acts as adhesive

AND matrix

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

Properties

• FRP properties

(versus steel):

• Linear elastic behaviour

to failure

• No yielding

• Higher ultimate strength

• Lower strain at failure Strain[%]

1 2 3

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

S

t

r

e

s

s

[

M

P

a

]

Steel

CFRP

GFRP

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

Properties

FRP material

properties are

a function of:

Type of fibre and matrix

Fibre volume content

Orientation of fibres

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 2

FRP Materials

ISISECModule4

Pro/Con

FRP advantages

FRP disadvantages

Will not corrode

High strength-to-weight ratio

Electromagnetically inert

High initial material cost

But not when life-cycle costs are considered

5

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 3

Evaluation of Existing Structures

ISISECModule4

Deficiencies

• Deficiencies due to:

Environmental Effects

Freeze-Thaw

Chloride Ingress

Wet-Dry

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 3

Evaluation of Existing Structures

ISISECModule4

Deficiencies

• Deficiencies due to:

Updated Design Loads

Updated design code procedures

Then Now

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 3

Evaluation of Existing Structures

ISISECModule4

Deficiencies

• Deficiencies due to:

Increase in Traffic Loads

Then Now

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 3

Evaluation of Existing Structures

ISISECModule4

Evaluation

• Evaluation is important to:

Determine concrete condition

Identify the cause of the deficiency

Establish the current load capacity

Evaluate the feasibility of FRP strengthening

6

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 3

Evaluation of Existing Structures

ISISECModule4

Evaluation

• Evaluation should include:

All past modifications

Actual size of elements

Actual material properties

Location, size and cause of cracks, spalling

Location, extent of corrosion

Quantity, location of rebar

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 3

Evaluation of Existing Structures

ISISECModule4

ConcreteSurface

• One of the key aspects of

strengthening: State of concrete substrate

• Concrete must transfer load from the elements to

the FRPs through shear in the adhesive

• Surface modification required where surface flaws exist

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

ISISECModule4

FRP rupture

Failure caused by:

Flexural Strengthening

Assumptions

Concrete crushing

Plane sections remain plane

Perfect bond between steel/concrete, FRP/concrete

Adequate anchorage &development length provided for FRPs

FRPsare linear elastic to failure

Concrete compressive stress-strain curve is parabolic, no

strength in tension

Initial strains in FRPscan be ignored

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

ISISECModule4

ResistanceFactors

Material Bridge Building

Steel φ

S

=0.90 φ

S

=0.85

Concrete φ

C

=0.75 φ

C

=0.6

FRP

φ

frp

= 0.75

φ

frp

= 0. 50

Carbon

Glass

7

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

ISISECModule4

FailureModes

Concrete crushing before steel yields

• Four potential failure modes:

Steel yielding followed by concrete crushing

Steel yielding followed by FRP rupture

Debonding of FRP reinforcement

Assume failure mode Perform analysis Check failure mode

Debondingis prevented through special end anchorages

*** Assume initial strains at the time of strengthening are zero***

*** Refer to EC Module 4 Notes ***

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

• Force equilibrium in section:

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

General Design

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

c

h

b

frp

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

T

s

+ T

frp

= C

c

Eq. 4-1

C

c

= φ

c

α

1

f’

c

β

1

bc T

frp

= φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frp

T

s

= φ

s

A

s

f

s

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

• Apply strain compatibility and use these equations to solve for neutral

axis depth, c

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

c

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

General Design

h

b

frp

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

• Section capacity:

M

r

= T

s

d −

a

2

Eq. 4-5 + T

frp

h −

a

2

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step1: Assume failure mode

Assume that section fails by concrete crushing after steel yields

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

cu

ε

s

c

Thus: ε

frp

= ε

cu

Eq. 4-6

ε

c

= ε

cu

= 0.0035

(h-c)/c

ε

s

= ε

cu

(d-c)/c

Eq. 4-7

8

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step 2: Determine compressive stress block factors

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

cu

ε

s

c

Eq. 4-8 α

1

= 0.85-0.0015f’

c

> 0.67

Eq. 4-9 β

1

= 0.97-0.0025f’

c

> 0.67

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step 3: Determine neutral axis depth, c

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

cu

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

Eq. 4-10

φ

c

α

1

f’

c

β

1

bc φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frp

= φ

s

A

s

f

s

+

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step 4: Check if assumed failure mode is correct

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

cu

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

?

