..

,
4·12
fij
4.4 Mho Relll~Adminance Rela~ "
4 4 i t r i t n
4.12 •3•00!!c!'I!t0!g00
4-12 . , .., 43.3 0pe!!!I !!Q a-1s:I cs.....
- - .. - " 4.32 T O !!!!!! E !IU ID C W I
4-5 41.4 Oisadvan'", 0 1 PI l onI mpedance Relay •
4.2.3Opel a;!ng ~ 00 R·X 0l ag!3m ••••••.
4.2.2Openi:m C haraaensllcs •• ,.. .. .•• ....... .. .. ...
4.1 Otstance Rata ,..~ 4-1
Review Questions 3-9
37 DifftQJltles to Bushar protecllon 3-9
3.6 High Impedance D ifferential Protection of Busbar ' 3-8
35 CUWl aUngC U rT entProlpction 01Busbar ,,'..... ,,3-7
34 Framel aa aProtection of Busbar " _ _._ 3-6
}S ! , , ± , ± , 331 BystwEm
3. 5 33 Bllsha, pmlec:tiQn
3-5 3.2.3 Vaftag! Bal ance I l I fI n<1til i Relay
, 1t •
32 Typel !OfOl !'t!!!!ua!!l ay§ ",,''''' U ,,'" """""u,,u
31.!~~~, c..' , ,
3-1 3,1 Introduction "
(3-1to 3-10)
",," ""Iq" I I T t"
ReyiewOuestigos. ""tll!1!!",,' tll"l "T t
29 Universal Relay Torque Equation 4 2· 28
EJ tampies wrth Solutions II.'"II'''' "'!!.Ir"" IIIt, t. "" It"",." t."p'p'.5:31
t Unbalanced Loadin 5-30
5 11Rotor enab elld1pmtoclion
"0,,0_tt!II' t.ll.
.- """',,"'" 5:19
5 10Stator Protac:bonAgainst Intenum Faults .,....
5-18 5,9100% Earth Fault protection ,.,
5·16 58Balanced Earth Fau"protection
5-15 5.7 Unreslric!ed Earth Fault proteclioo,,,,.,.. ,,',. .
5.3 BaSICpjfferentlal prolecUon Scheme (orGenerators """"",,""""""" "..5-6
5.4 Basic Percentage Differential ProtocUonScheme for Generators .,..".".5-7
5.5 Merz·Price Proledion of Alternator StatorWindings }§
82'Ot_«"'''*!'
$23'0.''''''
5233l)< 2 _ L oocI!!q.
52 3AIInanNII!um!lq C ond i !lonl.•.
5.2.31 0.-9
S 2 2 Rcax ea,e.
, , .. , , , -
5 2 1SIa!!>! fait>
5 2 Generator EauliS
5 1InUoductm ... '",,'1111"It.II'to •• "",,,It, ItIt ,eeti"'It"I", 11""'"" IttI'..,,1.,Ie IIli e'""ItlII.5:1
Revi ew OI'esti onS +22
.61 0IstIncer.".~Rei ly,••• 0.' , ,',.... • •• •• • 4..19
4~3Aec*?'- ond ~. of 00sIMa RAIla'!!.. '-21
(1 .1)
The relays are compx1 and self eonrained devices ,,,,tuch an sense the nboort\31
conditions. When<l'\."er Anabnormal condition C'<isIS, the !"day contacts get closed. This
intum closes tbe trip orcuit o( • circuli breaker, The circuit b""'M-~ are capablc 01
dlsconn~ctin8 • (.ulr), ~Iem.nt, when they M. called upon to dn so by Ihl! relo)..
Thueentir~prOC

