1

An Introduction to FRP-
Strengthening of Concrete Structures
ISIS Educational Module 4:
Produced by ISIS Canada
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement
Module Objectives
• To provide students with a general
awareness of FRP materials and their
potential uses
• To introduce students to the general
philosophies and procedures for
strengthening structures with FRPs
ISISECModule4
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement
Overview
Introduction
FRP Materials
Evaluation of
Existing Structures
Beam & One-Way
Slab Strengthening
Column
Strengthening
Specifications &
Quality Control
Advanced
Applications
Field Applications
Additional Info
ISISECModule4
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 1
Introduction
• The world’s population depends on an extensive
infrastructure system
• Roads, sewers, highways, buildings
• The system has suffered in past years
• Neglect, deterioration, lack of funding
Global Infrastructure Crisis
ISISECModule4
2
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 1
Introduction
• A primary factor leading to extensive degradation…
ISISECModule4
Corrosion
Moisture, oxygen and
chlorides penetrate
Concrete
Reinforcing
Steel
Through concrete
Through cracks
Corrosion products form
Volume expansion occurs
More cracking
Corrosion propagation
End result
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 1
Introduction
• Why repair with the same materials?
• Why repeat the cycle?
ISISECModule4
FRP Materials
Lightweight
Easyto install
High Strength
5xsteel
Corrosion resistant
Durable structures
Highly versatile
Suit anyproject
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 1
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
Type Application Schematic
FRP-Strengthening Applications
Fibre Dir.
Confinement
Around
column
Circumferential
Section
Shear
Side face of
beam (u-wrap)
Perpendicular
to long. axis
of beam Section
Flexural
side face of
Tension and/or
beam
axis of beam
Along long.
Section
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
• Longstanding reputation in automotive and
aerospace industries
• Over the past 15 years have FRP materials been
increasingly considered for civil infrastructure
applications
ISISECModule4
FRP costs have decreased
New, innovative solutions needed!
General
3
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
• Wide range of FRP products
available:
• Plates
• Rigid strips
• Formed through pultrusion
• Sheets
• Flexible fabric
ISISECModule4
General
Carbon FRP
sheet
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
Constituents
• What is FRP?
Fibres
Provide strength
and stiffness
Carbon, glass, aramid
Matrix
Protects and transfers load
between fibres
Epoxy, polyester, vinyl ester
Fibre Matrix
Composite
Creates a material with attributes superior to either component alone!
Strain[%]
0.4-4.8 >10
34-130
1800-4900
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
Properties
• Typical FRP stress-strain behaviour
FRP
Fibres
Matrix
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
InstallationTechniques
Wet lay-up
Used with flexible sheets
Saturate sheets with epoxy adhesive
Place on concrete surface
Epoxy
Roller
Resin acts as adhesive
AND matrix
4
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
InstallationTechniques
Pre-cured
Used with rigid, pre-cured strips
Apply adhesive to strip backing
Place on concrete surface
Not as flexible for variable
structural shapes
Resin acts as adhesive
AND matrix
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
Properties
• FRP properties
(versus steel):
• Linear elastic behaviour
to failure
• No yielding
• Higher ultimate strength
• Lower strain at failure Strain[%]
1 2 3
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
S
t
r
e
s
s