>

ε

frp

= ε

cu

(h-c)/c ε

frpu

Eq. 4-11

If true, go to Step 6 If false, go to Step 5

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step 5: Calculate factored moment resistance

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

cu

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

M

r

=φ

s

A

s

f

y

d −

a

2

Eq. 4-12 + h −

a

2

φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frp

9

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step 5: Calculate factored moment resistance

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

cu

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

Check if internal steel yields to ensure adequate deformability

ε

s

= ε

cu

(d-c)/c

>

ε

y

?

If yes, OK

If no, reduce FRP

amount & recalculate

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Step 6: Assume different failure mode

Strain Distribution

ε

frpu

ε

c

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frpu

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

Assume failure occurs by tensile failure of FRP

Thus:

ε

frp

= ε

frpu

ε

c

< ε

cu

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Strain Distribution

ε

frpu

ε

c

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frpu

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

Eq. 4-15

φ

c

α

1

f’

c

β

1

bc φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frpu

= φ

s

A

s

f

y

+

Step 7: Determine depth of neutral axis

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Strain Distribution

ε

frpu

ε

c

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frpu

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

Step 8: Check if assumed failure mode is correct

ε

c

< ε

cu

ε

frpu

c / (h-c) < ε

cu

10

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Analysis Procedure

h

b

frp

Strain Distribution

ε

frpu

ε

c

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frpu

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

Step 9: Calculate factored moment resistance

M

r

=φ

s

A

s

f

y

d −

a

2

Eq. 4-17 + h −

a

2

φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frpu

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

b

d

Cross Section

A

s

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

WithCompressionSteel

h

b

frp

Strain Distribution

ε

frp

ε

s

c

Stress Distribution

f

s

f

frp

Equiv. Stress

Distribution

a = β

1

c

α

1

Φ

c

f’

c

T

s

T

frp

C

c

•Similar analysis procedure

A’

s

ε

cu

ε’

s

f’

s

C

s

Add a compressive stress resultant

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

TeeBeams

•Similar analysis procedure

Neutral axis in flange: treat as rectangular section

Neutral axis in web: treat as tee section

b

f

h

f

h

b

frp

A

frp

c

M

r

M

rw

= +

M

rf

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Flexural Example

ISISECModule4

Problem statement

Calculate the moment resistance (M

r

) for an FRP-

strengthened rectangular concrete section

Section information

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

f’

c

= 45 MPa ε

frpu

= 1.55 %

A

frp

= 60 mm

2

f

y

= 400 MPa

E

s

= 200 GPa

E

frp

= 155 GPa

b = 105 mm

h

=

3

5

0

m

m

3-10M bars

d

=

3

2

5

m

m

CFRP

11

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 1: Assumed failure mode

Flexural Example

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Assume failure of beam due to crushing of concretein

compression after yielding of internal steel reinforcement

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 2: Calculate concrete stress block factors

Flexural Example

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

α

1

= 0.85 – 0.0015 f’

c

> 0.67

α

1

= 0.85 – 0.0015 (45) = 0.78

β

1

= 0.85 – 0.0025 f’

c

> 0.67

β

1

= 0.85 – 0.0025 (45) = 0.86

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 3: Find depth of neutral axis, c

Flexural Example

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Use Equation 4-10:

φ

c

α

1

f’

c

β

1

bc = φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frp

φ

s

A

s

f

s

+

0.6 (0.78) (45) (0.86) (105) c 0.85 (300) (400)

350 - c

0.75 (60) (155000) 0.0035

c

c = 90.5 mm

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 4: Check failure mode

Flexural Example

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Therefore, FRP rupture does NOT occur

and assumed failure mode is correct

ε

frp

= 0.0035

350 - 90.5

90.5

ε

frp

= 0.01 < ε

frpu

= 0.0155

ε

frp

= ε

cu

(h-c)/c ε

frpu

= 0.0155 Eq. 4-11 vs.