!llindue!.... III,' o""r"nons likf (>'-':urre_ oi (.ul~ op<lr~tl"no( ",lay,
(~pM1ln8()r ., cil'CU't bt~.k.et And rt·'l'lov141()f r"ulty ~k!n\t"nt. Thas entire pnx'(."S. .. Is
.-,utOlllatic31\(:1(ast. wtuch is pos8iblt' due to e((t.'Ctiveproll'ctl\t! relOlying scheme
TI\e protective relaying scheme i_I\(J ud,,~pretective CUl'Tt"I'II transformers. voltage
transformers, protective reiaY", time delay relays, auxiliary relays, secondary orelli!:!,
tnp circuits etc Each. coa\p<.mC!nt pL1yS ihS owrt rote.. which is vt'1)' i1nporl"nt in th~
overall operation ofthe ~J\e. The protective reLlying is !hi: ;eam work of .uthe>;:
ronlpont:nts, The pl"OteC:lfV~~I.yil'gIIJ ~oprovides the indlC'""uon of 1«4th_ln and t).~
0( thi' r."It.
Protective re,.;'in& IS one of the S<',,~.. I fc.tu res of th~power system dl'$lll'"
E,''"'Y p.lfl ()I the power 'Y"lcm Is proreeted. The facton. otfll'<ting th,) choke 01
prolt'(tlonareIyp<' ond fObng01~ulpn"'"I, 1()C,tlon ofI"" ~Ulpmcnt, Iy!"'""I lo"hs,
.b",,,mal "",diU""" Mid Ctl8t.
The protectiverday!ngis used to 8"'. an alarmor 10 COI>b<' prompl "''mo, ..101
any dement o( power S)'Btem fm'" ""r"iC<'wMn that elem<nt behaves abno,"","y.
Tbe abnormal beholvJ OUf0( an element might cause damagr or interference \lithin
t·'(t"('ti

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eoperation of ~ 01 the system, TIM' protective rebving mlmmlses thedamage
to thE:\!(I\upn1cot (and ink"fT\lptiot'ls II.)th(· service WN..'1'\tlectric4 FotUUt'l'occues. Almg
with .som,~other equ:l~ts the rel:.)'s 1'w.!lpto minlm.i.w d~g~ And ilnpt\)v~ the
~i(1l·.
1.1Introduction
Protective Relaying
In • p,C)k'('t, ve relaying scheme, Ihl' drcult breakers 3t

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plaeed .1t the IlvpraptUtc
pa<nto ,um lhAt any .1~me"l of the ''IIt1~poWe' 6y>tem (d" be dlscnnn('Cu\J foe
r..-potlnng work, 'ISwl operllllnl\ and. maintenAnce t\.~l'lll'\.""men~ and also uMfr
.abnt_1.rmlll conditiON> IIi.e she.)rt circuits, Th'ls 8; protectiv.: co...~ring i:t provided anMJ n.cj
e.xh <Ie........1of 1M5)'StmI.
A prot.cth'~ tont 15rbeseparate zone which Is eslabli5hed around eoKh.)'St>:m
,-Ieml'lll The Sign,fj("",,, o( such n proIKti •• %on"Is Ihol .ny fault "",,mOtt ",til", •
~''' ... 'O!W "ill <.Ll.... Ihc tripping of rel.y. whkh c.u" .. open,nl.l of .11tho nrcuU
brr.t.kt~ IOCAt,td ""Itrun .hat ZOI'~, Thl: v,rlou,s (C)mIJ OllClll$ which .11(" pro\ wed ""Ilh
~ prOC«llv..•I«>nt.~~n.' gll'nCtl'lors, tra.n~'ormc"". tl~"sn,is5i'()nlines, btlj bat). cabb.
".p.l01O'" etc. No PO" of the system 1$ I<lt unproreered. n.., Fig 1.1 >1>0"" tlw
V.J nc)U$ protective zones, used Ina system
1.3Protective Zones
TIl\! (.lutts can not be completely uvoided b\~t C;St) be mlnlflliied. ThI.l5the
pro!«ti\.," ~) Lngplays an import-Ant role in seJ \Slngthe bulb. mi"un17.,ng
the effects of f.ul15 and minimiting the damage due to the faults,
1.2 Functions of Protectlvo Relaying
"The various (unctIOn>of proreeuve relaying are:
t. The prompt remO\ral of the componcont which tS behaving abnormal I) by
Ck:>$lJ lSthe Inp CJ rclkitof circuit breaker or to sound an ...... arm
2 ru d'f<ON1<'(l the abnormolly 01"'r,'li1 pUrl 8(1 •• IU .,·old lhe d.""'jt_ '"
Int~rfcrroc..("\ "h.,l c(lt"(tlvc Clp"r.tt"tn of the r~t'itof \)"'Sttm
J Tnp,"''''''''1 1M ,ub'.qu<I,1 Ilult. by dbc"""ecting ,he aboonn.,lIy """,.hng
"'"..
4. To d_ tlw fDulty po" as quickly us possJ .bl e $0 as 10 min,ml$e ,he
damage to Iht- f.ulty pari il,.,U. For example, if there Is • winding f.ult lit •
machine and ,f ,t peni.ls for a long ume Ihen tlu!.... " •p"",bility 01 the
d.mase 01the enuec winding A•• 11.'011'his. If " I>d''''OfII