[
M
P
a
]
Steel
CFRP
GFRP
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
Properties
FRP material
properties are
a function of:
Type of fibre and matrix
Fibre volume content
Orientation of fibres
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 2
FRP Materials
ISISECModule4
Pro/Con
FRP advantages
FRP disadvantages
Will not corrode
High strength-to-weight ratio
Electromagnetically inert
High initial material cost
But not when life-cycle costs are considered
5
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 3
Evaluation of Existing Structures
ISISECModule4
Deficiencies
• Deficiencies due to:
Environmental Effects
Freeze-Thaw
Chloride Ingress
Wet-Dry
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 3
Evaluation of Existing Structures
ISISECModule4
Deficiencies
• Deficiencies due to:
Updated Design Loads
Updated design code procedures
Then Now
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 3
Evaluation of Existing Structures
ISISECModule4
Deficiencies
• Deficiencies due to:
Increase in Traffic Loads
Then Now
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 3
Evaluation of Existing Structures
ISISECModule4
Evaluation
• Evaluation is important to:
Determine concrete condition
Identify the cause of the deficiency
Establish the current load capacity
Evaluate the feasibility of FRP strengthening
6
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 3
Evaluation of Existing Structures
ISISECModule4
Evaluation
• Evaluation should include:
All past modifications
Actual size of elements
Actual material properties
Location, size and cause of cracks, spalling
Location, extent of corrosion
Quantity, location of rebar
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 3
Evaluation of Existing Structures
ISISECModule4
ConcreteSurface
• One of the key aspects of
strengthening: State of concrete substrate
• Concrete must transfer load from the elements to
the FRPs through shear in the adhesive
• Surface modification required where surface flaws exist
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
ISISECModule4
FRP rupture
Failure caused by:
Flexural Strengthening
Assumptions
Concrete crushing
Plane sections remain plane
Perfect bond between steel/concrete, FRP/concrete
Adequate anchorage &development length provided for FRPs
FRPsare linear elastic to failure
Concrete compressive stress-strain curve is parabolic, no
strength in tension
Initial strains in FRPscan be ignored
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
ISISECModule4
ResistanceFactors
Material Bridge Building
Steel φ
S
=0.90 φ
S
=0.85
Concrete φ
C
=0.75 φ
C
=0.6
FRP
φ
frp
= 0.75
φ
frp
= 0. 50
Carbon
Glass
7
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
ISISECModule4
FailureModes
Concrete crushing before steel yields
• Four potential failure modes:
Steel yielding followed by concrete crushing
Steel yielding followed by FRP rupture
Debonding of FRP reinforcement
Assume failure mode Perform analysis Check failure mode
Debondingis prevented through special end anchorages
*** Assume initial strains at the time of strengthening are zero***
*** Refer to EC Module 4 Notes ***
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
• Force equilibrium in section:
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
General Design
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
c
h
b
frp
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
T
s
+ T
frp
= C
c
Eq. 4-1
C
c
= φ
c
α
1
f’
c
β
1
bc T
frp
= φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frp
T
s
= φ
s
A
s
f
s
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
• Apply strain compatibility and use these equations to solve for neutral
axis depth, c
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
c
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
General Design
h
b
frp
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
• Section capacity:
M
r
= T
s
d −
a
2
Eq. 4-5 + T
frp
h −
a
2
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step1: Assume failure mode
Assume that section fails by concrete crushing after steel yields
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
cu
ε
s
c
Thus: ε
frp
= ε
cu
Eq. 4-6
ε
c
= ε
cu
= 0.0035
(h-c)/c
ε
s
= ε
cu
(d-c)/c
Eq. 4-7
8
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step 2: Determine compressive stress block factors
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
cu
ε
s
c
Eq. 4-8 α
1
= 0.85-0.0015f’
c
> 0.67
Eq. 4-9 β
1
= 0.97-0.0025f’
c
> 0.67
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step 3: Determine neutral axis depth, c
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
cu
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
Eq. 4-10
φ
c
α
1
f’
c
β
1
bc φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frp
= φ
s
A
s
f
s
+
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step 4: Check if assumed failure mode is correct
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
cu
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
?
>
ε
frp
= ε
cu
(h-c)/c ε
frpu
Eq. 4-11
If true, go to Step 6 If false, go to Step 5
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step 5: Calculate factored moment resistance
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
cu
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
M
r