12

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 4: Check failure mode

Flexural Example

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

ε

s

= ε

cu

d - c

c

To promote ductility, check that steel has yielded:

ε

s

= 0.0035

325 - 90.5

90.5

> 0.002 = ε

y

If the steel had NOT yielded, the beam failure could be expected

to be less ductile, and we would need to carefully check the

deformabilityof the member

= 0.009

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 5: Calculate moment resistance

Flexural Example

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

M

r

=φ

s

A

s

f

y

d −

a

2

Eq. 4-12 + h −

a

2

φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frp

0.85 (300) (400) 325 -

0.86 x 90.5

2

0.75 (60) (155000) (0.01) 350 -

0.86 x 90.5

2

M

r

= 50.9 × 10

6

N· mm = 50.9 kN· m

65%increase over

unstrengthened beam!

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

May be aligned at

any angle to the

longitudinal axis

Assumptions

• FRP sheets can be applied to provide shear resistance

• Many different possible configurations

May be applied in

continuous sheets

or in finite widths

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Assumptions

• FRP sheets can be applied to provide shear resistance

• Many different possible configurations

May be applied

on sides only or

as U-wraps

Section

Section

*U-wraps also improve the anchorage of flexural FRP external reinforcement

n

e

= 1

n

e

= 2

13

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Assumptions

Section

To avoid stress

concentrations,

allow for a

minimum radius

of 15 mm

w

frp

s

frp

β

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

External strengthening with FRPs:

Flexural failure Generally fairly ductile

Shear failure Sudden and brittle

Undesirable failure mode

Control shear deformation

to avoid sudden failure

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Shear resistance of a beam:

V

r

= V

c

V

s

V

frp

+ +

Eq. 4-18

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Shear resistance of a beam:

V

s

=

φ

s

f

y

A

v

d

s

Eq. 4-20

V

c

= 0.2 φ

c

√f’

c

b

w

d

Eq. 4-19

14

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Shear resistance of a beam:

V

frp

=

φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frpe

d

frp

(sinβ + cosβ)

s

frp

Eq. 4-21

A

frp

= 2 t

frp

w

frp

d

frp

: distance from free end of FRP to

bottom of internal steel stirrups

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Eq. 4-23 ε

frpe

= R ε

frpu

≤ 0.004

Prevents shear cracks from widening

beyond acceptable limits

Ensures aggregateinterlock!

Effective strain in FRP, ε

frpe

:

Reduction factor, R:

0.8

Carbon: λ

1

= 1.35, λ

2

= 0.30

Glass: λ

1

= 1.23, λ

2

= 0.47

Eq. 4-24

R = αλ

1

f’

c

2/3

ρ

frp

E

frp

λ

2

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

FRP shear reinforcement ratio, ρ

frp

:

Eq. 4-25 ρ

frp

=

2 t

frp

b

w

w

frp

s

frp

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Another limit on effective strain in FRP, ε

frpe

:

Eq. 4-26 ε

frpe

≤

αk

1

k

2

L

e

9525

0.8

Parameters, k

1

and k

2

:

Eq. 4-27

k

1

=

f’

c

27.65

2/3

Eq. 4-28

k

2

=

d

frp

- n

e

L

e

d

frp

15

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Effective anchorage length, L

e

:

Eq. 4-29 L

e

=

25350

t

frp

E

frp

0.58

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Limit on spacing of strips, s

frp

:

Eq. 4-30

s

frp

≤ w

frp

+

d

4

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

DesignPrinciples

Limit on maximum allowable shear strengthening, V

frp

:

Shear contribution due to steel

stirrups andFRP

strengthening must be less

than this term

Eq. 4-31

V

r

≤ V

c

+ 0.8λφ

c

√f’

c

b

w

d

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

Shear Strengthening

ISISECModule4

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Example

Problem statement

Calculate the shear capacity (V

r

) for an FRP-

strengthened concrete section

Section information

Section

b = 105 mm

h

=

3

5

0

m

m

3-10M bars

d

=

3

2

5

m

m

4.76 mm Ø

GFRP wrap

Section Elevation

λ = 1.0

f’

c

= 45 MPa

ε

frpu

= 2.0 %

f

y

= 400 MPa (rebar)