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'<lro qukl.h· then
0,>1),f(ow (\.l~""'I gf' dalll.ged in.~'c,dof the,'ntil .. "lndmS
;; To "",'riet the spreading of lhe effect of fault causing least Interference to the
rest of the "".Ithy system. Th'" b)' disconnecting the f.tully part. the fault
eiiects gel localised.
6 To impro###BOT_TEXT###quot;'e ~ s}'stcm performance, system rclidbaJ lty. syseen shlbult} .nd
~rvlCecontJ nUltv
Protlctlvo Relaying Ptolec1l<>n .nd Switcl>gear
1." Primary end Backup Protection
T h <> prot,'Ction provided bythe protective "'~yln8equipment can be co~
u,tu two typ'-" .. :
1. Prim..ry p1'Ot<'Ction
2. Bockup prote:tkln
The primary prote:tkln Is \h. first line 01 defence .nd is reponolble to protK1 oJ l
th.;. pow,., .r.t.m elementsfrom.u th e typos 01 f.uJ l3. ",. "'aupprok-ctl"" romn
",to play only when tlw primary ptOlKlion (aIls.
Fig. 1.2o"trllpplng .ones Inpnmlry rellylng
It can be seal from the Fig. 1.2 that th e dn:uit brttbn .re located in the
c<ll1J leCUO<\Sto each power system element, This provision II\AMs it possible to
disronnec:t only the ""ulty element from 1M system. OcassioNlly for economy in the
number of circuit breaUn. • br~ak"r ~.." th~ two adjooent ...ctlon. moy be
"""tted but In that C olS C ! both the power system >eetions .'" required to be
d.... """~ (orthe!~ilureinelth~rof lhetwo.
E .>dt protl!(li..., zone 4. certain prot«tive scheme 0.114 ead>scheme has number
01protective ',-stems..
, J
8 8

~ ~ - - - - ~ _ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ J - ~ - ~ - ~ : - ~ ; - - { - ~ - : - [ J - ~ - l ~ - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ : - t : - - - -
ptote<;bCltl .,.. ... ... ... r ........ .... -, :
[:!;c~J • II'.
tf~ • -r- __ ....._"__I_ .............. !. __ ~_ ...... __ J _"
"'_ --_ : ,!----l:---T tiOf\ ....
ptoClICi1iorI _'- -- - -- J _ -- -- r-.
'. 8' ' • ~_ " ,. l
'~hONt--~' .......... ... ...... ' ~......... ... ... _'
J lIf()tt(IOn
,..-_ ... _ _ ......
• G}-...... -- __
-
.....----:
-
1·. Prottctlo" Ind Swlt~"'
(5•I)
The various faults which can occur assodated with a generaeor can be clasSfied ~
1. Stator faull$ : "".... fntJlts ~t('d WIth the ,.talor o r tbe 8eT'K'~tQr.
2. Rotor foulill : Tbe (., , 1 1 . olSSOC'dtN"Iththe rotor of thl' 8O"""'lor.
) Abnormn! nlonlll(l; ('()nditiol16 ThfS, "",'Iud,-._. .ltlulb4,· r ( . 1 Olbn(.rml. condlbOn.\
which ", ay ", -"CurIII practlce, (rom...hkh the ~ener••or mu,! b. prol«led
Lt1us discuss Ihesefaults indClnil
5.2 Generator Faults
1 M ge..erators used in the power ">"""" are the alternators which prodcce

Related Interests

..,
!ugh;I.e voltages. The protection of gmeo-.tOI'S is very much complex due 1 0 the
folJ o\o.ing reasons.
1. The generators a~ very large r n;ldlU"k.':t pf'\Jd\lcing

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l'r y 'llgh YOltpg, ~.Jnd ;l~
ecenccred to bu..o.rs.
~ V.rious other t'<J uipmcnts are .1 "")'$ .ssoci.tro wilh the generators. Such
equipmenrs a", prime movers. ""attnon $)'$Iem., voltage regulators, cooling
systems etc. Thu. protection of gmt'r.tors must consider the presence 01 0-
"'her equlpm..., , , .1 1 0.
l. The gcncr ftto n; .. re \fCry W ! S,ly* (Olopt'M4"'C dnd V(''')f Import~I't ("ttllt In I P O"{ (! I'
sy.lem. The protection 6Ch""'" must be such th.1 It should not shul 01 1 the
gl.."eriStC)ra; tb lilt a~~ibl(".The ehut off t;('n('r~ltt'r'rl--"IJll ill a P O'vet
ohort3ge.
AU these {actors make the design 01 protection scheme for the generator. , .., '
much complex.
6eihr'(' $t'ld)'tng tt,c ",.1ri,'ll.\ prol«tiQn )('ilcmt'$ tor theSet'~rl'torsl let ~ d~