s
A
s
f
y
d −
a
2
Eq. 4-12 + h −
a
2
φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frp
9
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step 5: Calculate factored moment resistance
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
cu
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
Check if internal steel yields to ensure adequate deformability
ε
s
= ε
cu
(d-c)/c
>
ε
y
?
If yes, OK
If no, reduce FRP
amount & recalculate
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Step 6: Assume different failure mode
Strain Distribution
ε
frpu
ε
c
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frpu
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
Assume failure occurs by tensile failure of FRP
Thus:
ε
frp
= ε
frpu
ε
c
< ε
cu
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Strain Distribution
ε
frpu
ε
c
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frpu
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
Eq. 4-15
φ
c
α
1
f’
c
β
1
bc φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frpu
= φ
s
A
s
f
y
+
Step 7: Determine depth of neutral axis
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Strain Distribution
ε
frpu
ε
c
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frpu
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
Step 8: Check if assumed failure mode is correct
ε
c
< ε
cu
ε
frpu
c / (h-c) < ε
cu
10
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Analysis Procedure
h
b
frp
Strain Distribution
ε
frpu
ε
c
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frpu
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
Step 9: Calculate factored moment resistance
M
r

s
A
s
f
y
d −
a
2
Eq. 4-17 + h −
a
2
φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frpu
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
b
d
Cross Section
A
s
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
WithCompressionSteel
h
b
frp
Strain Distribution
ε
frp
ε
s
c
Stress Distribution
f
s
f
frp
Equiv. Stress
Distribution
a = β
1
c
α
1
Φ
c
f’
c
T
s
T
frp
C
c
•Similar analysis procedure
A’
s
ε
cu
ε’
s
f’
s
C
s
Add a compressive stress resultant
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
TeeBeams
•Similar analysis procedure
Neutral axis in flange: treat as rectangular section
Neutral axis in web: treat as tee section
b
f
h
f
h
b
frp
A
frp
c
M
r
M
rw
= +
M
rf
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Flexural Example
ISISECModule4
Problem statement
Calculate the moment resistance (M
r
) for an FRP-
strengthened rectangular concrete section
Section information
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
f’
c
= 45 MPa ε
frpu
= 1.55 %
A
frp
= 60 mm
2
f
y
= 400 MPa
E
s
= 200 GPa
E
frp
= 155 GPa
b = 105 mm
h

=

3
5
0

m
m
3-10M bars
d

=

3
2
5

m
m
CFRP
11
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 1: Assumed failure mode
Flexural Example
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Assume failure of beam due to crushing of concretein
compression after yielding of internal steel reinforcement
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 2: Calculate concrete stress block factors
Flexural Example
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
α
1
= 0.85 – 0.0015 f’
c
> 0.67
α
1
= 0.85 – 0.0015 (45) = 0.78

β
1
= 0.85 – 0.0025 f’
c
> 0.67
β
1
= 0.85 – 0.0025 (45) = 0.86

FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 3: Find depth of neutral axis, c
Flexural Example
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Use Equation 4-10:
φ
c
α
1
f’
c
β
1
bc = φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frp
φ
s
A
s
f
s
+
0.6 (0.78) (45) (0.86) (105) c 0.85 (300) (400)
350 - c
0.75 (60) (155000) 0.0035
c
c = 90.5 mm
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 4: Check failure mode
Flexural Example
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Therefore, FRP rupture does NOT occur
and assumed failure mode is correct
ε
frp
= 0.0035
350 - 90.5
90.5
ε
frp
= 0.01 < ε
frpu
= 0.0155
ε
frp
= ε
cu
(h-c)/c ε
frpu
= 0.0155 Eq. 4-11 vs.
12
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 4: Check failure mode
Flexural Example
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
ε
s
= ε
cu
d - c
c
To promote ductility, check that steel has yielded:
ε
s
= 0.0035
325 - 90.5
90.5
> 0.002 = ε
y
If the steel had NOT yielded, the beam failure could be expected
to be less ductile, and we would need to carefully check the
deformabilityof the member
= 0.009
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 5: Calculate moment resistance
Flexural Example
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
M
r