E

frp

= 22.7 GPa

f

y

= 400 MPa (stirrup)

s

s

= 225 mm c/c

t

frp

= 1.3 mm

w

frp

= 100 mm

s

frp

= 200 mm

16

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 1: Calculate concrete and steel contributions

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

Concrete:

Steel: V

s

=

φ

s

f

y

A

v

d

s

=

0.85 (400) (36) (325)

225

V

s

= 17680 N = 17.68 kN

V

c

= 0.2 φ

c

√f’

c

b

w

d

V

c

= 0.2 (0.6) √45 (105) (325)

V

c

= 27470 N = 27.47 kN

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 2: Determine A

frp

, ρ

frp

, L

e

for effective strain calculation

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

A

frp

: A

frp

= 2 t

frp

w

frp

= 2 (1.3) (100)

A

frp

= 260 mm

2

ρ

frp

: ρ

frp

=

2 t

frp

b

w

w

frp

s

frp

=

2 (1.3)

105

100

200

ρ

frp

= 0.0124

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 2: Determine A

frp

, ρ

frp

, L

e

for effective strain calculation

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

L

e

: L

e

=

25350

t

frp

E

frp

0.58

=

25350

1.3 x 22700

0.58

L

e

= 64.8 mm

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 3: Determine k

1

, k

2

and effective strain, ε

frpe

[Limit 2]

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

k

1

: k

1

=

f’

c

27.65

2/3

=

45

27.65

2/3

= 1.38

k

2

: k

2

=

d

frp

- n

e

L

e

d

frp

=

325 – 1 (64.8)

325

= 0.80

Because of u-wrap

17

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

ε

frpe

:

ε

frpe

=

0.8 (1.38) (0.80) (64.8)

9525

ε

frpe

= 0.0060

ε

frpe

≤

αk

1

k

2

L

e

9525

Eq. 4-26

Note: This strain is one of three limits placed on the FRP

Step 3: Determine k

1

, k

2

and effective strain, ε

frpe

[Limit 2]

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

R:

Step 4: Determine R and effective strain, ε

frpe

[Limit 1]

R = 0.229

R = αλ

1

f’

c

2/3

ρ

frp

E

frp

λ

2

R = 0.8 (1.23)

45

2/3

0.0124 (22700)

0.47

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

ε

frpe

:

Step 4: Determine R and effective strain, ε

frpe

[Limit 1]

Note: This strain is one of three limits placed on the FRP

Eq. 4-23 ε

frpe

= R ε

frpu

≤ 0.004

ε

frpe

= 0.229 (0.02)

ε

frpe

= 0.0046

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

Step 5: Determine governing effective strain, ε

frpe

For design purposes, use the smallest limiting value of:

ε

frpe

= 0.0060

Eq. 4-26

ε

frpe

= 0.0040

Eq. 4-23

ε

frpe

= 0.0046

Eq. 4-23

18

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

Step 6: Calculate contribution of FRP to shear capacity

V

frp

: V

frp

=

φ

frp

A

frp

E

frp

ε

frpe

d

frp

(sinβ + cosβ)

s

frp

Eq. 4-21

V

frp

=

0.5 (260) (22700) (0.004) (325) (sin90 + cos90)

200

V

frp

= 19200 N = 19.2 kN

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

Step 7: Compute total shear resistance of beam

V

r

:

V

r

= V

c

V

s

V

frp

+ +

Eq. 4-21

V

r

= 27.5 + 17.7 + 19.2

V

r

= 64.4 kN

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

Step 8: Check maximum shear strengthening limits

Eq. 4-31

V

r

≤ V

c

+ 0.8λφ

c

f’

c

b

w

d

64400 ≤ 27500 + 0.8 (1) (0.6) (45) (105) (325)