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~nou~ftlults whicll (-._,,\OC'Cur aM<JCi.lte<i .... -ith t~gt"I\{'ri1'or~.
5.1 IntroductIon
Gener ato r Pr o tectio n
ll1.3 Stltor Inler-TumFaults
'The coils used in the alternators llI"l' generally multitum coils. So short citcuil
berwe..... the turns of 0". coil may occur which I. caUedan inter-tum laull. lbis floul.
<'<OJ" due to <urre"' .IIrS''S with high v.lue of (L dl/cJt) v<,hllSC.(" ... the tumo. BUt
,f "'" rod. u-cd Me 'Ingle tum then this fault an not o<'('ur. Hence(or the large
machl_ of the order of 50 MVA and m<ft. It is • normal practice to lise single IUm
coUt 8ul inIOOme countries, multllum coUt litevery commonly used where pl'Olrdlon
~inst mter-turn {BullS is must.
U 1.2Phas. to Phtu F .
The phase to ph fa,,11$means short =11 between two p.....e winding>. Such
faults are uncommon because the Insulation used between the coils of different phases
in .. slot is large. But once phase to arth nult occurs, due to the over heating phase
to ~ fault also rna)' occur. This ,.ult is likely to occur at the end connections of
the armature windings which are ov~ting parts outside the slots. Such a null
causes severe arcing wilh ""1' "ISh tempentu ..... Thi. may leAd to melting of <opper
and fire iI the insulation is not fire resiSW\~
Sl.1.1 Phaseto Eitth Failla
Tht-<e (aul ts molnly occur In tho .1tNItu~slots. The f.u]'" are dd"llCfOUS and con
(AU'k· W\o'enodamitg<- to the CXpt:nslve machine. Th~fault cureens I~ (hal\ 20 A cau...'ie
negltgib'" burning o( core II machine i.tripped quickly. aut if the fault curren.. a~
higtI. severe burning of $t••or cor. can taU plact. This may lead to the requirement 01
..."Ioong rhe laminations which is very cootIy and tim. consuming. So to avoid the
dam.>IlCdue to phase to earth faul.... sq>OTill:, sensitive earth lault prol<dlon is
~ry lor .he senOrA")"; ,.tollgwlth lhe Nrthing ,.,1...........
5.2.1 Stator Fault$
The stator (Dults means (o"lts nssodoted wilh the three ph.lSe armoture windings
01 .he ~.,...tor. These (.ults ore mainly due to the insulation (ailure o( the annat""'
"~nding$. The m.in type8 o( stator f.ults "".
I l'h.liICto I'olrthf.ul"
2. l'ho5(' to phAse (.ults
3. Inter-turn (aul", involving turns of ...me phase winding.
The most important and common fault IS phase to earth fault. The other twO are
not ,,~et). common \'hileinter-tum fault is ""'elY difficlLlt to detect.
Gen."tor PrOlOClio<t p,~" Ind SwflA:hgelr
5.2.3.1Ovtrtolding
Ou.. to the rontinuous overloading. lhe O\-emeoling of Ihe stato< results. This mal'
lr..,.,,_ lhe winding "'m~rolure. If this tt>m~r"ur. rtse ",cuocJ s certain limit the
insu"'t"", 01 1M wlndins may get cUrNgfd The dCIj"('<' 01 ovm""dlng dodd es tM
"fh.'C" .nd tem~r.tu ....ri,." The ovemtfTnltproleelloll I~gc·n.r.lIy ",I tov~" h.gh
5,2,3Abnormal Running Conditions
In practice there are number of simanoes inwhich g(,'f1erator is subjected to some
.boormal runningrondi~ons,The protecnon must be provided .S"inst th<.' abrom,.1
",1f1dltions ~ obnonnol ("nditlo,,-, .nclude.
I Ovt,loodl"8
2. Overspe... ',bns
3. Unbalanced loading
4. Overvoltage
5. Failure of prime mover
6. ~ of ""cilation (Field failure)
,. Cooling 'Y'IMn failure
5.2.2Rotor Fautlll
l'twrotor of an alwmator is generally> ';'!dwlndl"K as ~t of the .Itonloltu,.
are of rotating field type Tbe field ",..,dmS is made lip of number of tu~ So the
conductor to earth faults and short circu.1 between the turns of the field windmg. are
Ih. <""'"'<MIll' <l«Umng f.ullS with R.'>f'«I 10,. ,<.>t'Ir, 'I II""" f,.ull>•re eause'<1 due 10
the ~"