s
A
s
f
y
d −
a
2
Eq. 4-12 + h −
a
2
φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frp
0.85 (300) (400) 325 -
0.86 x 90.5
2
0.75 (60) (155000) (0.01) 350 -
0.86 x 90.5
2
M
r
= 50.9 × 10
6
N· mm = 50.9 kN· m
65%increase over
unstrengthened beam!
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
May be aligned at
any angle to the
longitudinal axis
Assumptions
• FRP sheets can be applied to provide shear resistance
• Many different possible configurations
May be applied in
continuous sheets
or in finite widths
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Assumptions
• FRP sheets can be applied to provide shear resistance
• Many different possible configurations
May be applied
on sides only or
as U-wraps
Section
Section
*U-wraps also improve the anchorage of flexural FRP external reinforcement
n
e
= 1
n
e
= 2
13
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Assumptions
Section
To avoid stress
concentrations,
allow for a
minimum radius
of 15 mm
w
frp
s
frp
β
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
External strengthening with FRPs:
Flexural failure Generally fairly ductile
Shear failure Sudden and brittle
Undesirable failure mode
Control shear deformation
to avoid sudden failure
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Shear resistance of a beam:
V
r
= V
c
V
s
V
frp
+ +
Eq. 4-18
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Shear resistance of a beam:
V
s
=
φ
s
f
y
A
v
d
s
Eq. 4-20
V
c
= 0.2 φ
c
√f’
c
b
w
d
Eq. 4-19
14
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Shear resistance of a beam:
V
frp
=
φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frpe
d
frp
(sinβ + cosβ)
s
frp
Eq. 4-21
A
frp
= 2 t
frp
w
frp

d
frp
: distance from free end of FRP to
bottom of internal steel stirrups

FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Eq. 4-23 ε
frpe
= R ε
frpu
≤ 0.004
Prevents shear cracks from widening
beyond acceptable limits
Ensures aggregateinterlock!
Effective strain in FRP, ε
frpe
:
Reduction factor, R:
0.8
Carbon: λ
1
= 1.35, λ
2
= 0.30
Glass: λ
1
= 1.23, λ
2
= 0.47
Eq. 4-24
R = αλ
1
f’
c
2/3
ρ
frp
E
frp
λ
2
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
FRP shear reinforcement ratio, ρ
frp
:
Eq. 4-25 ρ
frp
=
2 t
frp
b
w
w
frp
s
frp
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Another limit on effective strain in FRP, ε
frpe
:
Eq. 4-26 ε
frpe

αk
1
k
2
L
e
9525
0.8
Parameters, k
1
and k
2
:
Eq. 4-27
k
1
=
f’
c
27.65
2/3
Eq. 4-28
k
2
=
d
frp
- n
e
L
e
d
frp
15
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Effective anchorage length, L
e
:
Eq. 4-29 L
e
=
25350
t
frp
E
frp
0.58
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Limit on spacing of strips, s
frp
:
Eq. 4-30
s
frp
≤ w
frp
+
d
4
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
DesignPrinciples
Limit on maximum allowable shear strengthening, V
frp
:
Shear contribution due to steel
stirrups andFRP
strengthening must be less
than this term
Eq. 4-31
V
r
≤ V
c
+ 0.8λφ
c
√f’
c
b
w
d
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
Shear Strengthening
ISISECModule4
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Example
Problem statement
Calculate the shear capacity (V
r
) for an FRP-
strengthened concrete section
Section information
Section
b = 105 mm
h