64400 ≤ 137400

OK

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Solution

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Shear Strengthening

Example

Step 9: Check maximum band spacing

d

Eq. 4-30

s

frp

≤ w

frp

+

4

200 ≤ 100 +

325

4

200 ≤ 181

Not true, therefore use 180 mm spacing

19

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 4

ISISECModule4

Add’l Considerations

FRP anchorage and development length

Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening

Additional factors to consider:

Deflections

Crack widths

Vibrations

Creep

Fatigue

Ductility

Creep-rupture stress limits

sometimes govern FRP-

strengthened design

External strengthening with

FRPsmayreduce flexural

deformability

Deflection

L

o

a

d

NoFRP

1-layer

FRP

3-layers

FRP

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Overview

Column Strengthening

• FRP sheets can be wrapped around

concrete columns to increase strength

• How it works:

Concrete

shortens…

…and dilates…

…FRP confines

the concrete…

f

lfrp

…and places it in

triaxial stress…

Internal reinforcing steel

Concrete

FRP wrap

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Overview

Column Strengthening

• The result:

Increased load capacity

Increased deformation capability

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Overview

Column Strengthening

• Design equations are largely empirical (from tests)

• ISIS equations are applicable for the following cases:

Undamagedconcrete column

Shortcolumn subjected to

concentric axial load

Fibres oriented circumferentially

20

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

Slenderness Limits

• Strengthening equations only valid for non-

slender columns. Thus, from CSA A23.3:

A

g

= gross cross-sectional area of column

f’

c

= concrete strength

P

f

= factored axial load

l

u

= unsupported length

D

g

= column diameter

l

u

D

g

≤ Eq. 5-1

6.25

P

f

/ f’

c

A

g

0.5

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

Slenderness Limits

• Strengthening equations only valid for non-

slender columns. Thus, from CSA A23.3:

l

u

D

g

≤ Eq. 5-1

6.25

P

f

/ f’

c

A

g

0.5

The axial load capacity is

increased by the confining

effect of the wrap

Ensure that column remains short

Column may become

slender!

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

Confinement

• Based on equilibrium, the lateral confinement

pressure exerted by the FRP, f

lfrp

:

f

lfrp = Eq. 5-2

2 N

b

φ

frp

f

frpu

t

frp

D

g

N

b

= number of FRP layers

φ

frp

= material resistance factor for FRP

f

frpu

= ultimate FRP strength

t

frp

= FRP thickness

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

Confinement

• The benefit of a confining pressure is to increase

the confinedcompressive concrete strength, f’

cc

f’

cc

= f’

c

+ k

1

f

lfrp

Eq. 5-3

f’

c

= ultimate strength of unconfined concrete

k

1

= empirical coefficient from tests

21

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

Confinement

• ISIS design guidelines suggest a

modification to f’

cc

:

f’

cc

= f’

c

+ k

1

f

lfrp

= f’

c

(1 + α

pc

ω

w

) Eq. 5-4

α

pc

= performance coefficient depending on:

FRP type

f’

c

member size

(currentlytaken as 1.0)

= ω

w

=

2 f

lfrp

φ

c

f’

c

Eq. 5-5

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

ConfinementLimits

Minimum

confinement

pressure

Maximum

confinement

pressure

Why?

To ensure

adequate

ductility of

column

Limit

f

lfrp

≥ 4MPa

To prevent

excessive

deformations

of column

Limit

Why?

= 0.85 (Strength reduction factor to

account for unexpectedeccentricities)

f

lfrp

≤

f’

c

2α

pc

1

k

e

-φ

c

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Circular Columns

Column Strengthening

Axial LoadResistance

• Factored axial load resistance for an FRP-confined

reinforced concrete column, P

rmax

:

P

rmax

= k

e

[α

1

φ

c

f’

cc

(A

g

-A

s

) + φ

s

f

y

A

s

] Eq. 5-9

Same equation as for conventionally

RC column, except includes confined

concrete strength, f’

cc

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Rectangular Columns

Column Strengthening

• External FRP wrapping may be used with

rectangularcolumns

• There is far less experimental data available for

rectangular columns

• Strengthening is not nearly as effective

Confinement all around Confinement only in some areas

22

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Add’l Considerations

Column Strengthening

• External FRP wrapping may be used with circular and

rectangular RC columns to strengthen also for shear

• Particularly useful in seismic upgradesituations

where increased lateral loadsare a concern

Shear

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Add’l Considerations

Column Strengthening

• The confining effects of FRP wraps are not activated

until significant radial expansionof concrete occurs

• Therefore, ensure service loads kept lowenough

to prevent failure by creepand fatigue

StrengtheningLimits

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

Example

ISISECModule4

Problem statement

Determine the FRP wrap details for an RC column as

described below

Information

RC column factored axial resistance

(pre-strengthening) = 3110 kN

Column Strengthening

New axial live load requirement P

L

= 1550 kN

New axial dead load requirement P

D

= 1200 kN

New factored axial load, P

f

= 4200 kN

l

u

= 3000 mm

D

g

= 500 mm

A

g

= 196350 mm

2

A

st

= 2500 mm

2

f

y

= 400 MPa

f’

c

= 30 MPa

f

frpu

= 1200 MPa

t

frp

= 0.3 mm

f

frp

= 0.75

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 1: Check if column remains short after strengthening

Column Strengthening

Example

Eq. 5-1

l

u

D

g

≤

6.25

P

f

/ f’

c

A

g

0.5

OK

3000

500

≤

6.25

4200000/(30 x 196350)

0.5

6 ≤ 7.4

23

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 2: Compute required confined concrete strength, f’

cc

Column Strengthening

Example

P

rmax

= k

e

[α

1

φ

c

f’

cc

(A

g

-A

s

) + φ

s

f

y

A

s

] Eq. 5-9

Take equation 5-9 and rearrange for f’

cc

:

f’

cc

=

P

f

k

e

− φ

s

f

y

A

s

α

1

φ

c

(A

g

-A

s

)

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 2: Compute required confined concrete strength, f’

cc

Column Strengthening

Example

f’

cc

=

4200000

0.85

− 0.85 (400) (2500)

0.81 (0.6) (196350-2500)

α

1

= 0.85 – 0.0015f’

c

= 0.85 – 0.0015 (30) = 0.81 α

1

:

f’

cc

:

f’

cc

= 43.4 MPa

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 3: Compute volumetric strength ratio, ω

w

Column Strengthening

Example

ω

w

:

f’

cc

= f’

c

+ k

1

f

lfrp

= f’

c

(1 + α

pc

ω

w

) Eq. 5-4

Take equation 5-4 and rearrange for ω

w

:

ω

w

=

f’

cc

f’

c

- 1

α

pc

=

43.4

30

- 1

1

ω

w

= 0.447

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 4: Compute required confinement pressure, f

lfrp

Column Strengthening

Example

f

lfrp

:

Take equation 5-5 and rearrange for f

lfrp

:

ω

w

=

ρ

frp

φ

frp

f

frpu

φ

c

f’

c

=

2 f

lfrp

φ

c

f’

c

Eq. 5-5

f

lfrp

=

2

ω

w

φ

c

f’

c

=

2

0.447 (0.6) (30)

f

lfrp

= 4.02 MPa

24

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 4: Compute required confinement pressure, f

lfrp

Column Strengthening

Example

Check f

lfrp

again confinement limits:

f

lfrp

= 4.02 > 4.0 Minimum:

f

lfrp

= 4.02 < Maximum:

f’

c

2 α

pc

1

k

e

- φ

c

f

lfrp

= 4.02 <

30

2 (1)

1

0.85

- 0.6

= 8.65

OK, limits met

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 5: Compute required number of FRP layers

Column Strengthening

Example

Take Equation 5-2 and rearrange for N

b

:

f

lfrp = Eq. 5-2

2 N

b

φ

frp

f

frpu

t

frp

D

g

N

b

: N

b =

f

lfrp

D

g

2 φ

frp

f

frpu

t

frp

=

4.02 (500)

2 (0.75) (1200) (0.3)

N

b

= 3.72 Use 4 layers

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 6: Compute factored axial strength of FRP-wrapped column