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ere mccNtnica1and tkcrmnl stresses. .lC11ng on Il)Cfield,", tnd,ng insul ...tion..
Therfeld \yinding is generalty not grounded 311d hence~inglcline to ground bult
does "'" give any fault current. A second fault to earth ",III short arruit the part of
the field Winding and may there by produce an unsymmetrical field system, Such an
unsymmetrical system gives rise to lhe unbalanced forces Onthe rotor and results in
e""" pressure on the bearings .Ind the '<halt dI5l0rli,)II, if such " f,ult is not eteared
"(If) ft.lrl)!. So it il very liluch t,cce~ry to MluW Ihe (').Ip,tl.'n(c' (1/ tl"C n~, \lC('\lrr###BOT_TEXT###quot;I,,·
"I II,.· ~.rth fault '" that corrective me.. um can be '3kc'l\ bcfore {<'ClIndI,IUlt"''CU"'
~ unb.,lanced I... dlng on the getWRtOf is responsible to produce the n.g.h,(·
st<IIk!J 1« currmts. Tbese currentsproduce. rotAting magn.lic field which rota!es in
opposite din.-Won 10th.1 of rolor magnetic field, Due to this field. tbere is ind.-l
emf Intherotor winding. This causes cverbeatmg of the rotor,
ROtor earth bult ~"n.,tl"('th,ln.. lnd rotor b."rt\P'!l'ahJ rcjJ ,,-iic3t0I'5 are the ("$.._~tial .and
are provid~'d to large 'aliOj; generalors,
G.".rator ProtltCllon
5· '
Protection and Swltc:hU"",
5.2.3.4 OvtNOttage
T I , , , overvoltages .'" basic.U), due to the overspeedlng 01 generators. Another
re.", n tor the 0\Of'ol"'g"" i.the roultyopmttion of vol~agcregulat<m. Not onl)' t.t..
11\tl·nl.;, 1 ovcrvouages an' d~lt\g"rou.sbut .atmospheric SUfS" v-oI ta.gescan also reach to
lhe gcncr, tlurs. Such atmospheric surge "oI tagcs are gt.~~ by dirt'C't lighting
strokes to the a_I lines of high VOltageS)'litem. I nductively and capacirively, these
surges can get lransferred to the genentor. T o protect the ga.....tors from surge
vohages, I hI ' surge arresters and surge capocitors aeeoften used
At the time 01~tnk, "g "C, '(I SS thl' cont>CUof cirt'Uit breakn.. ttw tr~nslcnl 0

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"
".h., S''S get s.., cr.t<.'d Such ¥u'Kc" ..... wled twlll'hlng .u, ~ ... nd"d., be I I mil, '(!by
5.2.3.3 Unbal.nced L otdinsl
rhe unb"i.r>ttd lo.J ding uf the goner.tor ... ult. I n lhe amllatootl of "''8-'llv.
)t~llh, 'n('('currents. lh..'!'!I t.- - (\.I r~t\ts produce thr rotatl"g rn;\gnebC'fit"J d. 11, ls: rot...ring
m, 'gnetic field robles al the synchronous speed with respect to rotor. T he dirE'Ctionof
rotation 01this m.>gneticAcid is oppo$ile to thai of rotor. H~ effecI ively tile ", I alive
speed between the two is double the synchronous speed.
T hus the e.m f. j;.... , I nduced, tI oving double the ncrn....1frequ"ncy. I n the rotor
, ., ., nding T he ", , 'UI >l1D1lcurrents due 10!he indu~ e.m.I .• ~ resplln, iblc to overheat
lh(' wttll' winding ~~w.~1os rotor lI ampln&lo.COI 1tJ nuousunbalAnced I Ulld moe. tNn
10'~, of th, ' rnted lo>cI causes I rrlDo!'ndoushI '''ing which b dominonl 'ncaS<' of
cvluidrlcal rotor of truboaltt'mators..
T he reasons for the unbalanced load condilions are,
Occurrence of unsymmetrical f.ults near the generating slation.
2 I he r.llur(' 01 l'muil breaker n(!Ar!hegcncroting SI "tion in'*aring .lll the tim...
pll., "tt"!fI .
Neg."vc "'quence proeectlcn i.imporunt to prevent dangt'f'OUSsltuMlun. due 10
rI <'!latll'esequence a.rr('fl13 which ore ~_ of unbalanced load conditions.
5.2.3.2 OvtfSpeed"mg
I n case of h