=

3
5
0

m
m
3-10M bars
d

=

3
2
5

m
m
4.76 mm Ø
GFRP wrap
Section Elevation
λ = 1.0
f’
c
= 45 MPa
ε
frpu
= 2.0 %
f
y
= 400 MPa (rebar)
E
frp
= 22.7 GPa
f
y
= 400 MPa (stirrup)
s
s
= 225 mm c/c
t
frp
= 1.3 mm
w
frp
= 100 mm
s
frp
= 200 mm
16
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 1: Calculate concrete and steel contributions
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
Concrete:
Steel: V
s
=
φ
s
f
y
A
v
d
s
=
0.85 (400) (36) (325)
225
V
s
= 17680 N = 17.68 kN
V
c
= 0.2 φ
c
√f’
c
b
w
d
V
c
= 0.2 (0.6) √45 (105) (325)
V
c
= 27470 N = 27.47 kN
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 2: Determine A
frp
, ρ
frp
, L
e
for effective strain calculation
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
A
frp
: A
frp
= 2 t
frp
w
frp
= 2 (1.3) (100)
A
frp
= 260 mm
2
ρ
frp
: ρ
frp
=
2 t
frp
b
w
w
frp
s
frp
=
2 (1.3)
105
100
200
ρ
frp
= 0.0124
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 2: Determine A
frp
, ρ
frp
, L
e
for effective strain calculation
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
L
e
: L
e
=
25350
t
frp
E
frp
0.58
=
25350
1.3 x 22700
0.58
L
e
= 64.8 mm
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 3: Determine k
1
, k
2
and effective strain, ε
frpe
[Limit 2]
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
k
1
: k
1
=
f’
c
27.65
2/3
=
45
27.65
2/3
= 1.38
k
2
: k
2
=
d
frp
- n
e
L
e
d
frp
=
325 – 1 (64.8)
325
= 0.80
Because of u-wrap
17
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
ε
frpe
:
ε
frpe
=
0.8 (1.38) (0.80) (64.8)
9525
ε
frpe
= 0.0060
ε
frpe

