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**Economics 101 - Chapters 10 & 11
**

1a) The tax multiplier here is: -MPC/(1-MPC) = (-0.75 / (1 – 0.75)) = -3.

So ∆Y = tax multiplier x ∆T = (-3) x (-10) = 30.

The change in gov saving (T-G) = ∆T= -10. This is a budget deficit, so the president will not be

satisfied.

b) The government purchases multiplier = (1 / (1 – 0.75)) = 4.

So the combined change in Y = (gov purchases multiplier) ∆G + (tax multiplier) ∆T

= (4) x (-10) + (-3) x (-10) = -40 + 30 = -10.

The change in government saving = ∆T - ∆G = (-10) – (-10)= 0.

The budget is balanced, but output falls rather than rises. The president again will not be satisfied.

c) Now the combined change in Y = (4) x (30) + (-3) x (30) = 30. The budget now is balanced and

output rises. So the president will finally be satisfied. The key is that government spending has a

more direct and more powerful effect on total expenditure than do taxes.

2a) Y = C + I + G c) (M/P)

d

= (M/P)

s

Y = 0.8(Y-1000) + 800 - 20r + 1000 0.4Y - 40r = 1200

IS: r = 50 - 0.01 Y. LM: r = -30 + 0.01Y

b) If investment did not depend on the d) If money demand did not respond to

interest rate, movements in r would output at all, then money market

have no effect on output. So the IS, equilibrium would require one particular level

curve would be vertical. of interest rate, so the LM curve would be

For example, if we recomputed the IS completely horizontal (zero slope) at that

curve above assuming I=800, we get level of r. For example, if you solve the

Y=5000 (a vertical line at 5000). above equation for the case of (M/P)

d

= -40r ,

the resulting LM is r = -30, a horizontal line.

e) Combining IS and LM: 50 - 0.01 Y = -30 + 0.01Y so Y = 4000

So: r = 50 - 0.01(4000) = 10. (using the IS equation; you could also use the LM equation).

I = 800 - 20(10) = 600

C = 0.8(Y-T) = 0.8(4000 – 1000) = 0.8(3000) = 2400.

f) Y increases by 250.

The fall in r raises investment.

The rise in income raises consumption.

r

Y

r

r

Y

Y

50

-30

Slope = -0.01 Slope = 0.01

LM

2

IS

LM

LM

1

IS

4000 4250

g) A higher value for d makes the IS curve flatter, which means the shift in the LM curve makes

Y rise more. Intuitively, the monetary policy lowering interest rates is more powerful in

raising expenditure, if investment expenditure responds more to the lower interest rates.

3a)

11/9/09

r3

r1

3

Ybar

The cut taxes raises consumption and hence overall demand at any

interest rate: this is a rightward shift in the IS curve and AD curve

in the short run. In the long run, the rise in price lowers real money

supply: this is the leftward shift in the LM curve in the long run.

b) Short run: Y rises, r rises, consumption rises (both due to the cut

in taxes and the rise in Y), investment falls.

c) Long run: Output returns to its original level, but the interest rate

is higher, investment is lower (due to the interest rate), and

consumption is higher (due to the taxes). This is the same result

you found for a tax cut in the neoclassical model in homework

#1.

2

IS1

r

2

3

1

SRAS

AD2

AD1

LRAS

P3

P

P1

Ybar Y2

Y

IS2

1

r2

LM1

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