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dr~uJ ic generators 4 suddm lOll. of I "ad results inovcrspeeding of
rI w generator. T his I > because I h., waler flow 'I )I he lurbine cannol be stl'Pped or
redueed I nst.mlly. c;."ootraUy a I U~ I Sprovided 10pr~~1 I lle OVCSlxoedillJ ;.
8111if th.", is any 14ull inI he I I "bin~SO

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M>O( th"n the dangerous overspC<.'dingmay
I o, k. place. H~ it I Soecessary 10su~ the working 01 nut"". governor and
., k. some corrective measures ;r there is >OI nt' fault in the governor
\dille hence COI '\tln\.KlU~ove.... I , ~dR 0( lesa. value thur\I h~tM.'1t;ng cannot bf· .... ·nh('" by
O\~n:urn!fltprotecuon
Generltor ProtectkH1 PYotlellon I ncl Sw1tcha-I r
5.2.3.7CoolingSYlltmFailure
TIw 1.11".. 01 roollng Sy5tfm .Iso c&u>cs severe o"erheoling to nS<' the
k'mper.lure above .. r. limit. This may 1".><1 10in8ul.Hon r.ilu..." ...."sinS some other
faults 10 occur. Tbe thermocouples .,.. r<S1SWlce thermometers are used in ia'll"
IIt.lChint:s to sense the temperature. The coctf(tlVe measures 31'###BOT_TEXT###quot; b\l_tn whenever ~
t""'»('r'N" exceed. the limll
A~rt trem the ."'lYC domin~nl .b-.nol condit,on•. >OtnC (001<11110""may at>!
whK'h Are rJ I~ h, J -,racticc. Stich conditions are, Wn)11J ; ~)'''l\Chronl.eatlon. \(,c..J
5.U.6 Loss of Excita1lon
The ~ or •• citalil>nOr reduced ..obtion is possible due 10the field failure I~
"I,""ng 0( lield winding or due 10 shorl circuil in Odd or due I" some (.ull ,n
t.,"'\t,ltl'f ~Y"

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m.
Such loot Ilr ,')(d"'lloII '.8,,11:. in 1_ 01.)nchrolll.n, wlthin ., .<CURd and IIu>
eousn 1M Inere""" in speed of Ih~g....... tor, SilK.. power tnput to the m",:h"",
remains same. the generalor starts working as an induction generator, drawing 1M
reactive power fromthe bus. The machinr startsdrawing an exC'il{ngcurrent fromthe
5}__ which is equal to lhe (uD load r..ted value. This leads to Ill<!overheating (}(
the .tal<>< winding and the rotor bod>' due 10induced currents, The I""" of c>(.labOO
1TI4)' .l""tead to the pole sUpping condItion whtch resuits in Ih. voltage rNII(tlnn for
the ""!pul ebovc half 'N;>".Ied load
Loss of excttation should not pet5ist (or long and corrective measures li:ke
dlscnnnection 01alternator should be taken immediately. For this • tripping scheme
can be used which can trip the generator circult breaker immediately when t~ is ~
~Id(.ilure.
5.U.$ flilure of Prime MOYer
The failure 01 prime mover results in motoring operation of synchronous
gcncmuor. The generator draws active power from the network and continues to run
at .ynduonous speed as " synchronous motor This moy lead to dangerous rnedw\J c,31
condibOnS if 3UO,_.,'ed to persist (or more! th.ln twe."t)' SL-C()ll cis. Thcscrlous ()###BOT_TEXT###quot;l-rhColh_ng
0( .t... "Nm turbine bl.d"" may result. To prevent this Ih,· reverse power protl'Ct1on
0ch''''N bydlrectio.... ll power relays is used,
I"" uses 01modem <irtuit breakers R-C surge suppressors abo help in ~uang
swildting surges. Anol"", situation. whm 1M I1lInsienl overvohages are g.""rated. is
whm the .res a", groundl-d. During amng grounds. Ihe tr.n$ienl voltages ha,'ing
.R\plitudesIIvo ~",<!'l m".... Ihnn lhe _I line 1(' neu"J I P'·.k ompliluM .,"'
gt'Tltr~h.'CI Such tr~nsl('nt voltages .1

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