αk
1
k
2
L
e
9525
Eq. 4-26
Note: This strain is one of three limits placed on the FRP
Step 3: Determine k
1
, k
2
and effective strain, ε
frpe
[Limit 2]
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
R:
Step 4: Determine R and effective strain, ε
frpe
[Limit 1]
R = 0.229
R = αλ
1
f’
c
2/3
ρ
frp
E
frp
λ
2
R = 0.8 (1.23)
45
2/3
0.0124 (22700)
0.47
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
ε
frpe
:
Step 4: Determine R and effective strain, ε
frpe
[Limit 1]
Note: This strain is one of three limits placed on the FRP
Eq. 4-23 ε
frpe
= R ε
frpu
≤ 0.004
ε
frpe
= 0.229 (0.02)
ε
frpe
= 0.0046
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
Step 5: Determine governing effective strain, ε
frpe
For design purposes, use the smallest limiting value of:
ε
frpe
= 0.0060
Eq. 4-26
ε
frpe
= 0.0040
Eq. 4-23
ε
frpe
= 0.0046
Eq. 4-23
18
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
Step 6: Calculate contribution of FRP to shear capacity
V
frp
: V
frp
=
φ
frp
A
frp
E
frp
ε
frpe
d
frp
(sinβ + cosβ)
s
frp
Eq. 4-21
V
frp
=
0.5 (260) (22700) (0.004) (325) (sin90 + cos90)
200
V
frp
= 19200 N = 19.2 kN
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
Step 7: Compute total shear resistance of beam
V
r
:
V
r
= V
c
V
s
V
frp
+ +
Eq. 4-21
V
r
= 27.5 + 17.7 + 19.2
V
r
= 64.4 kN
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
Step 8: Check maximum shear strengthening limits
Eq. 4-31
V
r
≤ V
c
+ 0.8λφ
c
f’
c
b
w
d
64400 ≤ 27500 + 0.8 (1) (0.6) (45) (105) (325)
64400 ≤ 137400
OK
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Solution
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Shear Strengthening
Example
Step 9: Check maximum band spacing
d
Eq. 4-30
s
frp
≤ w
frp
+
4
200 ≤ 100 +
325
4
200 ≤ 181
Not true, therefore use 180 mm spacing
19
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 4
ISISECModule4
Add’l Considerations
FRP anchorage and development length
Beam/One-Way Slab Strengthening
Additional factors to consider:
Deflections
Crack widths
Vibrations
Creep
Fatigue
Ductility
Creep-rupture stress limits
sometimes govern FRP-
strengthened design
External strengthening with
FRPsmayreduce flexural
deformability
Deflection
L
o
a
d
NoFRP
1-layer
FRP
3-layers
FRP
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Overview
Column Strengthening
• FRP sheets can be wrapped around
concrete columns to increase strength
• How it works:
Concrete
shortens…
…and dilates…
…FRP confines
the concrete…
f
lfrp
…and places it in
triaxial stress…
Internal reinforcing steel
Concrete
FRP wrap
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Overview
Column Strengthening
• The result:
Increased load capacity
Increased deformation capability
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Overview
Column Strengthening
• Design equations are largely empirical (from tests)
• ISIS equations are applicable for the following cases:
Undamagedconcrete column
Shortcolumn subjected to
concentric axial load
Fibres oriented circumferentially
20
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
Slenderness Limits
• Strengthening equations only valid for non-
slender columns. Thus, from CSA A23.3:
A
g
= gross cross-sectional area of column
f’
c
= concrete strength
P
f
= factored axial load
l
u
= unsupported length
D
g
= column diameter
l
u
D
g
≤ Eq. 5-1
6.25
P
f
/ f’
c
A
g
0.5
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
Slenderness Limits
• Strengthening equations only valid for non-
slender columns. Thus, from CSA A23.3:
l
u
D
g
≤ Eq. 5-1
6.25
P
f
/ f’
c
A
g
0.5
The axial load capacity is
increased by the confining
effect of the wrap
Ensure that column remains short
Column may become
slender!
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
Confinement
• Based on equilibrium, the lateral confinement
pressure exerted by the FRP, f
lfrp
:
f
lfrp = Eq. 5-2
2 N
b
φ
frp
f
frpu
t
frp
D
g
N
b
= number of FRP layers
φ
frp
= material resistance factor for FRP
f
frpu
= ultimate FRP strength
t
frp
= FRP thickness
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
Confinement
• The benefit of a confining pressure is to increase
the confinedcompressive concrete strength, f’
cc
f’
cc
= f’
c
+ k
1
f
lfrp
Eq. 5-3
f’
c
= ultimate strength of unconfined concrete
k
1
= empirical coefficient from tests
21
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
Confinement
• ISIS design guidelines suggest a
modification to f’
cc
:
f’
cc
= f’
c
+ k
1
f
lfrp
= f’
c
(1 + α
pc
ω
w
) Eq. 5-4
α
pc
= performance coefficient depending on:
FRP type
f’
c
member size
(currentlytaken as 1.0)
= ω
w
=
2 f
lfrp
φ
c
f’
c
Eq. 5-5
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
ConfinementLimits
Minimum
confinement
pressure
Maximum
confinement
pressure
Why?
To ensure
adequate
ductility of
column
Limit
f
lfrp
≥ 4MPa
To prevent
excessive
deformations
of column
Limit
Why?
= 0.85 (Strength reduction factor to
account for unexpectedeccentricities)
f
lfrp

f’
c

pc
1
k
e

c
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Circular Columns
Column Strengthening
Axial LoadResistance
• Factored axial load resistance for an FRP-confined
reinforced concrete column, P
rmax
:
P
rmax
= k
e