Column Strengthening

Example

Use Equations 5-2, 5-5, 5-4 and 5-9:

f

lfrp

: f

lfrp =

2 N

b

φ

frp

f

frpu

t

frp

D

g

= 4.32 MPa

ω

w

:

ω

w

= =

2 f

lfrp

φ

c

f’

c

0.48

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 5

ISISECModule4

Solution

Step 6: Compute factored axial strength of FRP-wrapped column

Column Strengthening

Example

Use Equations 5-2, 5-5, 5-4 and 5-9:

f’

cc

:

P

rmax

:

f’

cc

= f’

c

(1 + α

pc

ω

w

) = 44.4 MPa

P

rmax

= k

e

[α

1

φ

c

f’

cc

(A

g

-A

s

) + φ

s

f

y

A

s

]

P

rmax

= 4230 kN > P

f

= 4200 kN

Note: Additional checks should be performed for creep and fatigue

25

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 6

ISISECModule4

Specifications &Quality Control

• Strengthening of structures with FRP is a relatively

simple technique

• However, it is essential to performance to install

the FRP system properly

Specifications

Quality Control / Quality Assurance

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 6

ISISECModule4

Specifications &Quality Control

Specifications

Approval of FRP materials

Handling and storage of FRP materials

Staff and contractor qualifications

Concrete surface preparation

Installation of FRP systems

Adequate conditions for FRP cure

Protection and finishing for FRP system

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 6

ISISECModule4

Specifications &Quality Control

Quality Control and Quality Assurance

Material qualification and acceptance

Qualification of contractor personnel

Inspection of concrete substrate

FRP material inspection

Testing to ensure as-built condition

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 7

ISISECModule4

Additional Applications

PrestressedFRP Sheets

• One way to improve FRP effectivenessis to apply

prestressto the sheet prior to bonding

• This allows the FRP to contribute to both service

and ultimateload-bearing situations

• It can also help close existing cracks, and delay

the formation of new cracks

• Prestressing FRP sheets is a promising technique,

but is still in initial stages of development

26

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 7

ISISECModule4

Additional Applications

NSMTechniques

• Newer class of FRP strengthening techniques: near

surface mounting reinforcement (NSMR)

Unstrengthened

concrete T-beam

Longitudinal grooves

cut into soffit

FRP strips placed

in grooves

Grooves filled

with epoxy grout

• Research indicates NSMR is effective and efficient

for strengthening

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 8

ISISECModule4

Field Applications

Maryland Bridge

Winnipeg, Manitoba

Constructed in 1969

Twin five-span continuous

precast prestressed girders

CFRP sheets to upgrade

shearcapacity

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 8

ISISECModule4

Field Applications

John Hart Bridge

Prince George, BC

64 girder ends were shear

strengthened with CFRP

Increase in shear capacity of

15-20%

Upgrade completed in 6

weeks

Locations for FRP shear reinforcement

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 8

ISISECModule4

Field Applications

Country Hills Boulevard Bridge

Calgary, AB

Deck strengthened in negative

bendingwith CFRP strips

New wearing surface placed on top

of FRP strips

27

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 8

ISISECModule4

Field Applications

St. Émélie Bridge

Sainte-Émélie-de-l'Énergie,

Quebec

Single-span, simply

supported tee-section bridge

Strengthened for flexureand

shear

Site preparation: 3 weeks,

FRP installation: 5 days

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 9

Design Guidance

ISISECModule4

Canadian codes exist for the design of FRP-

reinforced concrete members

CAN/CSA-S806-02: Design and Construction of Building

Components with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

CAN/CSA-S6-00: The Canadian Highway Bridge Design

Code (CHBDC)

Additional Information

ISISECModule4

ISIS Design Manual No. 3: Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fiber

Reinforced Polymers

ISIS EC Module 1: An Introduction to FRP Composites for

Construction

ISIS Design Manual No. 4: Strengthening Reinforced Concrete

Structures with Externally-Bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer

ISIS EC Module 4: An Introduction to FRP-Strengthening of Reinforced

Concrete Structures

ISIS EC Module 3: An introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete

Structures

FRP

Repair with

reinforcement Section: 9

Available fromwww.isiscanada.com

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