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3-1

8.3 Generalize to CPM [P4.3.3]

8.3.1 CPM Signals

• Generalize from CPFSK to continuous phase modulation (CPM) by

allowing:

non-rectangular frequency pulses

frequency pulses with durations , 1 LT L >

o Example: 2REC – and we can go to L-REC:

o Example: 2RC (raised cosine) – and we can go to L-RC:

8.3-1

8.3-2

o Example: Gaussian MSK (GMSK), with parameter : BT

The frequency pulse is a Gaussian filtered rectangular pulse:

The frequency pulse has area 1/2, as usual:

• Why bother with CPM?

o Smoother transitions, so lower bandwidth;

o Slower rise of phase pulse (takes symbols to get to ½) means

smaller frequency shift, so lower bandwidth;

L

o Longer rise of phase pulse to ½ means a chance of increasing

between alternative signals

min

d

8.3-2

8.3-3

• The generic CPM transmitted signal is then

( , )

( , ) 2 ( )

( , )

k o

k

j t

t h I q t kT

s t P e

φ

φ = π − +

=

∑

I

I

I

φ

where is usually taken to be zero with coherent detection.

o

φ

• Typical CPM signal trajectories:

o First, the total phase ( , ) t φ I

o Next, the complex signal : ( , ) s t I

8.3-3

8.3-4

8.3.2 CPM States and Trellis

• The state description of general CPM is more complex than for the CPFSK

special case. Consider the effect of the past on ( ) t φ in interval n,

, shown below for 3RC, which has ( 1) nT t n T ≤ < + 3 L = .

All symbols are

taken as +1 here.

1 1

1 1

1

1

current pulse

phase state correlative state , ,

the state ( , , , )

( , ) 2 ( ) 2 ( )

n n n L

n n n n L

n

k k n

k n L k n L

I I

I I

t h I h I q t kT hI q t nT

− − +

− − +

−

≤ − = − +

θ

σ = θ

φ = π + π − + π −

∑ ∑

I

…

…

**o The phase state is not the same as the signal phase . It is the
**

sum of all saturated phase pulses, up to and including .

n

θ (nT φ )

n L

I

−

o The correlative state comprises all past symbols for which the phase

pulse is still changing across interval n.

o And, of course, the remaining influence is the current symbol

n

I .

8.3-4

8.3-5

• So the state affecting interval n, ( 1) nT t n T ≤ < + is

1 2 1

phase

correlative state

state

, , , ,

n n n n n L

I I I

− − − +

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

σ = θ

⎜

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

…

⎟

, summarizing relevant history,

and the state update is

( )

1 1

mod2

n n n L

hI

+ − +

θ = θ + π π

( )

1 1 1

, , , ,

n n n n n L

I I I

+ + − −

σ = θ …

2 +

The allowable values of the phase state

n

θ are the same as in full response

( ), like CPFSK. 1 L =

• Example: binary transmission with 2REC

The phase pulse is

o The phase in interval n, ( 1) nT t n T ≤ < + is determined by

(a) the new bit ;

n

I

(b) the legacy from the past:

1 n

I

−

, which is still causing the phase to

change; and , which is static, from saturated pulses.

2

k

k n

h I

≤ −

π

∑ n

= θ

So the state is

( )

1

,

n n n

I

−

σ = θ .

8.3-5

8.3-6

o The phase state is determined by

n

θ

2 n

I

−

and previous bits. The

possible values of are determined by h alone, not L or M.

n

θ

For 2 3 h = :

o Transitions: Since , the

1 1 − n n n

h I

+

θ = θ + π

1 n

I

−

part of the state

(

1

,

n n n

)

I

−

σ = θ tells you whether

1 n+

θ will increase from or not.

n

θ

For example, (0,+1) must go to (1, x)

(0,-1) must go to (2, x)

o Sketch a trellis using state

( )

1

,

n n n

I

−

σ = θ

8.3-6

8.3-7

• Caution: Unlike CPFSK, the phase (nT) φ at the start of interval n is not

sufficient itself as a state variable.

o If it were, then the phase trajectory ( ) t φ in ( 1) nT t n T ≤ < + would be

determined solely by and the data (nT φ )

n

I .

o But in is affected by previous symbol values in

the phase state and the correlative state, and

( ) t φ ( 1) nT t n T ≤ < +

(nT) φ cannot

unambiguously represent both components of the state.

o Example: 2REC, 2 3 h = , again. We have

1 1

( ) 2 ( )

3

n n n n

nT hq T I I

− −

π

φ = θ + π = θ +

The phase can take on 3 values: (nT φ )

Solid dots: phase state

n

θ

Open dots: the 3 possible values of

starting phase ( ) nT φ

These phases cannot unambiguously represent

n

θ and

1 n

I

−

. For

example, phase 0 can arise from

′

0

3

π

+ (

1

1

n

I

−

= + ) or from

2

3 3

π π

−

( ).

1

1

n

I

−

= −

8.3-7

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