1
φ
c
f’
cc
(A
g
-A
s
) + φ
s
f
y
A
s
] Eq. 5-9
Same equation as for conventionally
RC column, except includes confined
concrete strength, f’
cc
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Rectangular Columns
Column Strengthening
• External FRP wrapping may be used with
rectangularcolumns
• There is far less experimental data available for
rectangular columns
• Strengthening is not nearly as effective
Confinement all around Confinement only in some areas
22
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Add’l Considerations
Column Strengthening
• External FRP wrapping may be used with circular and
rectangular RC columns to strengthen also for shear
• Particularly useful in seismic upgradesituations
where increased lateral loadsare a concern
Shear
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Add’l Considerations
Column Strengthening
• The confining effects of FRP wraps are not activated
until significant radial expansionof concrete occurs
• Therefore, ensure service loads kept lowenough
to prevent failure by creepand fatigue
StrengtheningLimits
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
Example
ISISECModule4
Problem statement
Determine the FRP wrap details for an RC column as
described below
Information
RC column factored axial resistance
(pre-strengthening) = 3110 kN
Column Strengthening
New axial live load requirement P
L
= 1550 kN
New axial dead load requirement P
D
= 1200 kN
New factored axial load, P
f
= 4200 kN
l
u
= 3000 mm
D
g
= 500 mm
A
g
= 196350 mm
2
A
st
= 2500 mm
2
f
y
= 400 MPa
f’
c
= 30 MPa
f
frpu
= 1200 MPa
t
frp
= 0.3 mm
f
frp
= 0.75
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 1: Check if column remains short after strengthening
Column Strengthening
Example
Eq. 5-1
l
u
D
g

6.25
P
f
/ f’
c
A
g
0.5
OK
3000
500

6.25
4200000/(30 x 196350)
0.5
6 ≤ 7.4
23
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 2: Compute required confined concrete strength, f’
cc
Column Strengthening
Example
P
rmax
= k
e

1
φ
c
f’
cc
(A
g
-A
s
) + φ
s
f
y
A
s
] Eq. 5-9
Take equation 5-9 and rearrange for f’
cc
:
f’
cc
=
P
f
k
e
− φ
s
f
y
A
s
α
1
φ
c
(A
g
-A
s
)

FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 2: Compute required confined concrete strength, f’
cc
Column Strengthening
Example
f’
cc
=
4200000
0.85
− 0.85 (400) (2500)
0.81 (0.6) (196350-2500)
α
1
= 0.85 – 0.0015f’
c
= 0.85 – 0.0015 (30) = 0.81 α
1
:
f’
cc
:
f’
cc
= 43.4 MPa
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 3: Compute volumetric strength ratio, ω
w
Column Strengthening
Example
ω
w
:
f’
cc
= f’
c
+ k
1
f
lfrp
= f’
c
(1 + α
pc
ω
w
) Eq. 5-4
Take equation 5-4 and rearrange for ω
w
:
ω
w
=
f’
cc
f’
c
- 1
α
pc
=
43.4
30
- 1
1
ω
w
= 0.447
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 4: Compute required confinement pressure, f
lfrp
Column Strengthening
Example
f
lfrp
:
Take equation 5-5 and rearrange for f
lfrp
:
ω
w
=
ρ
frp
φ
frp
f
frpu
φ
c
f’
c
=
2 f
lfrp
φ
c
f’
c
Eq. 5-5
f
lfrp
=
2
ω
w
φ
c
f’
c
=
2
0.447 (0.6) (30)
f
lfrp
= 4.02 MPa
24
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 4: Compute required confinement pressure, f
lfrp
Column Strengthening
Example
Check f
lfrp
again confinement limits:
f
lfrp
= 4.02 > 4.0 Minimum:
f
lfrp
= 4.02 < Maximum:
f’
c
2 α
pc
1
k
e
- φ
c
f
lfrp
= 4.02 <
30
2 (1)
1
0.85
- 0.6
= 8.65
OK, limits met
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 5: Compute required number of FRP layers
Column Strengthening
Example
Take Equation 5-2 and rearrange for N
b
:
f
lfrp = Eq. 5-2
2 N
b
φ
frp
f
frpu
t
frp
D
g
N
b
: N
b =
f
lfrp
D
g
2 φ
frp
f
frpu
t
frp
=
4.02 (500)
2 (0.75) (1200) (0.3)
N
b
= 3.72 Use 4 layers
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 6: Compute factored axial strength of FRP-wrapped column
Column Strengthening
Example
Use Equations 5-2, 5-5, 5-4 and 5-9:
f
lfrp
: f
lfrp =
2 N
b
φ
frp
f
frpu
t
frp
D
g
= 4.32 MPa
ω
w
:
ω
w
= =
2 f
lfrp
φ
c
f’
c
0.48
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 5
ISISECModule4
Solution
Step 6: Compute factored axial strength of FRP-wrapped column
Column Strengthening
Example
Use Equations 5-2, 5-5, 5-4 and 5-9:
f’
cc
:
P
rmax
:
f’
cc
= f’
c
(1 + α
pc
ω
w
) = 44.4 MPa
P
rmax
= k
e

1
φ
c
f’
cc
(A
g
-A
s
) + φ
s
f
y
A
s
]
P
rmax
= 4230 kN > P
f
= 4200 kN
Note: Additional checks should be performed for creep and fatigue
25
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 6
ISISECModule4
Specifications &Quality Control
• Strengthening of structures with FRP is a relatively
simple technique
• However, it is essential to performance to install
the FRP system properly
Specifications
Quality Control / Quality Assurance
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 6
ISISECModule4
Specifications &Quality Control
Specifications
Approval of FRP materials
Handling and storage of FRP materials
Staff and contractor qualifications
Concrete surface preparation
Installation of FRP systems
Adequate conditions for FRP cure
Protection and finishing for FRP system
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 6
ISISECModule4
Specifications &Quality Control
Quality Control and Quality Assurance
Material qualification and acceptance
Qualification of contractor personnel
Inspection of concrete substrate
FRP material inspection
Testing to ensure as-built condition
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 7
ISISECModule4
Additional Applications
PrestressedFRP Sheets
• One way to improve FRP effectivenessis to apply
prestressto the sheet prior to bonding
• This allows the FRP to contribute to both service
and ultimateload-bearing situations
• It can also help close existing cracks, and delay
the formation of new cracks
• Prestressing FRP sheets is a promising technique,
but is still in initial stages of development
26
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 7
ISISECModule4
Additional Applications
NSMTechniques
• Newer class of FRP strengthening techniques: near
surface mounting reinforcement (NSMR)
Unstrengthened
concrete T-beam
Longitudinal grooves
cut into soffit
FRP strips placed
in grooves
Grooves filled
with epoxy grout
• Research indicates NSMR is effective and efficient
for strengthening
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 8
ISISECModule4
Field Applications
Maryland Bridge
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Constructed in 1969
Twin five-span continuous
precast prestressed girders
CFRP sheets to upgrade
shearcapacity
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 8
ISISECModule4
Field Applications
John Hart Bridge
Prince George, BC
64 girder ends were shear
strengthened with CFRP
Increase in shear capacity of
15-20%
Upgrade completed in 6
weeks
Locations for FRP shear reinforcement
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 8
ISISECModule4
Field Applications
Country Hills Boulevard Bridge
Calgary, AB
Deck strengthened in negative
bendingwith CFRP strips
New wearing surface placed on top
of FRP strips
27
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 8
ISISECModule4
Field Applications
St. Émélie Bridge
Sainte-Émélie-de-l'Énergie,
Quebec
Single-span, simply
supported tee-section bridge
Strengthened for flexureand
shear
Site preparation: 3 weeks,
FRP installation: 5 days
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 9
Design Guidance
ISISECModule4
Canadian codes exist for the design of FRP-
reinforced concrete members
CAN/CSA-S806-02: Design and Construction of Building
Components with Fibre Reinforced Polymers
CAN/CSA-S6-00: The Canadian Highway Bridge Design
Code (CHBDC)
Additional Information
ISISECModule4
ISIS Design Manual No. 3: Reinforcing Concrete Structures with Fiber
Reinforced Polymers
ISIS EC Module 1: An Introduction to FRP Composites for
Construction
ISIS Design Manual No. 4: Strengthening Reinforced Concrete
Structures with Externally-Bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer
ISIS EC Module 4: An Introduction to FRP-Strengthening of Reinforced
Concrete Structures
ISIS EC Module 3: An introduction to FRP-Reinforced Concrete
Structures
FRP
Repair with
reinforcement Section: 9
Available fromwww.isiscanada.com